Civil Liberties and Civil Rights. Government

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1 Civil Liberties and Civil Rights Government

2 Civil Liberties Protections, or safeguards, that citizens enjoy against the abusive power of the government

3 Bill of Rights First 10 amendments to Constitution Applies only to the federal government

4 Selective Incorporation Process of making the Bill of Rights work at the state level The Supreme Court has applied the Bill of Rights to the states using court cases before the court

5 Bill of Rights

6 1 st Amendment Guarantees 5 freedoms Speech Press Religion Petition Assembly

7 1 st : Types of Speech Pure Speech Speech only Speech-Plus Words + Actions Symbolic speech Representations of ideas without words Sit ins, armbands, flag burning, etc. Unconstitutional when the mode of expression (not the ideas) are considered harmful. SELECTIVE INCORPORATION Tinker v. Des Moines Wearing black arm bands for protest is legal under freedom of (symbolic) speech Texas v. Johnson flag burning is protected under freedom of speech. (symbolic)

8 1 st : Speech & Press Unprotected speech includes 1. Obscenity 2. Defamatory speech 3. Pornography 4. Fighting words (incite violence) 5. Seditious speech (treason)

9 1 st : Speech Defamation not protected by the 1 st - saying or printing things that could hurt a person s reputation Libel Written statement that defames the character of another person Slander Oral (spoken) statement that defames the character of another person

10 1 st : Exceptions to Freedom on Speech & Press Clear and Present Danger Test Prohibited speech only when it would result in imminent harmful consequences Prior Restraint censorship before publication (gag orders) Shield Laws None at federal level, up to states Would protect reporters from revealing their source SELECTIVE INCORPORATION Schenck v. U.S. encouraged people to avoid the draft and handed out anti-war leaflets since in war, posed a threat to safety and therefore not allowed) Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier principal stopped a story before printed in the school newspaper

11 1 st : Religion Establishment Clause Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; Forbids Congress from establishing a national religion SELECTIVE INCORPORATION Engel v. Vitale No school prayer Wallace v. Jafree No moment of silence for prayer Lemon v. Kurtzman Rules for using tax money on private (religious) schools

12 1 st : Religion Free Exercise Clause Guarantees the right to practice a religion of their choice Conscientious Objector Person who refuses to perform military service because of opposition to war based on religious beliefs

13 1 st : Assembly & Petition Must be lawful and nonviolent It is usually the onlookers, not the protestors that cause the problems The state can protect from assembly on private property Extremist groups can't be punished if their words are not expressly linked to action

14 Rights of the Accused

15 Rights of the Accused: Prohibited Powers: Unconstitutional Bill of Attainder Declares a person guilty w/o a trial Ex post facto law Makes an act criminal when it was committed legally (illegal after the fact) Suspension of writ of habeas corpus Arresting and imprisoning w/o cause

16 4 th Amendment: Prohibits Unreasonable Search & Seizure Warrant required Must have probable cause Must describe place & person/things to be seized Miranda Rights Must read a suspect their rights Exclusionary Rule Evidence illegally obtained can be excluded in court proceedings. SELECTIVE INCORPORATION: Mapp v. Ohio Arrested Mapp for having obscene materials in home but warrant was looking for another suspect and his bomb-making materials. Miranda v. Arizona suspect testified without lawyer, claimed he did not know he had the right to remain silent.

17 5 th Amendment: Rights when Accused Right to a grand jury Indictment guarantees enough evidence to go to trial Double jeopardy Can t be tried for the same offense of law twice Self incrimination Can t be forced to serve as witness against self Miranda Rights Miranda v. Arizona Due process Fair Procedures for all Eminent domain Private property can t be taken w/o just cause

18 6 th Amendment: Rights when On Trial Right to a speedy and public trial Right to a petit jury trial (12 members) Right to be informed of charges Right to confront witnesses Right to counsel Gideon v. Wainwright (Florida man denied lawyer because he couldn t afford one and the charges were state charges challenged from jail and won)

19 7 th & 8 th Amendments 7 th Jury Trial in Civil Cases 8 th Bail, Punishment Right to a trial jury for cases involving more than $20 No excessive bail, no cruel & unusual punishment Death Penalty is Legal if administered equally: Two Stage Trial: Stage 1: Decide Guilt Stage 2: Decided Punishment

20 9 th Amendment: Right to Privacy Provides the basis for civil liberties not specifically mentioned in the Constitution

21 Fourteenth Amendment Due Process Clause No state can deprive a person of life, liberty or property without due process of law Substantive substance of the law guarantees due process Procedural actions of those involved guarantee due process (police, lawyers, judges)

22 Civil Rights Obligations that government has to protect citizens from discrimination and to guarantee equal citizenship

23 Racial Discrimination Dred Scott v. Sanford Set the precedent that slaves were property The Civil War Amendments 13th Freed Slaves 14 th granted citizenship to all natural born Americans (former slaves included) 15 th Right to vote

24 Fourteenth Amendment Equal Protection Clause No state may deny any person equal protection of the law Discrimination Categories Race Gender Age Disability Sexual Orientation

25 Segregation Separation of People De Jure By law De Facto By differences Income, housing patterns, educational opportunities, socioeconomic status

26 Racial Discrimination Jim Crow Laws State and local laws enacted in the South that required the separation of African-Americans and whites in public facilities and placed legal restrictions on blacks to prevent them from voting. Examples: Grandfather clause Poll taxes Literacy Tests White Primaries Separate schools, hotels, buses, trains

27 Racial Discrimination Segregation Cases Plessy v. Ferguson allowed segregation through the separate but equal doctrine Tried to fight segregation on train cars. Supreme Court said if facilities were equal, it was acceptable to separate by race. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka overturned Plessy; integration of public schools with all deliberate speed

28 Civil Rights Movement Led by Martin Luther King, NAACP & Thurgood Marshall Introduced Civil Disobedience Breaking the law to get it changed Rosa Parks at the front of the bus Sit ins at White Lunch Counters

29 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Stopped public segregation, job discrimination Extended to all racial, religious, gender and ethnic minorities Now applied to disabled, elderly, homosexuals

30 Voting Rights Act of 1965 Ensured minority right to vote Worked to end poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses, etc

31 Affirmative Action Aimed at increasing representation of women and minorities Used in college admission and job hiring Ranges from recruiting efforts to the use of quotas Reverse Discrimination Discrimination against a MAJORITY group Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

32 Women s Suffrage Movement Led by Susan B. Anthony organized Women s Rights Convention in th Amendment Right to vote Comparable Worth equal pay for equal work Equal Rights Amendment guarantee for equality (states said already in 14 th ) Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.