Changing Economic Status and Life Style of Migrated Tribal Women s (A Geographical Study of Dindori District)

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1 Changing Economic Status and Life Style of Migrated Tribal Women s (A Geographical Study of Dindori District) Dr. Lokesh Shrivastava D. Litt. 1, Dr. Ritu Rani 2, Shashikant Nag 3 Dept.of Post Graduate Studies and Research in Geography, Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur 2 Assistant Professor Geography, Govt. Mahakoshal Arts and Commerce College, Jabalpur 3 Corresponding Author, ABSTRACT : Today throughout the world migration is contributing to economic and social development by enabling man to overcome the primary policy objective of regional science. The role played by migration in socio-economic development requires one to view it historically, since its form and role have changed somewhat over time. Madhya Pradesh has the largest population of STs of all state. Migration has long been a livelihood strategy for tribes from the southern districts. Dindori district is situated between to E longitude and to N latitude. Schedule tribe population of the Dindori district is 374,447 people and sex ratio is 1004 females on per thousand males. This research paper based on primary and secondary data, Occupation work, monthly income and monthly saving are determined by their economic status. Mostly tribal women s occupation wage labour (65.43) and domestic work (24.57). minimum 0.86 percent migrated women are in Govt. jobs. Maximum migrated women earned Rs per month and they saved average Rs money per month. Maximum percent migrant family talking style has changed percent people s dressing style changed. Keywords: Migrate Tribal Women, Economic Status of Migrated Tribal Women, Life Style of Migrated Tribal women. I. Introduction: Migration is the geographic movement of people across a specified boundary for the purpose of establishing a new permanent or semi-permanent residence. Along with fertility and mortality, migration is a component of the population change. A migrant is classified both on the basis of place of birth as well as by place of last residence. Usually place of last residence is more widely used to distinguish migrants from non-migrants as it is a better indicator than place of birth. A person is considered as migrant by place of last residence, if the place in which he/she is enumerated during the census is other than his/her place of immediate last Page 1

2 residence. By capturing the latest of the migrations in cases where persons have migrated more than once, this concept would give a better picture of current migration scenario [1]. Migration is one of the three components of population change. The other two are fertility and mortality. The nature of migration as a component of population change is, however, different from fertility and mortality. Though, a set of social, economic, political and cultural factors determine the fertility and mortality levels in a population, these components largely operate within the biological framework.migration is an equilibrating process serving to improve relations between man s numbers and his physical environment or to reduce disparity between communities or regions in different stages of development or to give rise to an increase in the overall productivity of the factorial equipment of a region or country. There is a vast body of literature on migration, with interpretations from different disciplinary perspectives. Earlier analyses of migration were rooted in economic theory [2] focusing on the rational behavior of individuals. More recently, economic theories have been broadened to accommodate transaction costs, imperfect information as well as imperfections in rural capital markets.the new thinking on migration also departs from Marxist analyses and gives more recognition to agency and how complex interactions between structure and agency shape migration outcomes [3]. The analysis has now been extended to understanding vulnerability among migrant households. For example, Mosse et al (2002)[4] in their study of tribal migrants from the States of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan state that the problem is not so much one of declining production, as of systems of usurious money lending, labour contracting and exploitation. Much of the migration has been undertaken by historically poor and asset-less communities who are typically lower caste and tribals. Some of them have now entered high-return migration streams where they get regular work at wage rates much higher than they would have earned at home. Tribal Migration Tribal society is largely egalitarian and tribal women have been equal partners with tribal men in the contribution to household economy. Quite often their women do more physical labour in their agricultural fields and forest than that of the tribal men. Tribal women have usually enjoyed a higher social status in their own communities than Indian women in general. Some of the tribes in sub-himalayan regions like Khasis of Meghalaya are matriarchal. As indicated earlier the socio-economic profile of tribals especially the tribal women is quite low compared to tribal men and general population and this is also associated with poor nutritional and health status among the tribals. Tribal s are engaged in various occupations like hunting, fishing, gathering of forest products, shifting cultivation to settled agriculture, rural crafts and artisans. A very few tribal Page 2

