Chapter One Review Guide Answers Directions: All questions can be found in the book, or the notes you took from your reading. Chapter One Section One

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1 Chapter One Review Guide Answers Directions: All questions can be found in the book, or the notes you took from your reading. Chapter One Section One (Pg ) 1. What does the phrase Out of many, one or E. Pluribus Unum mean, or represent? Answer: This phrase reminds us that the many diverse, or different, citizens of the United States have joined together to make a single, strong nation. For all our differences, we are linked by shared values and experiences. 2. Who were the earliest immigrants to come to colonies? (think 1600s to late 1700s) Answer: England, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland, Scotland, and Sweden 3. What was the total number of immigrants from Europe between the years 1860 and 1890? Answer: More than 10 Million a. What countries where these immigrants from? Answer: Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 4. The third wave of immigration to the United States happened from , from what country did these people originate? Answer: Italy, Greece, Poland, and Russia. a. How many came during this wave of immigration? Answer: Approximately 22 Million 5. Within the last fifty years immigration from Europe lagged behind what two other countries? Answer: Latin America and Asia 6. Which part of Africa did unwilling immigrants to the Caribbean Islands and North and South America come from? Answer: Western and Central Africa a. How many unwilling immigrants came to the United States between 1600s and 1808? Answer: 500, What is the dominant religion of the United States? Answer: Some form of Christianity a. How many people are part of this religion? Answer: 200 Million b. What are the other religions present in the United States? Answer: Jews, Muslims, Buddhists, and many other religious groups are also free to worship according to their conscience 8. What is term used in the book to describe the traditions that became part of the culture of the United States? Answer: Old Country Traditions As people with different beliefs and backgrounds have made lives for themselves in the United States, many of their old country" traditions have become part of the American culture. 9. In the mid-1800s people moved from rural areas to where? Answer: Cities a. Why did these people move? Answer: Employment or Work b. Where did these people work? Answer: newly opened factories: blue-collar workers. Offices, schools, stores, and other non-factory settings: white-collar workers c. By 1920 what percent of the population lived in cities? Answers: 50 Percent or roughly half the population 10. In the past ten years what industry has gained ground on manufacturing? Answer: Services Industry a. What is the term for this economy? Answer: Service Economy b. What are some examples of jobs in the economy? Answer: practicing law or medicine, programming computers, and teaching. 11. Where did the freed enslaved person move to at the end of the Civil War? Answer: Northern Cities a. What were they looking for? Answer: jobs and a new way of life 12. Historically which part if the United States was the most populous? Answer: Northeast a. What area of the country now claims the title of most populous area of the United States? Answer: The South 13. Why is the average age of residents of the US getting older? Answer: People are living longer and having fewer children 14. What is the fastest growing ethnic group in the US?

2 Answer: Latinos or Hispanics 15. Why are values important? Answer: They Influence the way we act 16. What values are likely to appear on everyone s list of values? Answer: freedom, equality, opportunity, justice, democracy, unity, respect, and tolerance. 17. What is one important source of American Unity? Answer: common civic and political heritage based on the country's founding documents. a. What documents is this unity based upon? Answer: the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution of 1787, and the Bill of Rights of 1791 b. What are the America Ideals found in these documents? Answer: American ideals of individual rights to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" 18. What language is seen as the unify language of the United States? Answer: English 19. What is the most important institution in the United States? Answer: The Family (The Social Institution) a. Why is this institution at core of American importance? Answer: produces new generations, socializes the young, offers care and affection b. What does this institution provide? Answer: economic support 20. What are the four other institutions of the United States? Answer: Religious, Social, Educational and Governmental a. What do they provide? Answer: Social Unity, Meaning, Belonging, Common Identity, Personal Growth, Shared Common Values and American Values b. What are some examples of each? Answer: Religion: Churches, Temples and Mosques. Educational: Grade Schools, Community Colleges, Universities, and Vocational Schools. Social: Clubs and Volunteer Organizations. Governmental: The Branches and the People of the Bureaucracy. Chapter One Section Two: (Pg14-19) 1. What are the two ways to become a Citizen of the United States? Answer: By birth and through the naturalization process 2. What is the term for legal process of a foreign-born person becoming a citizen of the United States? Answer: naturalization 3. What is Dual Citizenship? Answer: having citizenship in the United States and another country 4. How many aliens gain citizenship each year? Answer: slightly more than ½ a million 5. What is the first step an alien must take to begin the citizenship process? Answer: Sign and File a Declaration of Intent with the USCIS 6. How long must person live in the US to apply for citizenship? Answer: Five Years a. What if they are married to a US citizen? Answer: Three Years 7. What is the minimum age requirement to gain citizenship? Answer: 18 years of age 8. How long must an alien live in a state before beginning the citizenship process? Answer: Three Months 9. What does the citizenship test, test? Answer: Reading, writing and understanding English as well as basic US History facts and government questions 10. What is the Oath of Allegiance? Answer: An alien swears to be loyal to this country above all others, to obey the Constitution and other laws, and to perform military or other duties if needed. 11. What group was excluded from citizenship till 1924? Answer: Native Americans 12. What are some the privileges of citizenship that can be taken away by the states? Answer: voting, bring family to this country, running for public office 13. What are the three ways a person can lose citizenship? Answer: through denaturalization, through expatriation, or by being convicted of certain crimes.

