Culture, Gender and Math Revisited

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Culture, Gender and Math Revisited"

Transcription

1 Culture, Gender and Math Revisited Brindusa Anghel Banco de España Núria Rodríguez-Planas* City University of New York (CUNY), Queens College Anna Sanz-de-Galdeano University of Alicante and IZA January 2018 Abstract Using 2003 to 2015 PISA data and across country variation, we first show that the positive correlation between gender equality and the gender gap in mathematics only holds for OECD countries or those above-average gender equality. In contrast, in non-oecd countries or below-average gender equality, the math gender gap widens in more gender-equal countries, suggesting that in traditional societies, there may initially be male backlash as social gender norms relax. Exploiting time-variation in different measures of gender equality, we then explore whether changes in the math gender gap within a country are associated with changes in gender equality. While we find no evidence of this in OECD countries or those above-average gender equality, there is evidence that improvements in female political empowerment within a country reduce the math gender gap in non-oecd countries or those below-average gender equality. Our findings are the first to underscore a differential relationship between gender equality and the math gender gap by gender-parity level. Keywords: Gender Gap in Math, Culture and institutions JEL: I21, I24, J16, Z13 * To whom correspondence should be addressed. 1

2 Guiso and co-authors seminal Science paper (2008) was the first to provide suggestive evidence that societal factors (as opposed to biological-based explanations) are behind the underperformance in math tests of girls relative to boys. 1 Using the 2003 PISA test and a variety of gender equality indices, these authors studied whether countries with greater gender equality have smaller math gender gaps. Focusing on the 40 countries that conducted PISA testing in 2003, they found cross-sectional evidence that this is indeed the case: i) using countrylevel data and controlling for the countries economic conditions with the GDP per capita, and ii) using student-level data and controlling for individuals characteristics and countries GDP per capita. Taking advantage of four new waves of PISA tests and over a decade of variation in different gender equality indices, we reassess the relative importance of societal factors behind the math gender gap. Our strategy is three-fold. First, we replicate Guiso et al. s (2008) cross-country analysis and additionally study whether their finding holds for subsequent years. Table 1 and Appendix Table A.1 show that the positive correlation between gender equality and the gender gap in mathematics holds for the same sample of countries as in Guiso et al. (2008) and for OECD countries, respectively. [insert Table 1] However, in non-oecd countries there is no evidence that greater gender equality is associated with a smaller math gender gap (shown in Appendix Table A.2). In fact, for non-oecd countries, the relation between gender equality and math gender gap is negative (and sometime statistically significant) when gender equality is measured with an index of cultural attitudes towards women based on the average level of disagreement to such statement as: When jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women from the World Value Survey, or with the political empowerment index from the World Economic Forum. Most interestingly, we then pool both OECD and non-oecd countries and uncover a non-linear pattern between gender equality and the math gender gap (Table 2). [insert Table 2] 1 These findings were later supported by others, such as Fryer and Levitt (2010) or Pope and Sydnor (2010), also using cross-sectional data, in this case from TIMMS (the former) and the US (the latter). With TIMMS data, results only held if Muslim countries were excluded from the sample. 2

3 More specifically, we find that in those countries with gender equality indices below the mean, greater gender equality is associated with lower girls performance in math tests relative to that of boys. In contrast, in countries with above-average gender equality, the performance of girls relative to boys in math tests improves with gender equality. This pattern is robust to alternative measures of gender equality such as the World Economic Forum gender gap index, the World Value Survey cultural index towards women, the female labor force participation or the World Economic Forum political empowerment index. It suggests that while in non-traditional societies, the math gender gap is smaller and disappears in those countries with greater gender equality, in more traditional societies, the math gender gap widens in those countries with greater gender equality. This is consistent with the male backlash hypothesis by which as traditional societies social gender norms relax, men may initially feel threaten by potentially more resourceful women (via income, employment, education, or political empowerment), and they may seek to prevent that future generations (their daughters) engage in subjects traditionally more prevalent among men (such as mathematics) to counteract women s relative increase in power or to extract women s resources (Heise and Garcia-Moreno, 2002; Eswaran and Malhotra, 2011; True, 2012). Once a minimum threshold of gender equality has been reached (which appears to be around the mean), then the association between gender equality and math gender gap is reversed and becomes positive. Because three fourths of the countries used in Guiso et al. s paper were OECD countries, their finding is explained by the fact that in most of their countries the level of gender equality was above-average. Finally, we exploit both across-country and across-time variation in our measures of gender equality and ask a different question, namely whether countries with larger increases (decreases) in gender equality experience greater decreases (increases) of the math gender gap. By exploiting both across time and country variation, our identification strategy controls for time-invariant unobserved factors that are both correlated with gender equality and the math gender gap through the full set of time and country fixed effects. Most importantly, by adding country time trends, identification emerges from deviations of the gender equality indices from their long-term trend. [insert Tables 3 and 4] Interestingly, we find again a differential pattern for OECD and non-oecd countries. Among the former, we find no evidence that the math gender gap decreases in those countries with greater increases in gender equality, suggesting that earlier findings for OECD countries were picking up spurious correlation between the math gender gap and gender equality instead of a causal relationship 3

4 (columns 4 and 5 from Table 3). 2 Our findings underscore that greater gender equality does not lead to better relative test performance in mathematics of girls relative to boys in OECD countries. In contrast, we find that for non-oecd countries, girl s relative performance in math-test scores relative to that of boys increases in countries with greater increases in female political empowerment at a decreasing rate (Table 4). This finding is statistically significant at the 5 percent level. The effect is also positive (albeit not statistically significant) for the gender gap and the WVS index. We find that Guiso et al. s (2008) findings only hold for OECD countries or those above a certain gender-equality threshold, but that in these countries, withincountry variation in gender equality does not affect the math gender gap. In contrast, we find that the association between gender equality and math gender gap is negative for non-oecd countries or below a certain gender-equality threshold. In such cases, however, we find some evidence that improvements in female political empowerment seems to be associated with improvements in girls performance in mathematics relative to boys. Further research ought to aim at better understanding the role of different institutions and social gender norms in explaining the math gender gap. 2 These findings were later supported by others, such as Fryer and Levitt (2010) or Pope and Sydnor (2010), also using cross-sectional data, in this case from TIMMS (the former) and the US (the latter). 4

