1. refers to the ability of criminal justice personnel to choose from an array of options or outcomes. Due process Discretion System viability Bias

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1 Page 1 of 8 This chapter has 75 questions. Scroll down to see and select individual questions or narrow the list using the checkboxes below. 0 questions at random and keep in order s - (50) Bloom's Level: Analyzing - (1) / Questions - (15) - (7) Fill In The Blank Questions - (10) Bloom's Level: Evaluating - (1) Odd Numbered - (38) - (34) Even Numbered - (37) - (32) 1. refers to the ability of criminal justice personnel to choose from an array of options or outcomes. Due process Discretion System viability Bias 2. Which of the following criminal justice personnel appears to be using professional discretion? a judge who imposes a mandatory "three strikes" life sentence on a third-time violent offender a correctional officer conducting a daily head-count of inmates a police officer who pulls over a vehicle for running a stop sign and issues a warning a crime scene officer processing physical evidence at the scene of a crime Bloom's Level: Evaluating 3. refers to the structure, functions, and processes of those agencies that deal with the management of crime. Criminal justice Criminology Criminal law Criminal procedure 4. Criminology involves the series of orderly steps and actions used to determine whether a person accused of a crime is guilty or not guilty. structure, functions, and processes of those agencies that deal with the management of crime. legal rules and principles that define the nature and limits of governmental power. scientific study of the nature and causes of crime. 5. If you are focusing on the definitions and elements of crime, which of the following fields are you most likely working in? civil law criminal procedure criminal law constitutional law 6. refers to the series of orderly steps and actions used to determine whether a person accused of a crime is guilty or not guilty. Criminology Criminal procedure Criminal justice Constitutional law 7. Constitutional law focuses on offenses committed against the safety and order of the state. encompasses the orderly series of steps used to determine whether an accused individual is guilty or not guilty. emphasizes the need to understand the causes of criminal behavior. focuses on the legal rights and principles defining the nature and limits of governmental power. 8. Which of the following is the newest field of study? criminology constitutional law legal studies criminal justice 9. Which of the following statements about crime rates in the 1960s is true? Crime increased mainly in urban areas, rather than suburban or rural parts of the country. Both violent and property crime rates increased during the 1960s.

2 Page 2 of 8 Rates of violent crime were significantly higher than rates of property crime. Crime rates remained fairly steady throughout the 1960s. 10. Which of the following would be an example of the nationalization of the Bill of Rights? allowing local police to conduct searches without first obtaining search warrants limiting the right to counsel at trial allowing defendants to "Take the Fifth" rather than be forced to make self-incriminatory statements at trial a court ruling that the Eight Amendment protections against cruel and unusual punishment do not apply at the state level 11. Originally, the Bill of Rights was intended to apply only at the national level. at the national and state level only. to county, state, and federal levels of government. to all levels of government in the U.S. 12. The was created to study the crime problem and the structure of criminal justice administration in the United States. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration President's Crime Commission Law Enforcement Educational Program Department of Justice 13. Which of the following was NOT one of the seven specific objectives targeted in the summary report of the President's Crime Commission? The criminal justice system needs to focus on eliminating existing injustices. All branches of the criminal justice system need increased funding to improve their ability to control crime. Criminal justice systems need to attract better people. The responsibility for planning and implementing the changes needed within the system belongs to the criminal justice system itself. 14. What did the President's Crime Commission focus on as a root cause of crime? gender inequality poverty criminal justice system failures racial discrimination 15. Why did scholars such as James Q. Wilson disagree with the President's Crime Commission conclusion that poverty was a root cause of crime? They argued that the significant increase in crime during the 1960s occurred during a sustained period of American prosperity. They believed that a focus on increasing the power of the police to conduct searches and make arrests was a more important issue. Crime and poverty have been regularly shown by researchers to be unrelated. They called for an increase in community-based involvement in crime prevention. 16. In which area did the President's Crime Commission have a great impact? the commission's call for the criminal justice system to attract better people the commission's argument that a war on poverty is a war on crime the commission's conception of criminal justice as an integrated system the commission's claim that the criminal justice system needs increased funding to improve their ability to control crime 17. Which of the following was NOT one of the main parts or elements of the criminal justice system identified by the President's Crime Commission in its identification of criminal justice as an integrated "system"? courts juvenile justice police corrections 18. The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act came out of President Johnson's proposals for

