QUESTIONS. 1. Why do you think the term architect was used to describe Andrew Inglis Clark?

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1 H HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES 1.4 THE FEDERATION ARCHITECT 6 THE FEDERATION ARCHITECT My name is Andrew Inglis Clark and I was born in Hobart Town in After finishing high school, I worked in my family s business as an engineer. When I was 24, I decided to become a lawyer. In my spare time, I liked to play chess and debate important issues. I was also a member of the American Club, because I admired the politics of the United States. In fact, I became so interested in politics that in 1878 I became a member of Tasmania s House of Representatives, and served as Attorney-General from 1887 to 1892 and 1894 to I was a very busy politician, introducing 150 bills into parliament in my first term. I also became known for championing humanitarian causes, such as reforming the laws on custody of children. I also supported legislation preventing cruelty to animals. FACT! I also wrote poetry. You can read my poem At the Circus at FAC_ACRes_Box_02337_TXT_H1-1_to_H2-4_SI.indd 7 Andrew Inglis Clark Scan the code to link to an audio re-creation of a speech by Andrew Inglis Clark. 30/10/ :29 pm

2 The Australian Constitution I travelled to America and was so impressed by their Constitution that I drafted one of my own for Australia. I based it on the American Constitution, but incorporated the British idea of responsible parliamentary government. My draft was presented to the Federation Convention in Unfortunately, I was too ill to participate when the document was fi nalised, but 86 of the 96 sections I wrote were adopted in the 1901 Constitution. This is why I am remembered as the primary architect of the federal Constitution. I am also known for developing a voting system that is still used in Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory today. The Hare Clark system is used to elect multiple members of parliament at once, using voters preferences to help the most popular candidates reach a quota. It is recognised as a fair way of voting. Although my contribution to Federation is sometimes overlooked because I withdrew from the Federation movement before 1901, I played a large role in the formation of the Australian Constitution. QUESTIONS The Australian Constitution came into effect in January 1901, and so established the Commonwealth of Australia. 1. Why do you think the term architect was used to describe Andrew Inglis Clark? 2. Andrew Inglis Clark was too ill to participate when the Constitution was drafted. Have you ever missed out on anything due to illness? How did you feel? 3. List three words you would use to describe Andrew Inglis Clark. Explain your choices. 4. Use the QR code to listen to the re-creation of a speech made by Andrew Inglis Clark. Why do you think he was so passionate about the manhood that had developed in the United States of America? 5. Explain why you think Clark wanted such a manhood for his own country. 6. Research a signifi cant moment in Andrew Inglis Clark s life and write a diary entry explaining what happened and how he felt during that time. OZBOX Year 6 Oxford University Press 2016

3 6 3.2 STARTING A NEW LIFE HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES H STARTING A NEW LIFE In 1947 the Australian Government introduced a migration scheme to encourage people to come and live in Australia. It was very popular. Britain and many countries in Europe had suffered enormously during World War II. After the war, lots of people were keen to start a new life in another country. FACT! The Assisted Passage Scheme was in place between 1947 and 1982 and brought more than one million migrants to Australia. Many British families were excited by the opportunity to migrate to Australia under the Assisted Passage Scheme. The Assisted Passage Scheme The aim of the Assisted Passage Scheme was to increase the number of migrants coming to Australia. During the war, Australians had realised that their country could be attacked. A larger population would provide more people to defend Australia. A bigger population would also help to build a bigger economy and a more prosperous nation. The government started making agreements with other countries to encourage people to move to Australia. The fi rst agreement was signed with Britain in Agreements with other European countries quickly followed. Under the scheme, people who had skills that Australia required were allowed to migrate almost immediately. Scan the code to link to a video about Ten Pound Poms.