5 References Akerlof, George A., and Rachel E. Kranton Economics and Identity. The Quarterly Journal of Economics CXV(3): Albanesi, Stefania, and Claudia Olivetti Home Production, Market Production and the Gender Wage Gap: Incentives and Expectations. Review of Economic Dynamics 12(1): China Daily "Policies Help Education of Girls." January 15, Eswaran, Mukesh and Nisha Malhotra "Domestic violence and women's autonomy in developing countries: theory and evidence", Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol.44, Issue 4, Fernández, Raquel Women, Work and Culture. Journal of the European Economic Association 24(4): Does Culture Matter? In Handbook of Social Economics, Elsevier Ltd, Fernández, Raquel, and Alessandra Fogli Culture: An Empirical Investigation of Beliefs, Work, and Fertility. American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics 1(1): Fryer, Ronald, and Steven Levitt An Empirical Analysis of the Gender Gap in Mathematics. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 2(2): Guiso, Luigi, Ferdinando Monte, Paola Sapienza, and Luigi Zingales Culture, Gender, and Math. Science (New York, N.Y.) 320: Hausmann, Ricardo, LDA Tyson, and Saadia Zahidi The Global Gender Gap Report World Economic Forum. Heise L. and Garcia-Moreno C "Violence by intimate partners", in: World report on violence and health, edited by Etienne G. Krug, Linda L. Dahlberg, James A. Mercy, Anthony B. Zwi and Rafael Lozano. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO]: Marmot, M. G. et al Epidemiologic Studies Of Coronary Heart Disease And Stroke In Japanese Men Living In Japan, Hawaii And California: Prevalence Of Coronary And Hypertensive Heart Disease And Associated Risk Factors. American Journal of Epidemiologic. 102(6): Pope, Devin G. and Justin R. Sydnor Geographic Variation in the Gender Differences in Test Scores, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 2, (pp ) True Jacqui The Political economy of Violence against Women, Oxford University Press 5

6 Table 1. Gender gap in Math and Institutions. Sample of countries from Guiso et al. (2008) paper PISA 2003 PISA 2006 PISA GGI *** ** *** (24.595) (23.635) (21.489) Average WVS indicators Female labor force participation rate Political Empowerment Index Log GDP per capita (8.116) (5.599) (6.610) 0.414*** 0.242** 0.414*** (0.135) (0.117) (0.119) *** * *** (9.256) (8.419) (8.672) *** ** ** * * * * *** * *** *** (2.116) (2.982) (2.113) (2.236) (2.152) (2.549) (1.932) (2.152) (2.309) (3.237) (2.071) (2.449) Constant * * ** *** (19.637) (24.820) (20.465) (21.930) (19.696) (20.734) (18.493) (21.368) (20.022) (26.516) (19.491) (24.231) Observations R-squared

7 Table 1 cont. PISA 2012 PISA GGI *** ** (24.811) (26.065) Average WVS indicators Female labor force participation rate Political Empowerment Index Log GDP per capita (7.176) (6.185) 0.550*** 0.319* (0.154) (0.174) ** (9.119) (8.935) *** *** *** *** ** (3.024) (3.857) (2.509) (2.972) (3.229) (3.563) (2.938) (3.011) Constant ** ** ** * ** (24.422) (32.638) (23.273) (29.642) (26.184) (30.219) (27.589) (30.172) Observations R-squared Notes: The gender gap is the coefficient of the female dummy in a country-by-country regression of PISA scores on a female dummy. As in Guiso et al. (2008), for each country we use the sample of students that are above the 50th percentile of ESCS of that country. GDP per capita is GDP in PPP. Standard errors in parentheses. *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1 7

8 Table 2. Gender gap in Math and Institutions. Pool of all countries from PISA sample GGI *** ( ) GGI squared *** ( ) Average WVS indicators *** (27.330) Average WVS indicators squared *** (5.160) Female labor force participation rate *** (0.301) Female labor force participation rate squared 0.013*** (0.003) Political Empowerment Index *** (12.448) Political Empowerment Index squared *** (17.788) Log GDP pc PPP *** ** * *** (1.010) (0.914) (0.955) (0.895) Year dummy *** *** *** *** (1.791) (1.973) (1.664) (1.774) Year dummy *** *** *** *** (1.559) (1.674) (1.446) (1.489) Year dummy * ** ** ** (1.641) (1.892) (1.621) (1.585) Year dummy ** * ** ** (1.682) (1.862) (1.649) (1.585) Constant *** *** *** *** (71.797) (39.006) (10.466) (8.941) Observations R-squared Notes: The gender gap is the coefficient of the female dummy in a country-by-country regression of PISA scores on a female dummy. As in Guiso et al. (2008), for each country we use the sample of students that are above the 50th percentile of ESCS of that country. GDP per capita is GDP in PPP. Here we use the pooled sample of countries from all PISA waves (PISA ). Year dummy 2015 is the reference dummy. Standard errors in parentheses. *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1 8

9 Table 3. Gender gap in Math and Institutions. Panel of OECD countries from PISA sample GGI *** ** ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) GGI squared *** *** ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Average WVS indicators *** *** ** * (49.157) (49.876) (96.210) ( ) ( ) Average WVS indicators squared *** *** ** (8.664) (8.875) (18.112) (19.935) (20.932) Female labor force participation rate ** (0.497) (0.498) (1.399) (1.454) (1.421) Female labor force participation 0.014*** 0.013** rate squared (0.005) (0.005) (0.015) (0.016) (0.016) Political Empowerment Index *** ** (11.315) (11.853) (15.192) (17.393) (16.336) Political Empowerment Index squared *** *** (15.557) (16.026) (30.154) (30.407) (29.823) Log GDP per capita PPP, Log GDP per capita PPP squared No Yes Yes Yes Yes Time dummies No No No Yes No Country linear time trend No No No No Yes Country FE No No Yes Yes Yes Observations 107 to to to to to 166 R-squared to to to to to Number of countries 22 to to to 34 Notes: The gender gap is the coefficient of the female dummy in a country-by-country regression of PISA scores on a female dummy. As in Guiso et al. (2008), for each country we use the sample of students that are above the 50th percentile of ESCS of that country. Each column shows the coefficients of gender equality indices and their square from separate regressions. Estimations include a constant not reported here. GDP per capita is GDP in PPP. Standard errors in parentheses. *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1 9