3 Page 3 of 8 the war on crime. enhancing the funnel model of criminal justice. the creation of the President's Crime Commission. the nationalization of the Bill of Rights. 19. Why was the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act so controversial? It was designed to be a reform bill. It attempted to overturn Supreme Court decisions regarding the admissibility of evidence at trial. It was designed to continue the nationalization of the Bill of Rights begun by the Supreme Court. It attempted to put into practice the recommendations of the President's Crime Commission. 20. Which of the following was created by Title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act? the President's Crime Commission the crime control model of justice the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration the Warren Court 21. A university criminal justice department founded in the late 1960s probably was initiated and funded by LEAA the Twentieth Century Fund Task Force the President's Crime Commission LEEP 22. According to the Twentieth Century Task Force, LEAA's most constructive and successful effort was funding social programs and research. awarding discretionary grants for special programs in the field of criminal justice expenditures targeting court reform and correctional programs. providing funding for education in criminal justice through LEEP. 23. The measures for crime control, the processing of criminal defendants, and the sentencing and punishment of convicted offenders are closely linked to guarantees and prohibitions found in the Bill of Rights. Supreme Court interpretations of the provisions in the Bill of Rights. Both of the answers are correct. Neither of the answers is correct. 24. Which model of criminal justice emphasizes the need to protect procedural rights? crime control model funnel model 25. The Warren Court made a large number of decisions that were in accordance with which model of criminal justice? funnel model crime control model 26. The argues that the most important function of the criminal justice process is the repression of criminal conduct. funneling decisions ensure that cases are handled efficiently and effectively. the criminal justice process is often disconnected, with the majority of cases receiving little attention within the system. it is more important to protect individual rights, even if some guilty people go free. 27. The Court announced a large number of decisions in accordance with the. Burger Roberts Warren

4 Page 4 of 8 Rehnquist 28. A court ruling that admitted evidence that had been illegally obtained due to a technical error by the police would most likely be made by a proponent of which model of criminal justice? crime control model funnel model 29. Which of the following legal decisions would most likely be made by a proponent of the of criminal justice? upholding the legality of "three-strikes" legislation dismissing a claim of illegal search and seizure of evidence that convicted an obviously guilty defendant emphasizing the repression of criminal conduct over individual constitutional rights upholding a defendant's protection against double jeopardy even if the defendant is clearly guilty 30. The legislative enactment of the model includes three-strikes laws. wedding cake funnel crime control due process 31. According to the model of criminal justice, the majority of cases that pass through the criminal justice system are lower-level misdemeanors that receive very little attention within the system wedding cake due process funnel crime control 32. According to the of criminal justice, the media gives most of its attention to misdemeanors. serious felonies. celebrated cases. lesser felonies. 33. The model of criminal justice is based on the realization that a large percentage of criminal cases reported to the police do not result in the conviction and incarceration of an offender. funnel wedding cake crime control due process 34. The funnel model's emphasis on efficiency and effectiveness is most related to which other model of criminal justice? crime control model None of the answers is correct. 35. Which of the following statements would most likely be made by a proponent of the funnel model of criminal justice? Not all criminal cases receive equal attention from criminal justice personnel. Procedural technicalities may be overlooked in the interests of protecting society from criminal behavior. It is important to protect procedural rights, even if this prevents the legal system from operating with maximum efficiency. It is acceptable to divert offenders out of the criminal justice process to more effective means of responding to criminal behavior. Bloom's Level: Analyzing 36. The linkage between drug use and has led most U.S. presidents in the past 50 years to address the drug problem in some way. criminal diversion programs poverty

