Beyond Kyoto Copenhagen Durban 2011

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1 Beyond Kyoto Copenhagen 2009 Mexico 2010 Durban 2011

2 References The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: The New York Times 20/12/2009 A Grudging Accord in Climate Talks The New York Times 9/3/2010 Climate Goal is Supported by China and India B Sweet The Copenhagen Energy Accord published on line in IEEE Spectrum Energy Wise on 22 nd Dec 2009 available from wables/the-copenhagen-accord

3 Copenhagen 2009

4 Objectives Many observers hoped that 2009 Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen would result in a new multilateral binding agreement to replace the Kyoto treaty. This time it was hoped that all of the worlds largest energy consumers including the United States, Europe and China would be fully on board.

5 Initial Positions Targets for 2020 The USA 17% in ghg compared to 2005 levels (if congress agrees) China a reduction of 40-45% in CO2 intensity (CO2 emissions per unit of economic output) compared to 2005 levels Europe - Unilateral commitment to cut emissions by 20% compared to 1990 levels and up to 30% if global agreement is reached. Japan: 20% below 1990 levels India: 20-25% below 2005 levels The Maldives: Carbon Neutral by 2020!

6 The Outcome No legally binding agreement was agreed The Copenhagen Accord was proposed by USA, China, Brazil and South Africa. There was considerable opposition to this accord particularly from developing nations and the accord was not formally adopted. Nevertheless by 10 th March 2010 a total of 107 countries had agreed to adopt the Copenhagen accord

7 The Copenhagen Accord A statement of intention, not a binding pledge A recognition of the seriousness of climate change and the need to take action to prevent global temperature rise from exceeding 2 C Climate Change to be combated on the basis of Common but differentiated responsibilities Mitigation aid for least developed countries coming to $100billion per year by 2020.

8 List of Parties Agreeing with the Accord on 27 th April 2010 Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Canada, Central African Republic, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, European Union, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Samoa, San Marino, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Swaziland, Switzerland, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United Republic of Tanzania, United States of America, Uruguay, Zambia.

9 Mexico 2010

10 Mexico 2010 The follow up to Copenhagen is being held in Cancun, Mexico from 29 th November to 10 th December Preparatory talks have been marked by Preparatory talks have been marked by clashes and disagreements including a USA China divide and disagreements with developing countries

11 Selected Readings on Mexico 2010 Climate deal is closer, says UN envoy, despite China and US locking horns The Guardian Climate Deal is Closer 9/10/2010, available online at (accessed 1 Dec 2010) (EU) Climate action commissioner Connie Hedegaard said yesterday that the EU is ready to agree on an ambitious global climate framework in Cancún but regrettably some other major economies are not Irish Times EU Pushes for progres at Mexico s climate change talks 1 st December 2010

12 Mexico 2010 Opening Press Release Call for commitment and Compromise Conference President Calls for agreement on: Adaption, Technology Transfer, Forests, Fund for Climate Finance Voluntary targets (from Copenhagen) need to be formalised as a matter of urgency Importance of continuity after Kyoto. Un-resolved issues include: accountability, finance, fairness UNFCC Press Release United Nations Climate Change Conference in Cancun kicks off with calls for commitment and compromise available online at accessed 1/12/2010

13 Mexico 2010 Agreement Green Climate Fund: To help developing nations A Technology Mechanism: To get technology where it is needed Adaption Framework: Help developin gnations cope with climate change Mitigation: Call for nations to honour their Copenhagen pledges and a new registry for voluntary greenhouse gas emission limits for developing nations.

14 Durban Climate Change Conference 2011

15 Agreed New legally binding treaty to be defined by 2015 and become effective in 2020 (The Durban Platform) USA, China and India will be included 100b Green Climate Fund for poor countries to help adapt to climate impacts. Kyoto to continue in interim (some countries pledge further reductions by 2020)

16 Background Attempt to keep global warming below 2 C above pre-industrial levels by 2050 Intergovernmental panel calculate emissions will need to fall every year after 2020 to achieve this. PWC Analyst (ref Guardian) suggests this will need 5% per annum reduction in ghg gases for developed countries all the way to 2050.

17 References UNFCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ng/6245.php website accessed 24/4/2012 Harvey F, Carrington D Durban climate conference agrees deal to do a deal. Guardian Newspaper 12 th December 2011 available online at 12/durban-climate-change-conference southafrica

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