Number of Countries with Data

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1 By Hafiz A. Pasha WHAT IS THE EXTENT OF SOUTH ASIA S PROGRESS ON THE MDGs? WHAT FACTORS HAVE DETERMINED THE RATE OF PROGRESS? WHAT HAS BEEN THE EXTENT OF INCLUSIVE GROWTH IN SOUTH ASIA? WHAT SHOULD BE THE DEVELOPMENT AGENDA BEYOND THE MDGs?

2 Number of Countries with Data Number of Countries on Target MDG 1: Extreme Poverty 5 1 a 20 MDG 1: Hunger MDG 2a: Primary MDG 3a: Gender Parity (Primary) MDG 3a: Gender Parity (Secondary) MDG 4a: Child Mortality (under 5) MDG 5a: Maternal Mortality MDG 7c: Access to Safe Water MDG 7c: Access to Sanitation Source: Global Monitoring Reports, 2011, World Bank * The countries are Afghanistan (LIC), Bangladesh (LIC), Bhutan (LMC), India (LMC), Nepal (LIC), Pakistan (LMC), Sri Lanka (LMC). % Distance covered to Achieving Target Global N.A 79 of which: East Asia and Pacific (China) (60.2) (15.9) South Asia (India) (51.3) (41.6) 32.7 a 73 Sub Saharan Africa N.A 23 Latin America a for 2010 Source: World Bank, Global Monitoring Report, (%)

3 ALTHOUGH RATE OF ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE REGION HAS BEEN RELATIVELY HIGH BUT IT APPEARS THAT THE PROCESS OF GROWTH HAS NOT BEEN INCLUSIVE ENOUGH, ESPECIALLY IN TERMS OF BENEFITING THE LOWER INCOME GROUPS ALSO, THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT HAS GENERALLY NOT BEEN SUPPORTIVE FOR ATTAINING THE MDGs 2000 to to South Asia (India) (7.0) (8.6) (6.9) East Asia and the Pacific Low and Middle Income Countries Source: World Development Indicators (WDI), World Bank

4 INEQUALITY HAS INCREASED AMONG COUNTRIES INEQUALITY HAS INCREASED WITHIN COUNTRIES 14LDCs: AFGHANISTAN, BANGLADESH, BHUTAN, CAMBODIA, KIRIBATI, LAO PDR, MALDIVES, MYANMAR, SAMOA, SOLOMON, ISLANDS, TIMOR LESTE, TUVALU, VANAUTU 4 LDCs ARE LANDLOCKED AND 6 ARE SMALL ISLAND STATES 5 LDCs ARE IN SOUTH ASIA, 4 IN EAST ASIA AND 5 IN THE PACIFIC POPULATION OF 258 MILLION; 37% OF GLOBAL POPULATION OF LDCs. AVERAGE PER CAPITA INCOME IS $ LDCs ARE CLASSIFIED AS SEVERELY INDEBTED GDP GROWTH RATE IS HALF THE REGIONAL AVERAGE ODA PER CAPITA IS 1/3 rd OF SUB SAHARAN AFRICA

5 PERCENTAGE OF COUNTRIES* OFF TRACK LDCs All Counties (excluding LDCs) $ 1 Poverty Malnutrition Infant Mortality *Includes Central Asia Republics. All countries of Asia Pacific for which data is available Source: UNESCAP DIVERGENCE OF GROWTH Source: World Bank

6 Country a Earliest Year Gini Latest Year Gini Bangladesh (32.1)* India * Nepal * Pakistan * Sri Lanka *According to WDI. Inequality has also increased in most countries of East Asia and the Pacific, specially China Source: WIDER, UN, Inequality Data Base South Asia Low and Middle Income Countries Source: Pasha (2007), derived

7 1) RELATIVE POOR PERFORMANCE OF AGRICULTURE, ESPECIALLY FOOD PRODUCTION 2) LOW EMPLOYMENT RESPONSE TO OUTPUT GROWTH 3) LOW AND SLOW IMPROVEMENT IN LEVELS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 4) SPURT OF INFLATION, ESPECIALLY IN FOOD PRICES, DURING LAST FEW YEARS AGRICULTURE 2000 to to South Asia Low and Middle Income Countries INDUSTRY South Asia Low and Middle Income Countries SERVICES South Asia Low and Middle Income Countries Source: WDI

8 ANNUAL GROWTH RATE OF FOOD PRODUCTION 2000 to 2005: 1.9% 2005 to 2010: 2.6% ANNUAL GROWTH RATE IN PRODUCTION OF CEREALS 1998 to 2008 Rice: 1.7% Wheat: 1.2% Cereals: 1.8% SOUTH ASIA NOW HAS A NET DEFICIT IN TRADE IN FOOD ITEMS IMPORTS OF WHEAT HAVE REACHED A PEAK OF OVER 10 MILLION TONS THE PROPORTION OF UNDERNOURISHED IN POPULATION HAS DECREASED MODESTLY FROM 21.5% IN 2000 TO 17.8% IN 2011 Source: WDI, World Bank FAO Annual Rate of Growth 2000 to to South Asia (Employment Elasticity) (0.32) (0.29) (0.0) Low and Middle Income Countries (Employment Elasticity) (0.34) (0.25) 0.23 BETWEEN 2005 AND 2010, THE SHARE OF AGRICULTURE IN EMPLOYMENT HAS FALLEN FROM 54% TO 51%, WHILE THAT OF INDUSTRY HAS INCREASED FROM 19% TO 22% AND THAT OF SERVICES HAS FALLEN FROM 28% TO 26%. Source: WDI