4 Ten Pound Poms Under the Assisted Passage Scheme, 6303 people migrated to Australia in 1947, and in A lot of these migrants came from Britain. They were attracted by commercials showing how good it was to live in Australia. The British who migrated came to be called Ten Pound Poms because they only had to pay ten pounds each to migrate. The Australian Government nt paid the rest of the cost, because they were eager to have British people move to Australia. The Assisted Passage Scheme meant Australia had enough workers to create the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme. Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme The increasing population meant governments around Australia were able to build significant infrastructure, including the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme. This was a massive project: 16 dams, seven power stations and 145 km of tunnels were built in order to create a worldclass integrated hydro-electric and water power scheme. Today, the power stations generate renewable electricity for industries, as well as homes. The Snowy Scheme took 25 years to complete, and more than workers from over 30 nations worked on it. It couldn t have been done without Australia s huge migrant workforce. QUESTIONS 1. Under the Assisted Passage Scheme, people who had skills that Australia required were allowed to migrate almost immediately. List five skills that you think would have been required. 2. Why do you think Britain would have been one of the first nations to sign the Assisted Passage Scheme? 3. What term used in the text means bringing wealth and success? 4. Use the QR code to watch the Ten Pound Poms commercial. Explain what updates you think would need to be made to the commercial to convince people to come to Australia today. 5. Thinking about Australia today, what benefi ts of the Assisted Passage Scheme do you see? 6. Imagine two Ten Pound Poms are having a conversation on the ship on their way to Australia. Create a script that captures some of their stories (their background, reason for moving to Australia, hopes and dreams once they arrive in Australia). OZBOX Year 6 Oxford University Press 2016

5 6 H HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES 4.4 EDDIE KOIKI MABO EDDIE KOIKI MABO Australia s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are the country s first inhabitants, but these two groups are distinct from each other. Torres Strait Islanders are from the Torres Strait Islands, a group of islands found between Cape York Peninsula and Papua New Guinea. Among Torres Strait Islanders, there are different groups, each of whom has their own language, culture and customs. Deep and spiritual connection The lifestyles of different Torres Strait Islander groups have always depended on the available resources in their environment. Groups living on the western islands are hunter-gatherers, while groups living on the central and eastern islands catch their food from the sea. But all groups share a deep and spiritual connection to the area where they live. FACT! Eddie Mabo was a fisher, cane-cutter, gardener and teacher. FAC_ACRes_Box_02337_TXT_H3-1_to_H4-4_SI.indd 15 Scan the code to link to a video about Mabo Day and Aboriginal land rights. Eddie Mabo The Mabo decision The Torres Strait Islanders connection to their land was recognised in the court case of Mabo v. Queensland, which involved a group of Meriam people from the Torres Strait island of Mer. The Meriam people wanted to be recognised as the legal owners of the land they lived on. The group was led by Eddie Koiki Mabo, who was born on Mer on 29 June /10/ :47 pm

6 Eddie Koiki Mabo Eddie was raised by his uncle after his mother died. When he was 16, he was expelled from Mer for breaking customary laws, and went to Queensland, where he settled in Townsville with his wife, Bonita, and 10 children. While he was working as a gardener at James Cook University, Eddie learned that the Meriam people s traditional ownership of Mer was not recognised by Australian law. Shocked, he set out to have the Meriam people s ownership of their land legally acknowledged. Historic decision Eddie and the Meriam people argued that they could claim ownership of Mer because they had occupied it and fi shed in its waters continuously since the arrival of Europeans in In an historic decision handed down on 1 June 1992, a The Mabo decision was a signifi cant victory, both for the Meriam people and for all Torres Strait Islanders. majority of the justices of the High Court of Australia agreed, and recognised the Meriam people s claim. This meant that the High Court had overruled the concept of terra nullius, which stated that Australia didn t belong to anyone at the time of European settlement. Sadly, Eddie died fi ve months before the decision was handed down. QUESTIONS 1. Locate and mark the Torres Strait Islands on a map. 2. Terra nullius stated that Australia didn t belong to anyone before white settlement. Try to imagine how the Aboriginal Australians might have felt. What would you do if someone suddenly told you something that was yours no longer belonged to you? 3. Find a synonym for the term distinct. Write a sentence using this synonym. 4. On 3 June every year, Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders celebrate Mabo Day. List three reasons for the celebrations on this special day. 5. Explain why you think being recognised as land owners is so important to Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders. Consider their spiritual connection to the land. 6. Imagine you are an Indigenous Australian and you are there on the day the Mabo decision was handed down. Design a poster that you could have displayed out the front of your home, celebrating the decision. OZBOX Year 6 Oxford University Press 2016

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