10 Table 4. Gender gap in Math and Institutions. Panel of Non-OECD countries from PISA sample GGI (1, ) (1, ) (1, ) (1, ) (1, ) GGI squared ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Average WVS indicators (64.721) (66.770) ( ) ( ) ( ) Average WVS indicators squared (13.019) (13.357) (33.614) (37.878) (36.887) Female labor force participation rate ** ** (0.339) (0.353) (2.642) (2.724) (2.734) Female labor force participation 0.009** 0.009** rate squared (0.004) (0.004) (0.024) (0.025) (0.025) Political Empowerment Index ** ** ** (40.547) (42.395) (54.810) (57.326) (57.704) Political Empowerment Index squared ** ** ** ** ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Log GDP per capita PPP, Log GDP per capita PPP squared No Yes Yes Yes Yes Time dummies No No No Yes No Country linear time trend No No No No Yes Country FE No No Yes Yes Yes Observations 99 to to to to to 120 R-squared 0.01 to to to to to Number of countries 31 to to to 39 Notes: The gender gap is the coefficient of the female dummy in a country-by-country regression of PISA scores on a female dummy. As in Guiso et al. (2008), for each country we use the sample of students that are above the 50th percentile of ESCS of that country. Each column shows the coefficients of gender equality indices and their square from separate regressions. Estimations include a constant, not reported here. GDP per capita is GDP in PPP. Standard errors in parentheses. *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1 10

11 APPENDIX Table A1. Gender gap in Math and Institutions. OECD countries from PISA sample PISA 2003 PISA 2006 PISA GGI *** ** *** (23.297) (24.220) (24.168) Average WVS * * * indicators (10.365) (7.639) (10.201) Female labor force 0.526*** 0.385*** 0.547*** participation rate (0.132) (0.135) (0.164) Political Empowerment *** (8.370) * (8.415) ** (9.494) Index Log GDP per capita *** ** * (2.829) (4.645) (2.769) (2.881) (3.102) (4.424) (3.020) (3.086) (3.363) (5.983) (3.598) (3.620) Constant (26.548) (35.555) (26.715) (29.257) (28.068) (35.208) (28.673) (31.467) (30.269) (47.110) (33.765) (36.790) Observations R-squared

12 Table A1. cont. PISA 2012 PISA GGI *** ** (23.723) (26.983) Average WVS indicators (8.022) (8.053) Female labor force 0.430** 0.361* participation rate (0.187) (0.205) Political *** * Empowerment Index (8.177) (9.257) Log GDP per capita *** * * (3.857) (5.353) (3.927) (3.710) (4.201) (5.682) (4.217) (3.972) Constant (32.678) (47.050) (37.096) (37.836) (37.256) (51.227) (40.165) (40.733) Observations R-squared Notes: The gender gap is the coefficient of the female dummy in a country-by-country regression of PISA scores on a female dummy. As in Guiso et al. (2008), for each country we use the sample of students that are above the 50th percentile of ESCS of that country. GDP per capita is GDP in PPP. Standard errors in parentheses. *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1 12

13 Table A2. Gender gap in Math and Institutions. Non-OECD countries from PISA sample PISA 2003 PISA 2006 PISA GGI ( ) (53.784) (58.457) Average WVS indicators (18.318) (6.834) (7.741) Female labor force participation rate (0.345) (0.145) (0.167) Political Empowerment (89.311) (26.300) (29.630) Index Log GDP per capita * (9.950) (7.607) (5.635) (11.240) (2.397) (2.426) (2.135) (2.290) (2.917) (2.840) (2.390) (2.763) Constant ( ) (90.372) (52.066) ( ) (46.907) (29.421) (21.369) (22.090) (56.593) (35.001) (24.034) (27.785) Observations R-squared

14 Table A2 cont. PISA 2012 PISA GGI (70.771) (50.480) Average WVS ** * indicators (7.870) (7.398) Female labor force participation rate (0.180) (0.138) Political *** Empowerment Index (30.283) (24.642) Log GDP per capita (3.253) (3.094) (2.818) (2.968) (2.749) (2.801) (2.461) (2.752) Constant (61.392) (39.134) (28.506) (30.677) (44.963) (34.280) (23.950) (27.959) Observations R-squared Notes: The gender gap is the coefficient of the female dummy in a country-by-country regression of PISA scores on a female dummy. As in Guiso et al. (2008), for each country we use the sample of students that are above the 50th percentile of ESCS of that country. GDP per capita is GDP in PPP. Standard errors in parentheses. *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1 14

Culture, migration and educational performance: a focus on gender outcomes using Australian PISA tests

Culture, migration and educational performance: a focus on gender outcomes using Australian PISA tests Culture, migration and educational performance: a focus on gender outcomes using Australian PISA tests A.M. Dockery, Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre, Curtin University Ian Li, School of Population and

More information

Remittances and the Brain Drain: Evidence from Microdata for Sub-Saharan Africa

Remittances and the Brain Drain: Evidence from Microdata for Sub-Saharan Africa Remittances and the Brain Drain: Evidence from Microdata for Sub-Saharan Africa Julia Bredtmann 1, Fernanda Martinez Flores 1,2, and Sebastian Otten 1,2,3 1 RWI, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung

More information

Qatar. Switzerland Russian Federation Saudi Arabia Brazil. New Zealand India Pakistan Philippines Nicaragua Chad Yemen

Qatar. Switzerland Russian Federation Saudi Arabia Brazil. New Zealand India Pakistan Philippines Nicaragua Chad Yemen Figure 25: GDP per capita vs Gobal Gender Gap Index 214 GDP GDP per capita per capita, (constant PPP (constant 25 international 211 international $) $) 15, 12, 9, 6, Sweden.5.6.7.8.9 Global Gender Gap

More information

Corruption and business procedures: an empirical investigation

Corruption and business procedures: an empirical investigation Corruption and business procedures: an empirical investigation S. Roy*, Department of Economics, High Point University, High Point, NC - 27262, USA. Email: sroy@highpoint.edu Abstract We implement OLS,

More information

Impact of Human Rights Abuses on Economic Outlook

Impact of Human Rights Abuses on Economic Outlook Digital Commons @ George Fox University Student Scholarship - School of Business School of Business 1-1-2016 Impact of Human Rights Abuses on Economic Outlook Benjamin Antony George Fox University, bantony13@georgefox.edu

More information

A REPLICATION OF THE POLITICAL DETERMINANTS OF FEDERAL EXPENDITURE AT THE STATE LEVEL (PUBLIC CHOICE, 2005) Stratford Douglas* and W.

A REPLICATION OF THE POLITICAL DETERMINANTS OF FEDERAL EXPENDITURE AT THE STATE LEVEL (PUBLIC CHOICE, 2005) Stratford Douglas* and W. A REPLICATION OF THE POLITICAL DETERMINANTS OF FEDERAL EXPENDITURE AT THE STATE LEVEL (PUBLIC CHOICE, 2005) by Stratford Douglas* and W. Robert Reed Revised, 26 December 2013 * Stratford Douglas, Department

More information

Does government decentralization reduce domestic terror? An empirical test

Does government decentralization reduce domestic terror? An empirical test Does government decentralization reduce domestic terror? An empirical test Axel Dreher a Justina A. V. Fischer b November 2010 Economics Letters, forthcoming Abstract Using a country panel of domestic

More information

Economic and political liberalizations $

Economic and political liberalizations $ Journal of Monetary Economics 52 (2005) 1297 1330 www.elsevier.com/locate/jme Economic and political liberalizations $ Francesco Giavazzi, Guido Tabellini IGIER, Bocconi University, Via Salasco 5, 20136

More information

Brain drain and Human Capital Formation in Developing Countries. Are there Really Winners?