3 groups are engaged in non-agricultural activities as mendicants, bards, pastoralists leading a semi-nomadic to nomadic life. Besides routine household work, the tribal women work in the agricultural fields, forests for long hours. The overall output if seen in terms of number of hours of work is low. Migration to towns and cities often negatively influences the tribal culture and identity. In addition to dam construction and mining there are problems with access to forest resources where tribals neither have control nor any kind of participation in forests, which once were their abode and were one of the major sources of their livelihood. In the 18th and 19th Centuries, the migration was forced as the British employed tribal labour to work in the Assam tea gardens. However, since the latter half of the 20th Century, tribal people from these areas have started migrating voluntarily to earn their livelihood. In the last century, a noticeable change was visible in the nature and pattern of tribal migration. Between 1950 and 1980, tribal people migrated to the rural areas of Bihar, West Bengal mainly to work as agricultural labour [4]. Madhya Pradesh has ranked among the least developed states in India. It has the largest population of STs of all state. Migration has long been a livelihood strategy for tribals from the southern districts. Many migrate to the neighbouring states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Until about 2005 the recruitment of migrant construction workers from this area was largely done by local agents. Tribal migrants have found jobs in factories, agro-processing plants or working as porters, domestic servants, bus cleaners, rickshaw pullers, street hawkers, petty traders, construction workers and domestic workers. Migrants are often willing to take on jobs that others cannot or do not want to do (those that are dirty, degrading and dangerous). The work is commonly poorly paid and insecure but it is very attractive to those from marginal areas where wages are too low to make a living. Income is one driver, with people migrating in search of paid employment. Early studies also reported that internal migration can lead to positive change in both sending and receiving areas [5]. II. Objectives of the Study: The main objective of this research are given as under - 1. To studies the occupational structure of migrated tribal women. 2. To studies the income of migrated tribal women. 3. Study of changing social status of migrated tribal women. III.Methodology: This study is based on primary and secondary data. Primary data has collected to questionnaire and interview methods. Secondary data is collected to published and unpublished Page 3

4 relative literatures. This paper is based on the sample survey. Data has been collected from Stratified random sampling method. Dindori district is chosen purposively due to their large tribal population and tribal migration. All seven blocks have been selected from districts. Five villages have been randomly selected from each block and 10 families from each of the selected village. Thus a total of 350 families has been planned and included in the survey. IV.Study Area: Dindori district is situated south-east of Madhya Pradesh. The border line of this district touches the Shahdol and Umaria districts (Rewa region, Madhya Pradesh), in east Bilaspur and Rajnandgaon districts (Chhastisgarh) and in west Jabalpur distric (Madhya Pradesh). Dindori district is situated between to E longitude and to N latitude. Geographically,it is situated on the bank of river Narmada between Satpura ranges. The average height of the place is 992 meters from the mean sea level, in which the highest point is 1100 meters and the lowest point is 340 meters. The area of Dindori district is 6128 square kilometers. Dindori district is surrounded by Satpura and Maikal Ranges, which is made from the Gondwana rocks. Maikal Ranges which is an important future of Satpura, acting as a geological division of eastern and western part of India, passes through the eastern part of Dindori. The relief feature of northern Narmada valley is rather irregular, which some fertile black soil is visible. The Narmada River makes the north boundary line of the district and flows from east to west. The maximum temperature of the district is 40 0 Celsius (May - June) and minimum temperature is 10 0 Celsius (January). Average annual rainfall of dindori district is 677 mm Page 4

5 (Shrivastava L., 2012 and Ritu Rani, 2009). As per the administrative Dindori district is divided into two Tehsils and seven block development. The total population of Dindori district is 70,4218 (2011). Schedule tribe population of the Dindori district is 37,4447 people and schedule caste population is 33,848 people. Sex ratio is 1004 females on per thousand males. V. Result and Discussion : Occupation of Migrated Women Migrated tribal women are doing many types of work in the place of migration. Their Occupation are (1) Wage labour, (2) Govt. Job (3) Pvt. Job (4) Domestic work, (5) Work on shop and hotel and (6) Student. Table No. 1 Occupation of Migrated Tribal Women (2016) Type of Occupation Development Wage Domestic Work on Govt. Job Pvt. Job Block Labour Work shop/hotel Student Total Res.. p..... Dindori Amarpur Samnapur Bajag Karanjiya Shehpura Mehandwani Dindori district Figure No. 1 Page 5

6 Above table No. 4 and Figure No. 4 are showing the occupation of migrated women. Total average migrated women s occupation are wage labour women are doing domestic work, 4.29 migrated women are students, 2.57 migrated women work on shop and hotel, 2.29 women are doing pvt. Job and only 0.86 women are doing govt. job. Maximum migrated women of shehpura block are wage labour. Maximum 42 are done domestic work by migrate women of Karanjiya block. Income of Migrated Tribal Woman The income of the migrated tribal women has been divided in to the six categories which are shown in the given table no. 2. Table No 2 Development Block Average Monthly Income of Migrated Woman (in Rs) (2016) Up to Rs Monthly income Above Total Dindori Amarpur Samnapur Bajag Karanjiya Shehpura Mehandwani Dindori district Figure No. 2 Page 6