5 Page 5 of 8 crime rehabilitation 37. Which of the following is NOT a result of the war on drugs? increased overcrowding in jails and prisons higher conviction and incarceration rates the increasing competitiveness of the branches of justice the establishment of liberal release policies 38. Why are many jurisdictions moving to more rehabilitative models for dealing with drug offenders? The harsh penalties for drug crimes have led to problems of prison overcrowding. Drug courts have shown that rehabilitation programs are more effective than incarceration when dealing with drug-involved offenders. It helps reduce conviction rates in drug-related cases. It gives prisons more opportunity to experiment with institutional-based drug treatment programs. 39. What primarily caused the historical gender discrepancy in crime and criminal justice? leniency on the part of judges police unwillingness to arrest female suspects the male-dominated nature of criminal justice personnel gender differences in participation in criminal activity 40. Which of the following is NOT one of the trends seen in gender and crime since the 1970s? The proportion of women working in the criminal justice system has increased since the early 1970s. Female roles in criminal activity have increasingly paralleled those of men. The proportion of female inmates has remained stable since the early 1970s. The number of female prisoners has increased at a faster rate than that of men. 41. The of criminal justice argues that the various agencies of the criminal justice system share information and coordinate their efforts. conflict model consensus model 42. Which model of criminal justice is considered to be a systems model? conflict model consensus model 43. The model suggests that the branches of justice work competitively. due process conflict wedding cake consensus 44. If you argue that criminal justice is a "nonsystem", you probably subscribe to which model of criminal justice? crime control model conflict model funnel model 45. Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons why crime victims tend to be ignored or forgotten in criminal justice processing? the belief among criminal justice system personnel that victims get in the way during criminal justice proceedings the view that the state is officially the victim of crime the belief that victims are impatient and partial the view that victims are unable to provide useful information to initiate an arrest

6 Page 6 of What type of media coverage is given to the majority of murders reported to the police? Most murders receive broad national attention. Most murders received sustained state attention. Most murders receive only a brief mention from local media. Most murders generate considerable speculation from the media. 47. According to U.S. law, terrorism involves politically motivated violence perpetrated against high-profile political figures. noncombatant targets. the U.S. military. members of the government. 48. Because of the proliferation of television programs that portray the field of criminal justice, one purpose of criminal justice programs is to teach students a wide variety of theories regarding the causes of crime. make sure students have a working knowledge of the criminal law. encourage students to focus on those areas of criminal justice that have been neglected by the media. educate students about the realities of criminal justice. 49. Why do criminal justice programs draw from such a wide variety of academic disciplines? It helps these programs attract students who might be majoring in those disciplines. The field is so new that it has not yet developed its own course of study. The criminal justice process reflects the structures and ideas of the wider society. It reduces boredom in class. 50. Which of the following is NOT an important element of critical thinking? emphasizing an analytical perspective when reviewing crime and justice research looking below the surface for potential bias employing an emotional perspective when judging the value of content examining individual biases 51. Criminal justice was not established as an academic discipline until the 1960s. 52. The nationalization of the Bill of Rights focused on ensuring that defendants in federal criminal trials received their Constitutional rights. 53. The President's Crime Commission's argument that "poverty causes crime" was generally believed to be too simplistic. 54. Parts of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act showed a lack of support for the nationalization of the Bill of Rights. 55. The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration was created by the President's Crime Commission. 56. The first academic programs in criminal justice were initiated by LEEP. 57. The of criminal justice emphasizes efficiency and the repression of criminal conduct.

7 Page 7 of Habitual offender laws that require more severe sentences for repeat offenders, are examples of legislation supporting the crime control model of criminal justice. 59. The funnel model of criminal justice shows that a large number of arrested offenders are not sent to prison. 60. While the war on drugs has created a "drug driven" criminal justice process, it has had only limited impact on state finances. 61. While the number of female prisoners in the U.S. is increasing, men still far outnumber women in both state and federal correctional programs. 62. The consensus model of criminal justice is also known as the "nonsystem" perspective. 63. The involvement of victims in the justice process has increased in recent years. 64. The war on terrorism has primarily affected federal criminal justice but has had limited impact on local levels of criminal justice. 65. Thinking critically while reading a research paper involves criticizing the material and the author of the paper. 66. A police officer who stops a speeding vehicle and chooses to issue a warning rather than write a traffic ticket is using. discretion 67. The branch of law that focuses on the legal rules and principles that define the nature and limits of governmental power and the duties and rights of individuals in relation to the state is. constitutional law 68. The Supreme Court case that extended Fourth Amendment protections against unreasonable searches and seizures to defendants in state court was part of the trend toward the of the Bill of Rights. nationalization 69. The President's Crime Commission viewed criminal justice as a(n). system 70. Title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act created the. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration 71. The crime control model's emphasis on efficiency resembles that of the model of criminal justice. funnel 72. The model of criminal justice views criminal justice as a "nonsystem".

8 Page 8 of 8 conflict 73. One reason why victims have historically been forgotten in the processing of criminal offenders is that in many legal traditions, the is officially the victim of crime. state 74. An integral component of degree programs in criminal justice is hands-on. field experience 75. The practice of involves looking below the surface for potential bias, analyzing different perspectives, and judging the value of content from an analytical rather than an emotional perspective. critical thinking

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