Brain drain and Human Capital Formation in Developing Countries. Are there Really Winners? Brain drain and Human Capital Formation in Developing Countries. Are there Really Winners? José Luis Groizard Universitat de les Illes Balears Ctra de Valldemossa km. 7,5 07122 Palma de Mallorca Spain

More information

Laws and Stigma: the Case of Prostitution

Laws and Stigma: the Case of Prostitution WORKING PAPER NO. 388 Laws and Stigma: the Case of Prostitution Giovanni Immordino and Francesco Flaviano Russo February 2015 University of Naples Federico II University of Salerno Bocconi University,

More information

Immigrant Student Performance in Math: Does it Matter Where You Come From? Gianna Claudia Giannelli (University of Florence, IZA and CHILD)

Immigrant Student Performance in Math: Does it Matter Where You Come From? Gianna Claudia Giannelli (University of Florence, IZA and CHILD) Immigrant Student Performance in Math: Does it Matter Where You Come From? Gianna Claudia Giannelli (University of Florence, IZA and CHILD) Chiara Rapallini (University of Florence) Abstract* The performance

More information

Research Report. How Does Trade Liberalization Affect Racial and Gender Identity in Employment? Evidence from PostApartheid South Africa

Research Report. How Does Trade Liberalization Affect Racial and Gender Identity in Employment? Evidence from PostApartheid South Africa International Affairs Program Research Report How Does Trade Liberalization Affect Racial and Gender Identity in Employment? Evidence from PostApartheid South Africa Report Prepared by Bilge Erten Assistant

More information

THE IMPACT OF OIL DEPENDENCE ON DEMOCRACY

THE IMPACT OF OIL DEPENDENCE ON DEMOCRACY THE IMPACT OF OIL DEPENDENCE ON DEMOCRACY A Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences of Georgetown University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree

More information

Ancestry culture, local institutions, and situated. agency - A study of female labor supply

Ancestry culture, local institutions, and situated. agency - A study of female labor supply Ancestry culture, local institutions, and situated agency - A study of female labor supply Henning Finseraas and Andreas Kotsadam October 20, 2015 Abstract We study the importance of ancestry culture and

More information

Does Lobbying Matter More than Corruption In Less Developed Countries?*

Does Lobbying Matter More than Corruption In Less Developed Countries?* Does Lobbying Matter More than Corruption In Less Developed Countries?* Nauro F. Campos University of Newcastle, University of Michigan Davidson Institute, and CEPR E-mail: n.f.campos@ncl.ac.uk Francesco

More information

Revolutions and Inequality in North Africa and the Middle East

Revolutions and Inequality in North Africa and the Middle East AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP CHIEF ECONOMIST COMPLEX Revolutions and Inequality in North Africa and the Middle East PROF. MTHULI NCUBE* CHIEF ECONOMIST & VICE PRESIDENT AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK BP 323,

More information

The Demography of the Labor Force in Emerging Markets

The Demography of the Labor Force in Emerging Markets The Demography of the Labor Force in Emerging Markets David Lam I. Introduction This paper discusses how demographic changes are affecting the labor force in emerging markets. As will be shown below, the

More information

Mobilization or Education? The Human Capital Consequences of World War II

Mobilization or Education? The Human Capital Consequences of World War II Mobilization or Education? The Human Capital Consequences of World War II Taylor Jaworski February 4, 2011 PLEASE DO NOT CITE Comments Welcome Abstract Educational attainment in the United States increased

More information

Naturalisation and on-the-job training: evidence from first-generation immigrants in Germany

Naturalisation and on-the-job training: evidence from first-generation immigrants in Germany von Haaren-Giebel and Sandner IZA Journal of Migration (2016) 5:19 DOI 10.1186/s40176-016-0067-x ORIGINAL ARTICLE Naturalisation and on-the-job training: evidence from first-generation immigrants in Germany

More information

Small Employers, Large Employers and the Skill Premium

Small Employers, Large Employers and the Skill Premium Small Employers, Large Employers and the Skill Premium January 2016 Damir Stijepic Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz Abstract I document the comovement of the skill premium with the differential employer

More information

Revisiting the effects of skills on economic inequality: Within- and cross-country comparisons using PIAAC

Revisiting the effects of skills on economic inequality: Within- and cross-country comparisons using PIAAC Commissioned Paper February 2015 Revisiting the effects of skills on economic inequality: Within- and cross-country comparisons using PIAAC Author: Anita Alves Pena Suggested Citation: Pena, A. A. (2015).

More information

Are women really the fairer sex? Corruption and women in government

Are women really the fairer sex? Corruption and women in government Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization Vol. 46 (2001) 423 429 Are women really the fairer sex? Corruption and women in government David Dollar, Raymond Fisman, Roberta Gatti Development Research Group,

More information

The Urban Wage Premium in Africa

The Urban Wage Premium in Africa The Urban Wage Premium in Africa Patricia Jones University of Oxford Olivia D Aoust World Bank Louise Bernard University of Oxford Abstract: This paper examines the size and sources of the urban wage premium

More information

The Transmission of Women s Fertility, Human Capital and Work Orientation across Immigrant Generations

The Transmission of Women s Fertility, Human Capital and Work Orientation across Immigrant Generations DISCUSSION PAPER SERIES IZA DP No. 3732 The Transmission of Women s Fertility, Human Capital and Work Orientation across Immigrant Generations Francine D. Blau Lawrence M. Kahn Albert Yung-Hsu Liu Kerry

More information

The Trade Impact of ISO 9000 Certifications and International Cooperation in Accreditation

The Trade Impact of ISO 9000 Certifications and International Cooperation in Accreditation The Trade Impact of ISO 9000 Certifications and International Cooperation in Accreditation Knut Blind 1,2,3 and Axel Mangelsdorf 1,4 1 Berlin Institute of Technology, Chair of Innovation Economics 2 Fraunhofer

More information

Burden Sharing: Income, Inequality, and Willingness to Fight

Burden Sharing: Income, Inequality, and Willingness to Fight Burden Sharing: Income, Inequality, and Willingness to Fight Christopher J. Anderson, Anna Getmansky, Sivan Hirsch-Hoefler Online Appendix A.1 Data description... 2 A.1.1 Generating the dataset... 2 A.1.2