9 5 SOUTH ASIAN COUNTRIES ARE IN THE LOWEST QUINTILE OF COUNTRIES IN THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX AND 3 IN THE SECOND LOWEST QUINTILE MOST SOUTH ASIAN COUNTRIES HAVE FALLEN SHARPLY IN HDI RANKINGS IN 2011 RANKINGS IN GNI PER CAPITA ARE GENERALLY HIGHER OVERALL, SOUTH ASIA S HDI RANKING IS THE LOWEST AMONG REGIONS OF THE WORLD, EXCEPT SUB SAHARAN AFRICA RATE OF INCREASE IN HDI VERY SLOW IN RECENT YEARS WHILE MOST SOUTH ASIAN COUNTRIES HAVE PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION OF 3.5 TO 4% OF GDP, EXPENDITURE ON HEALTH VERY LOW AT ABOUT 1% OF GDP Source: Global Human Development Report, UNDP. SPURT IN INFLATION DOUBLE DIGIT INFLATION LAST FOUR YEARS, ESPECIALLY IN FOOD PRICES, IN MOST SOUTH ASIAN COUNTRIES MORE ADVERSE IMPACT ON LOWER INCOME GROUPS THE TRADE IMBALANCE HAS BEEN ADVERSELY IMPACTED BY THE ALMOST SEVEN FOLD INCREASE IN THE OIL IMPORT BILL DURING THE LAST DECADE FISCAL DEFICITS HAVE BEEN RISING, EXCEEDING 8% OF THE GDP IN SOME COUNTRIES. LIMITED FISCAL SPACE FOR EXPANSION OF SOCIAL PROTECTION PROGRAMS Sources: IMF, WTO, ADB, World Bank

10 POLICIES AND PROGRAMS SHOULD INFLUENCE THE PROCESS OF GROWTH SUCH THAT (i). GROWTH TAKES PLACE IN SECTORS IN WHICH THE POOR WORK (ii). GROWTH SHOULD OCCUR IN BACKWARD AREAS WHERE THE POOR LIVE (iii). GROWTH SHOULD USE THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION THAT THE POOR POSSESS AND ENHANCE THEIR CAPABILITIES (iv). GROWTH MUST KEEP PRICES OF GOODS AND SERVICES CONSUMED BY THE POOR, LIKE FOOD, RELATIVELY LOW SHARP RISE IN GLOBAL OIL AND FOOD PRICES FLUCTUATIONS IN GROWTH OF THE WORLD ECONOMY HAVE AFFECTED REGION S EXPORTS (FOR EXAMPLE, IN 2009) FOLLOWING WITHDRAWAL OF TEXTILE QUOTAS, SHARE IN GLOBAL EXPORTS OF SOUTH ASIA HAS INCREASED BY ONLY 2 PERCENTAGE POINTS ODA IS BELOW 1% OF GNI OF SOUTH ASIA, 60% fall in 2012 PRIVATE CAPITAL FLOWS TO REGION ONLY 10% OF GLOBAL TOTAL, 63% fall in 2012 VOLATILITY IN SHORT TERM PRIVATE CAPITAL INFLOWS HOME REMITTANCES HAVE FLATTENED OUT RECENTLY OVERALL, DISAPPOINTMENT ABOUT THE EXTENT OF COMMITMENT OF DEVELOPED COUNTRIES TO MDG 8 ON GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT. ONLY 5 COUNTRIES HAVE MET ODA TARGET OF 0.7% OF GNI. GLOBAL SHORTFALL CUMULATIVELY IN RELATION TO TARGET OF $ 1.5 TRILLION SINCE Source: OECD DAC, IMF, WTO, Country Economic Surveys

11 EMBODIMENT OF THE PRINCIPLES OF THE UN CHARTER IN A CONCRETE PROGRAM PROVIDED FRAMEWORK FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION PROMOTED INVOLVEMENT ALSO OF CSOs AND THE PRIVATE SECTOR COMPELLED GOVERNMENTS TO INVESTING IN THE PEOPLE AND INCREASED ACCOUNTABILITY OF PERFORMACE ENABLED FOCUS ON DEVELOPMENT OUTCOMES/RESULTS RATHER THAN ON EXPENDITURE/INPUTS FEWER TARGETS*, WITH PRIMARY FOCUS ON ELIMINATION OF POVERTY AND HUNGER NEED FOR EXPLICIT FOCUS ON REDUCTION IN INEQUALITY IDENTIFICATION OF EMERGING RISKS DUE TO: ~ GLOBAL ECONOMIC SLOWDOWN ~ HIGH OIL AND FOOD PRICES ~ GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE UNDERSCORING DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON LDCs, CONFLICT AFFECTED AND FRAGILE COUNTRIES STRONGER FOCUS ON HEALTH RELATED INTERVENTIONS RECOGNITION OF NEED FOR INVESTMENT IN INFRASTRUCTURE, ESPECIALLY ENERGY AND WATER * CURRENTLY 48 TARGETS

12 LOCALISATION : MORE OWNERSHIP BY NATIONAL STAKEHOLDERS SETTING OF MORE REALISTIC TARGETS LOOKING BEYOND AVERAGES : IDENTIFICATION OF AND TARGETING SPECIAL GROUPS PROMOTING SOUTH SOUTH COOPERATION: EMERGING DONORS, STRONGER LINKAGES OF REGIONAL TRADE AND INVESTMENT, STRENGTHENING OF REGIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS GREATER INVOLVEMENT OF LARGE INTERNATIONAL NGOs AND FOUNDATIONS G 20 SHOULD NOT BE SEEN AS A PROCESS OF EXCLUSION OF THE REST OF G 77 CONVENE GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON MDGs +10 TO DISCUSS DEVELOPMENT GOALS UPTO 2025

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