3 14. What is denaturalization? Answer: The loss of citizenship through fraud or deception during the naturalization process 15. What is expatriation? Answer: giving up one's citizenship by leaving one's native country to live in a foreign country. 16. What are the crimes that will cause a person to lose citizenship? Answer: treason, participation in a rebellion, and attempts to overthrow the government through violent means. 17. How many people are legally allowed to enter the United States as immigrants? Answer: 675,000 a year 18. Which immigrants gets the highest priority for acceptance into the US? Answer: the relatives of U.S. citizens and people with needed job skills 19. About how many illegal immigrants are living in the United States? Answer: Approximately 12 Million a. What are the ways that illegal immigrants get into the United States? Answer: A few enter the country as temporary visitors but never leave. Others risk arrest by illegally crossing our borders with Mexico and Canada. Other illegal aliens are foreigners who have stayed in the United States after their legal permits expired. b. What is the reason given by illegal immigrants for coming to the United States? Answer: "I came for work and for a better life," 20. What is the Law Enforcement part of the USCIS? Answer: The United States Border Patrol is the law enforcement unit of the USCIS. a. How many miles of Mexican and Canadian border do they patrol? Answer: 6000 Miles b. How many miles of costal water are they responsible for patrolling around Florida and Puerto Rico? Answer: 2000 Miles 21. What are the classifications of Aliens in the United States? Answer: Resident Alien and Non-Resident Alien 22. What restrictions do aliens face? Answer: They do not have full political rights. They may not vote in elections or run for office. They may not serve on juries or work in most government jobs. Aliens must carry identification cards at all times. Chapter One Section Three (Pg ) 1. How did Thomas Hobbs describe what he felt life would be like without government? Answer: without government, life would be "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." a. According to the book if we could do as we pleased, what would survival depend on? Answer: strength and skill 2. What is the most important thing that governments provide? Answer: laws, or rules of conduct. a. What is it that this thing provides? (Plural) Answer: prevent conflicts between individuals, groups, or nations and help settle any conflicts that do occur. 3. What do governments do? (3 Items) Answer: Keep order, Provide Public Services, Provide Security and Guide the Community 4. Who has the power to enforce laws? Answer: The Government a. What are some ways that the government carries out this duty? Answer: traffic regulation, court cases and ticketing violators 5. What do governments do to provide security for the country? Answer: set up armed forces and agencies that watch for likely sources of trouble. 6. What do governments create? Answer: Governments create and manage libraries, schools, hospitals, parks, and recreation centers. Government workers build and repair streets, erect bridges, collect garbage, and deliver the mail. 7. What are many of the government programs focused on doing? Answer: keeping the public healthy and safe. 8. Who protects us from dangerous medicines? Answer: FDA 9. Who checks for safety problems in areas ranging from an amusement part to the local factory? Answer: Government inspectors 10. In what ways does the government provide help for the poor and disabled? Answer: supply affordable housing, health care, job training, and special programs