More information

Labor Market Dropouts and Trends in the Wages of Black and White Men

Labor Market Dropouts and Trends in the Wages of Black and White Men Industrial & Labor Relations Review Volume 56 Number 4 Article 5 2003 Labor Market Dropouts and Trends in the Wages of Black and White Men Chinhui Juhn University of Houston Recommended Citation Juhn,

More information

International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics ISSN , E-ISSN: Vol. 5, No. 4, 2017, pp

International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics ISSN , E-ISSN: Vol. 5, No. 4, 2017, pp International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics ISSN 2147-8988, E-ISSN: 2149-3766 Vol. 5, No. 4, 2017, pp. 99-120 DOES DEMOCRACY PROMOTE FOOD SECURITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

More information

Crime and Corruption: An International Empirical Study

Crime and Corruption: An International Empirical Study Proceedings 59th ISI World Statistics Congress, 5-3 August 13, Hong Kong (Session CPS111) p.985 Crime and Corruption: An International Empirical Study Huaiyu Zhang University of Dongbei University of Finance

More information

I'll Marry You If You Get Me a Job: Marital Assimilation and Immigrant Employment Rates

I'll Marry You If You Get Me a Job: Marital Assimilation and Immigrant Employment Rates DISCUSSION PAPER SERIES IZA DP No. 3951 I'll Marry You If You Get Me a Job: Marital Assimilation and Immigrant Employment Rates Delia Furtado Nikolaos Theodoropoulos January 2009 Forschungsinstitut zur

More information

Long-Term Orientation and Educational Performance 1

Long-Term Orientation and Educational Performance 1 Long-Term Orientation and Educational Performance 1 David Figlio, Northwestern University and NBER Paola Giuliano, UCLA and NBER Umut Özek, American Institutes for Research Paola Sapienza, Northwestern

More information

Candidates Quality and Electoral Participation: Evidence from Italian Municipal Elections

Candidates Quality and Electoral Participation: Evidence from Italian Municipal Elections DISCUSSION PAPER SERIES IZA DP No. 8102 Candidates Quality and Electoral Participation: Evidence from Italian Municipal Elections Marco Alberto De Benedetto Maria De Paola April 2014 Forschungsinstitut

More information

Happiness convergence in transition countries

Happiness convergence in transition countries Happiness convergence in transition countries Sergei Guriev and Nikita Melnikov Summary The transition happiness gap has been one of the most robust findings in the life satisfaction literature. Until

More information

The Impact of Economics Blogs * David McKenzie, World Bank, BREAD, CEPR and IZA. Berk Özler, World Bank. Extract: PART I DISSEMINATION EFFECT

The Impact of Economics Blogs * David McKenzie, World Bank, BREAD, CEPR and IZA. Berk Özler, World Bank. Extract: PART I DISSEMINATION EFFECT The Impact of Economics Blogs * David McKenzie, World Bank, BREAD, CEPR and IZA Berk Özler, World Bank Extract: PART I DISSEMINATION EFFECT Abstract There is a proliferation of economics blogs, with increasing

More information

Immigration and Crime: The 2015 Refugee Crisis in Germany

Immigration and Crime: The 2015 Refugee Crisis in Germany Immigration and Crime: The 2015 Refugee Crisis in Germany Yue Huang Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg Michael Kvasnicka Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, RWI, IZA February 1, 2018 Abstract.

More information

School Performance of the Children of Immigrants in Canada,

School Performance of the Children of Immigrants in Canada, School Performance of the Children of Immigrants in Canada, 1994-98 by Christopher Worswick * No. 178 11F0019MIE No. 178 ISSN: 1205-9153 ISBN: 0-662-31229-5 Department of Economics, Carleton University

More information

Impacts of International Migration on the Labor Market in Japan

Impacts of International Migration on the Labor Market in Japan Impacts of International Migration on the Labor Market in Japan Jiro Nakamura Nihon University This paper introduces an empirical analysis on three key points: (i) whether the introduction of foreign workers

More information

Country-Specific Preferences and Employment Rates in Europe

Country-Specific Preferences and Employment Rates in Europe Country-Specific Preferences and Employment Rates in Europe Simone Moriconi (Universita Cattolica di Milano) Giovanni Peri (University of California, Davis). April 11, 2016 Abstract European countries

More information

Please Call Me John: Name Choice and the Assimilation of Immigrants in the United States,

Please Call Me John: Name Choice and the Assimilation of Immigrants in the United States, DISCUSSION PAPER SERIES IZA DP No. 9792 Please Call Me John: Name Choice and the Assimilation of Immigrants in the United States, 1900-1930 Pedro Carneiro Sokbae Lee Hugo Reis March 2016 Forschungsinstitut

More information

The gender gap in African political participation:

The gender gap in African political participation: The gender gap in African political participation: Testing theories of individual and contextual determinants This version: 2013-06-03 Ann-Sofie Isaksson *, Andreas Kotsadam **, Måns Nerman *** * University

More information

Investigating the Effects of Migration on Economic Growth in Aging OECD Countries from

Investigating the Effects of Migration on Economic Growth in Aging OECD Countries from Bowdoin College Bowdoin Digital Commons Honors Projects Student Scholarship and Creative Work 5-2017 Investigating the Effects of Migration on Economic Growth in Aging OECD Countries from 1975-2015 Michael

More information

Better migrants, better PISA results: Findings from a natural experiment

Better migrants, better PISA results: Findings from a natural experiment Cattaneo and Wolter IZA Journal of Migration (2015) 4:18 DOI 10.1186/s40176-015-0042-y ORIGINAL ARTICLE Better migrants, better PISA results: Findings from a natural experiment Maria A Cattaneo 1* and

More information

Culture and Good Governance: A Brief Empirical Exercise. Richard V. Adkisson and Randy McFerrin New Mexico State University

Culture and Good Governance: A Brief Empirical Exercise. Richard V. Adkisson and Randy McFerrin New Mexico State University Culture and Good Governance: A Brief Empirical Exercise Richard V. Adkisson and Randy McFerrin New Mexico State University Abstract This paper uses regression analysis to explore relationships between

More information

Prospects for Immigrant-Native Wealth Assimilation: Evidence from Financial Market Participation. Una Okonkwo Osili 1 Anna Paulson 2

Prospects for Immigrant-Native Wealth Assimilation: Evidence from Financial Market Participation. Una Okonkwo Osili 1 Anna Paulson 2 Prospects for Immigrant-Native Wealth Assimilation: Evidence from Financial Market Participation Una Okonkwo Osili 1 Anna Paulson 2 1 Contact Information: Department of Economics, Indiana University Purdue