7 This Table No. 2 and Figure No. 2 are shown average monthly income of migrated woman (in Rs.) of Dindori district percent women earn up to Rs. 2000, maximum percent women earn Rs. Per month. Only 4.29 percent women earn above 4000 Rs. Per month. Maximum percent migrated woman of Mahandwani development block earned Rs. per month. Savings of Migrated Women Saving is an important parts every people. Migrated tribal women are also saving money for future need. There is categorized in six part of their average monthly saving which is showing the following table. Table No. 3 Average Monthly Savings of the Migrant Women (in Rs) (2016) Monthly Savings Development Block Upto Rs Above 3500 Total Dindori Amarpur Samnapur Bajag Karanjiya Shehpura Mehandwani Dindori district Figure No. 3 Page 7

8 Above table No. 3 and Figure No. 3 are showing average monthly saving of the migrated women (in Rs.). Maximum percent migrated women of this district save Rs per month and minimum 1.71 percent migrated tribal woman save Rs per month. Maximum percent migrated women of Mehandwani development block save Rs. per month. Social Change Tribal women s lifestyles are traditionally in their birth place. They eat traditionally food, wear traditionally dress, talking style are traditionally, they speak traditionally language, they take traditionally health treatment and they do not care their health. But when tribal women and their family migrated then their food habit, dressing style, taking style language health care behavior are changed in migrant place. Following table is showing their social change. Table No. 4 Development Block Social Change on Migrated Women's Family (2016) Food Habit Dressing Style Talking Style Social Change Language Health Care Behavior Cleanliness and Hygiene Related Total Dindori Amarpur Samnapur Bajag Karanjiya Shehpura Mehandwani Dindori district Page 8

9 Figure No. 4 Above table No. 4 and Figure No. 4 are showing the social change on migrated women s family. Maximum percent migrated family talking style has changed percent people s dressing style changed percent people s food habit, percent people s language, 6.29 percent people s health care behavior and percent people s Cleanliness and Hygiene Related changed. VI.Conclusion: The occupational structures of migrated tribal women are Wage labour, domestic work, work on shop/hotel government and private job and student. Mostly migrated tribal women s occupation is wage labour (65.43), percent Migrated tribal women are domestic work, 4.29 percent are student, approximate 3 percent migrated women are in government (0.86) and private job (2.29). Income and saving is played important role in economic status percent migrated tribal women are earned Rs per month, percent women are earned Rs per month, percent women s saving are Rs and 5.14 percent women saved Rs per month. In this study the food habit, dress up sense, the way of talking, local or regional language, health care awareness, cleanliness and hygiene of tribal migrated women has been examined. The food habit of these women s are a slightly change maximum of 16 percent in Bajag Development block and minimum change was found in Shahpura and Mahandwani development block in Dindori district. Therefore it is concluded that a very small change has been seen amongst the migrated tribal women s food habit. Dressing style of tribal migrant women has a little bit change in these women. Maximum 16 percent change was found in Karanjiya and Amarpur Development block and minimum change seen in Mahandwani Page 9

10 development block. Talking style of migrated tribal women s maximum 52 percent in Samnapur development block. It is concluded that big change has been seen in their talking style. Cleanliness and hygiene related change has been seen in Bajag (24 percent) and Mehandwani (22 percent) development blocks. References: [1] Census of India [2] Todaro, M.P. (1976) Internal Migration in Developing Countries, Geneva: ILO. [3] Kothari U. (2002) Migration and Chronic Poverty, Working Paper 16, Manchester: Chronic Poverty Research Centre, Institute for Development Policy and Management, University of Manchester. [4] Mosse, D., Gupta, S., Mehta, M., Shah, V., Rees, J. and the KRIBP Project Team (2002) Brokered Livelihoods: Debt, Labour Migration and Development in Tribal Western India, Journal of Development Studies 38(5): June, pp [5] Deshingkar, P., S. Kumar, H. Kumar Chobey and D. Kumar. (2006) The Role of Migration and Remittances in Promoting Livelihoods in Bihar. Bihar Rural Livelihoods Project (BRLP) India. Page 10

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