4 11. What is public policy? Answer: a course of government action to achieve community goals. a. What is an example of setting a public policy goal? Answer: government leaders decide they want to protect consumers, for example, or strengthen national security, b. When is public policy made? Answer: When they pass laws or develop guidelines 12. How is budgeting the key to success in the community? Answer: With limited funds planning and using these resources in the most efficient and effective manner will lead to better communities. Budgeting is what enables the most number of people to be impacted by public policy measures. 13. What are the three levels of government in the US? Answer: National, State and Local 14. What are the Types of Government? Answer: Democratic, Constitutional Monarchy, Absolute Monarchies, Dictatorships and Totalitarianism 15. What are the forms of government identified as democracies? Answer: Direct Democracies, Indirect Democracies (Republic) and Constitutional Monarchy 16. Where did democracy begin? Answer: Athens Greece a. Explain the government system of the City of Athens Answer: all the citizens met to debate government matters and vote firsthand. 17. What is a representative democracy? Answer: The citizens choose a smaller group to represent them, make laws, and govern on their behalf. a. What are the other terms used to describe a representative democracy? Answer: Republic, Republicanism and Indirect Democracy and 18. Explain constitutional monarchy. Answer: a hereditary ruler-a king, queen, or royal figure who inherits this position of power. In most countries with monarchs the power of the hereditary ruler is limited by the country's constitution and laws. Modern constitutional monarchies generally follow democratic practices. The monarchs are heads of state only, presiding a ceremonies and serving as symbols of unity a. What are two examples of constitutional monarchies? Answer: Great Britain and Japan 19. What are the three points made by Lincoln s statement Government of the people, by the people, for the people? Answer: First, the power of the government comes from the citizens. Second, Americans themselves, acting through their representatives, run their government. Third) the purpose of the government is to make the United States a better place for those who live here 20. What are the three things all genuine democracies have? Answer: free, fair, and competitive elections. 21. What is meant by one person, one vote? Answer: Everyone's vote must carry the same weight. 22. What is a political party? Answer: a group of individuals with broad, common interests who organize to support candidates for office and determine public policy. a. What does the party out of power serve as? Answer: serve as watchdogs of parties in power. 23. Who promoted the idea of majority rule? Answer: Jean-Jacques Rousseau a. What is the principle of majority rule? Answer: citizens agree that when differences of opinion arise, they will abide by what most people want. At the same time, they respect the rights of those in the minority. 24. Who holds the power in an authoritarian regime? Answer: individual or a group not accountable to the people. a. What countries are still considered to have an absolute monarchy? Answer: Saudi Arabia and Qatar a. In what ways are these individuals constrained? Answer: Islamic Law 25. Describe a dictatorship. Answer: Dictators, like absolute monarchs, exercise complete control over the state. Unlike absolute monarchs, who usually acquire their power through inheritance, dictators usually take power by force. At times, when a crisis situation demands a strong leader,

5 authorities may place them in charge. To stay in power, most dictators rely on the police and military. They often tamper with elections or refuse to hold them. They also limit freedoms of speech, assembly, and the press. a. How do these individual obtain power? Answer: take power by force b. How is it different from a monarchy? Answer: Power is derived from force rather than inheritance c. How do they stay in power? Answer: reply on police and military power, refuse to hold elections or tamper election results and limit personal rights and freedoms d. What rights and freedoms do they often limit? Answer: speech, assembly, and the press. 26. What Panamanian dictator was overthrown in 1989? Answer: Manuel Noriega 27. Who is the dictator that ruled Cuba starting in 1959? Answer: Fidel Castro 28. What is the name of the dictator who ruled in Iraq from ? Answer: Saddam Hussein a. What crime was he convicted of and hung for in 2007? Answer: crimes against humanity 29. Explain what life is like in a totalitarian state? Answer: Governments control almost all aspects of the personal lives of citizens 30. What do totalitarian leaders control to maintain power over the population? Answer: Ban political opposition, regulate industry and farming, suppress individual freedoms, limit personal interactions and dictate what people should believe 31. Who were the three most notorious totalitarian leaders in history? Answer: Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini and Joseph Stalin

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