More information

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES WHY WORK MORE? THE IMPACT OF TAXES, AND CULTURE OF LEISURE ON LABOR SUPPLY IN EUROPE. Naci H. Mocan Luiza Pogorelova

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES WHY WORK MORE? THE IMPACT OF TAXES, AND CULTURE OF LEISURE ON LABOR SUPPLY IN EUROPE. Naci H. Mocan Luiza Pogorelova NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES WHY WORK MORE? THE IMPACT OF TAXES, AND CULTURE OF LEISURE ON LABOR SUPPLY IN EUROPE Naci H. Mocan Luiza Pogorelova Working Paper 21297 http://www.nber.org/papers/w21297 NATIONAL

More information

The Trade Liberalization Effects of Regional Trade Agreements* Volker Nitsch Free University Berlin. Daniel M. Sturm. University of Munich

The Trade Liberalization Effects of Regional Trade Agreements* Volker Nitsch Free University Berlin. Daniel M. Sturm. University of Munich December 2, 2005 The Trade Liberalization Effects of Regional Trade Agreements* Volker Nitsch Free University Berlin Daniel M. Sturm University of Munich and CEPR Abstract Recent research suggests that

More information

The mental health cost of long working hours: the case of rural Chinese migrants

The mental health cost of long working hours: the case of rural Chinese migrants The mental health cost of long working hours: the case of rural Chinese migrants * Paul Frijters, *David W. Johnston, ** Xin Meng * School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology,

More information

WP 2015: 9. Education and electoral participation: Reported versus actual voting behaviour. Ivar Kolstad and Arne Wiig VOTE

WP 2015: 9. Education and electoral participation: Reported versus actual voting behaviour. Ivar Kolstad and Arne Wiig VOTE WP 2015: 9 Reported versus actual voting behaviour Ivar Kolstad and Arne Wiig VOTE Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI) is an independent, non-profit research institution and a major international centre in

More information

The Causes of Wage Differentials between Immigrant and Native Physicians

The Causes of Wage Differentials between Immigrant and Native Physicians The Causes of Wage Differentials between Immigrant and Native Physicians I. Introduction Current projections, as indicated by the 2000 Census, suggest that racial and ethnic minorities will outnumber non-hispanic

More information

Protestantism, Labor Force Participation, and Employment Across Countries

Protestantism, Labor Force Participation, and Employment Across Countries Protestantism, Labor Force Participation, and Employment Across Countries By HORST FELDMANN* ABSTRACT. Using data from 80 countries, this article analyzes whether Protestant religion affects labor market

More information

The Determinants of Immigration-Policy Preferences in Advanced Economies: A Cross- Country Study

The Determinants of Immigration-Policy Preferences in Advanced Economies: A Cross- Country Study Marquette University e-publications@marquette Economics Faculty Research and Publications Business Administration, College of 6-1-2003 The Determinants of Immigration-Policy Preferences in Advanced Economies:

More information

Immigration and student achievement in Spain: evidence from PISA

Immigration and student achievement in Spain: evidence from PISA SERIEs (2014) 5:25 60 DOI 10.1007/s13209-013-0101-7 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Immigration and student achievement in Spain: evidence from PISA Natalia Zinovyeva Florentino Felgueroso Pablo Vazquez Received: 10

More information

LABOUR-MARKET INTEGRATION OF IMMIGRANTS IN OECD-COUNTRIES: WHAT EXPLANATIONS FIT THE DATA?

LABOUR-MARKET INTEGRATION OF IMMIGRANTS IN OECD-COUNTRIES: WHAT EXPLANATIONS FIT THE DATA? LABOUR-MARKET INTEGRATION OF IMMIGRANTS IN OECD-COUNTRIES: WHAT EXPLANATIONS FIT THE DATA? By Andreas Bergh (PhD) Associate Professor in Economics at Lund University and the Research Institute of Industrial

More information

ATTITUDES TOWARDS INCOME AND WEALTH INEQUALITY AND SUPPORT FOR SCOTTISH INDEPENDENCE OVER TIME AND THE INTERACTION WITH NATIONAL IDENTITY

ATTITUDES TOWARDS INCOME AND WEALTH INEQUALITY AND SUPPORT FOR SCOTTISH INDEPENDENCE OVER TIME AND THE INTERACTION WITH NATIONAL IDENTITY Scottish Affairs 23.1 (2014): 27 54 DOI: 10.3366/scot.2014.0004 # Edinburgh University Press www.euppublishing.com/scot ATTITUDES TOWARDS INCOME AND WEALTH INEQUALITY AND SUPPORT FOR SCOTTISH INDEPENDENCE

More information

Economists have long posited that institutions matter for economic success,

Economists have long posited that institutions matter for economic success, Culture and Freedom 83 Culture and Freedom Claudia R. Williamson and Rachel L. Coyne 1 1. Introduction Economists have long posited that institutions matter for economic success, but how they matter is

More information

THE GENDER WAGE GAP AND SEX SEGREGATION IN FINLAND* OSSI KORKEAMÄKI TOMI KYYRÄ

THE GENDER WAGE GAP AND SEX SEGREGATION IN FINLAND* OSSI KORKEAMÄKI TOMI KYYRÄ THE GENDER WAGE GAP AND SEX SEGREGATION IN FINLAND* OSSI KORKEAMÄKI Government Institute for Economic Research (VATT), P.O. Box 269, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland; e-mail: ossi.korkeamaki@vatt.fi and TOMI

More information

Cross-Country Differences in Homeownership: A Cultural Phenomenon

Cross-Country Differences in Homeownership: A Cultural Phenomenon Cross-Country Differences in Homeownership: A Cultural Phenomenon Stefanie J. Huber? and Tobias Schmidt Version: February 12, 2016 (First Draft: February 20, 2015) Abstract Cross-country differences in

More information

Income and Democracy

Income and Democracy Income and Democracy Daron Acemoglu Simon Johnson James A. Robinson Pierre Yared First Version: May 2004. This Version: July 2007. Abstract We revisit one of the central empirical findings of the political

More information

Peers, neighborhoods and immigrant student achievement - evidence from a placement policy *

Peers, neighborhoods and immigrant student achievement - evidence from a placement policy * Peers, neighborhoods and immigrant student achievement - evidence from a placement policy * By Olof Åslund #, Per-Anders Edin, Peter Fredriksson, and Hans Grönqvist November 2010 Abstract We examine to

More information

Banking crises and Investor Confidence: An Empirical Investigation * Una Okonkwo Osili Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis

Banking crises and Investor Confidence: An Empirical Investigation * Una Okonkwo Osili Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis Banking crises and Investor Confidence: An Empirical Investigation * Una Okonkwo Osili Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis Anna Paulson Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago December 30, 2009

More information

Travel Time Use Over Five Decades

Travel Time Use Over Five Decades Institute for International Economic Policy Working Paper Series Elliott School of International Affairs The George Washington University Travel Time Use Over Five Decades IIEP WP 2016 24 Chao Wei George

More information

The Determinants and the Selection. of Mexico-US Migrations

The Determinants and the Selection. of Mexico-US Migrations The Determinants and the Selection of Mexico-US Migrations J. William Ambrosini (UC, Davis) Giovanni Peri, (UC, Davis and NBER) This draft March 2011 Abstract Using data from the Mexican Family Life Survey

More information

Different Endowment or Remuneration? Exploring wage differentials in Switzerland

Different Endowment or Remuneration? Exploring wage differentials in Switzerland Different Endowment or Remuneration? Exploring wage differentials in Switzerland Oscar Gonzalez, Rico Maggi, Jasmith Rosas * University of California, Berkeley * University of Lugano University of Applied

More information

Handout 1: Empirics of Economic Growth

Handout 1: Empirics of Economic Growth 14.451: Macroeconomic Theory I Suman S. Basu, MIT Handout 1: Empirics of Economic Growth Welcome to 14.451, the introductory course of the macro sequence. The aim of this course is to familiarize you with

More information

Long live your ancestors American dream:

Long live your ancestors American dream: Long live your ancestors American dream: The self-selection and multigenerational mobility of American immigrants Joakim Ruist* University of Gothenburg joakim.ruist@economics.gu.se April 2017 Abstract

More information

Determining factors of inbound travel to Japan A stronger yen matters more for the NIEs than China

Determining factors of inbound travel to Japan A stronger yen matters more for the NIEs than China Mizuho Economic Outlook & Analysis February 19, 216 Determining factors of inbound travel to Japan A stronger yen matters more for the NIEs than < Summary > To analyze the sustainability of inbound travel

More information

Corporatism and the Labour Income Share

Corporatism and the Labour Income Share MARCH 2018 Corporatism and the Labour Income Share Econometric Investigation into the Impact of Institutions on the Wage Share of Industrialised Nations Mario Holzner The Vienna Institute for International

More information

Since the early 1990s, the technology-driven

Since the early 1990s, the technology-driven Ross Finnie and Ronald g Since the early 1990s, the technology-driven knowledge-based economy has captured the attention and affected the lives of virtually all Canadians. This phenomenon has been of particular

More information

Eric Neumayer. The determinants of aid allocation by regional multilateral development banks and United Nations agencies

Eric Neumayer. The determinants of aid allocation by regional multilateral development banks and United Nations agencies LSE Research Online Article (refereed) Eric Neumayer The determinants of aid allocation by regional multilateral development banks and United Nations agencies Originally published in International studies

More information

the notion that poverty causes terrorism. Certainly, economic theory suggests that it would be

the notion that poverty causes terrorism. Certainly, economic theory suggests that it would be he Nonlinear Relationship Between errorism and Poverty Byline: Poverty and errorism Walter Enders and Gary A. Hoover 1 he fact that most terrorist attacks are staged in low income countries seems to support

More information

The effect of a generous welfare state on immigration in OECD countries

The effect of a generous welfare state on immigration in OECD countries The effect of a generous welfare state on immigration in OECD countries Ingvild Røstøen Ruen Master s Thesis in Economics Department of Economics UNIVERSITY OF OSLO May 2017 II The effect of a generous

More information

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Human Development Report 2014 Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience Explanatory note on the 2014 Human Development Report composite indices The former Yugoslav HDI

More information

VOTER PREFERENCES, INSTITUTIONS, AND ECONOMIC FREEDOM

VOTER PREFERENCES, INSTITUTIONS, AND ECONOMIC FREEDOM VOTER PREFERENCES, INSTITUTIONS, AND ECONOMIC FREEDOM GEORGE R. CROWLEY, JOHN A. DOVE and DANIEL SUTTER The enormous impact that economic freedom can have on economic outcomes makes an understanding of

More information

A test of the lose it or use it hypothesis. in labour markets around the world*

A test of the lose it or use it hypothesis. in labour markets around the world* A test of the lose it or use it hypothesis in labour markets around the world* Karsten Albæk SFI Version of July 27, 2015 Abstract: This paper investigates skills and the use of skills at work in 21 OECD

More information

Remittances and Poverty. in Guatemala* Richard H. Adams, Jr. Development Research Group (DECRG) MSN MC World Bank.

Remittances and Poverty. in Guatemala* Richard H. Adams, Jr. Development Research Group (DECRG) MSN MC World Bank. Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Remittances and Poverty in Guatemala* Richard H. Adams, Jr. Development Research Group

More information

Explanatory note on the 2014 Human Development Report composite indices. Dominican Republic

Explanatory note on the 2014 Human Development Report composite indices. Dominican Republic Human Development Report 2014 Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience Explanatory note on the 2014 Human Development Report composite indices Dominican Republic HDI

More information

Lao People's Democratic Republic

Lao People's Democratic Republic Human Development Report 2014 Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience Explanatory note on the 2014 Human Development Report composite indices Democratic Republic HDI

More information

Abdurohman Ali Hussien,,et.al.,Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i3, 44-51

Abdurohman Ali Hussien,,et.al.,Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i3, 44-51 THE IMPACT OF TRADE LIBERALIZATION ON TRADE SHARE AND PER CAPITA GDP: EVIDENCE FROM SUB SAHARAN AFRICA Abdurohman Ali Hussien, Terrasserne 14, 2-256, Brønshøj 2700; Denmark ; abdurohman.ali.hussien@gmail.com

More information

Reevaluating the modernization hypothesis

Reevaluating the modernization hypothesis Reevaluating the modernization hypothesis The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. Citation As Published Publisher Acemoglu,

More information

Explanatory note on the 2014 Human Development Report composite indices. Palestine, State of

Explanatory note on the 2014 Human Development Report composite indices. Palestine, State of Human Development Report 2014 Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience Explanatory note on the 2014 Human Development Report composite indices Palestine, State of HDI

More information

Culture, Context, and the Taste for Redistribution. August 2008 RWP08-038

Culture, Context, and the Taste for Redistribution. August 2008 RWP08-038 Faculty Research Working Papers Series Culture, Context, and the Taste for Redistribution Erzo F.P. Luttmer John F. Kennedy School of Government - Harvard University Monica Singhal John F. Kennedy School

More information

The effect of age at immigration on the earnings of immigrants: Estimates from a two-stage model

The effect of age at immigration on the earnings of immigrants: Estimates from a two-stage model The effect of age at immigration on the earnings of immigrants: Estimates from a two-stage model By Chang Dong Student No. 6586955 Major paper presented to the Department of Economics of the University

More information

Does opportunism pay off?

Does opportunism pay off? Does opportunism pay off? Linda G. Veiga, Francisco José Veiga Universidade do Minho and NIPE, Portugal Received 22 June 2006; received in revised form 1 December 2006; accepted 20 December 2006 Available

More information

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES LONG-TERM ORIENTATION AND EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE. David Figlio Paola Giuliano Umut Özek Paola Sapienza

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES LONG-TERM ORIENTATION AND EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE. David Figlio Paola Giuliano Umut Özek Paola Sapienza NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES LONG-TERM ORIENTATION AND EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE David Figlio Paola Giuliano Umut Özek Paola Sapienza Working Paper 22541 http://www.nber.org/papers/w22541 NATIONAL BUREAU OF

More information

Quality of Institutions : Does Intelligence Matter?

Quality of Institutions : Does Intelligence Matter? Quality of Institutions : Does Intelligence Matter? Isaac Kalonda-Kanyama 1,2,3 and Oasis Kodila-Tedika 3 1 Department of Economics and Econometrics, University of Johannesburg, South Africa. 2 Department

More information

International Students, Immigration and Earnings Growth: The Effect of a Pre-immigration Canadian University Education

International Students, Immigration and Earnings Growth: The Effect of a Pre-immigration Canadian University Education Catalogue no. 11F0019M No. 395 ISSN 1205-9153 ISBN 978-0-660-09156-3 Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series International Students, Immigration and Earnings Growth: The Effect of a Pre-immigration

More information

Crises and the Health of Children and Adolescents: Evidence from the Rwanda Genocide *

Crises and the Health of Children and Adolescents: Evidence from the Rwanda Genocide * Crises and the Health of Children and Adolescents: Evidence from the Rwanda Genocide * Jorge M. Agüero Anil Deolalikar PRELIMINARY. DO NOT CITE WITHOUT PERMISSION January 2011 Abstract We study the effect

More information

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Human Development Report 2013 The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World Explanatory note on 2013 HDR composite indices Venezuela (Bolivarian HDI values and rank changes in the 2013 Human

More information

Inequality in China: Selected Literature

Inequality in China: Selected Literature Inequality in China: Selected Literature Zhong Zhao Renmin University of China October 20, 2012 Outline Two major aspects: rural-urban disparity and regional difference Inequality in rural area and in

More information

The recent socio-economic development of Latin America presents

The recent socio-economic development of Latin America presents 35 KEYWORDS Economic growth Poverty mitigation Evaluation Income distribution Public expenditures Population trends Economic indicators Social indicators Regression analysis Latin America Poverty reduction

More information

The immigrant wage gap and assimilation in Australia: does unobserved heterogeneity matter?

The immigrant wage gap and assimilation in Australia: does unobserved heterogeneity matter? The immigrant wage gap and assimilation in Australia: does unobserved heterogeneity matter? Robert Breunig 1, Syed Hasan and Mosfequs Salehin Australian National University 31 July 2013 Abstract Immigrants

More information

Persistent Poverty on Indian Reservations: New Perspectives and Responses 1

Persistent Poverty on Indian Reservations: New Perspectives and Responses 1 N I N T H D I S T R I C T Persistent Poverty on Indian Reservations: New Perspectives and Responses 1 Narayana Kocherlakota President Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Editor s note: The following is

More information

Changes in Wage Inequality in Canada: An Interprovincial Perspective

Changes in Wage Inequality in Canada: An Interprovincial Perspective s u m m a r y Changes in Wage Inequality in Canada: An Interprovincial Perspective Nicole M. Fortin and Thomas Lemieux t the national level, Canada, like many industrialized countries, has Aexperienced

More information

Exploring Economy Dependence in the Middle East Using Governmental Accounting Indicators: The Case of Palestine, Jordan & Israel

Exploring Economy Dependence in the Middle East Using Governmental Accounting Indicators: The Case of Palestine, Jordan & Israel International Business Research; Vol. 9, No. 1; 2016 ISSN 1913-9004 E-ISSN 1913-9012 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education Exploring Economy Dependence in the Middle East Using Governmental

More information

EXTENDED FAMILY INFLUENCE ON INDIVIDUAL MIGRATION DECISION IN RURAL CHINA

EXTENDED FAMILY INFLUENCE ON INDIVIDUAL MIGRATION DECISION IN RURAL CHINA EXTENDED FAMILY INFLUENCE ON INDIVIDUAL MIGRATION DECISION IN RURAL CHINA Hao DONG, Yu XIE Princeton University INTRODUCTION This study aims to understand whether and how extended family members influence

More information

Shake Hands or Shake Apart? Pre-war Global Trade and Currency. Blocs: the Role of the Japanese Empire

Shake Hands or Shake Apart? Pre-war Global Trade and Currency. Blocs: the Role of the Japanese Empire HEI Working Paper No: 05/2006 Shake Hands or Shake Apart? Pre-war Global Trade and Currency Blocs: the Role of the Japanese Empire Toshihiro Okubo Graduate Institute of International Studies Abstract Despite

More information

Religious Demography of Emerging Economies

Religious Demography of Emerging Economies Religious Demography of Emerging Economies Age structures and fertility in the BRIC countries and the global religious consequences of their economic growth M. Stonawski 1, V. Skirbekk 2, M. Potančoková

More information

Is There Still Son Preference in the United States?

Is There Still Son Preference in the United States? DISCUSSION PAPER SERIES IZA DP No. 11003 Is There Still Son Preference in the United States? Francine D. Blau Lawrence M. Kahn Peter Brummund Jason Cook Miriam Larson-Koester SEPTEMBER 2017 DISCUSSION

More information

The effect of foreign aid on corruption: A quantile regression approach

The effect of foreign aid on corruption: A quantile regression approach MPRA Munich Personal RePEc Archive The effect of foreign aid on corruption: A quantile regression approach Keisuke Okada and Sovannroeun Samreth Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University, Japan 8.

More information

Guns and Butter in U.S. Presidential Elections

Guns and Butter in U.S. Presidential Elections Guns and Butter in U.S. Presidential Elections by Stephen E. Haynes and Joe A. Stone September 20, 2004 Working Paper No. 91 Department of Economics, University of Oregon Abstract: Previous models of the

More information