OECD expert meeting hosted by the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research Oslo, Norway 2-3 June 2008 ICTs and Gender Pierre Montagnier

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1 OECD expert meeting hosted by the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research Oslo, Norway 2-3 June 28 ICTs and Gender Pierre Montagnier 1

2 Conceptual framework Focus of this presentation ECONOMY CONSUMPTION ICT demand Households Business ICT uptake ICT intensity Government ICT skills ICT infrastructure ICT supply PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY Labour Capital Source: Adapted from OECD, Guide to Measuring the Information Society (25), and ORBICOM, Monitoring the Digital Divide and Beyond (23). 2

3 Share of women in ICT using occupations 1, selected OECD countries, 24 (% of total ICT-skilled occupations) Clerical Other Finland Poland Hungary Czech Republic United States Slovak Republic Ireland Sweden France United Kingdom Iceland Austria (2) Denmark Norway Belgium Germany Switzerland Netherlands Italy Greece Portugal Luxembourg Spain 1. Broad definition based on methodology described in OECD 24 Information Technology Outlook, van Welsum and Vickery (25) and van Welsum and Reif (26) instead of 24. Source: OECD OECD, based on EULFS and US Current Population Survey. 3

4 Share of women computing professionals 1, selected OECD countries, 1998 and 24 percentage (%) Ireland (2) Finland Greece Iceland Sweden Denmark Spain Portugal France Slovak Republic Hungary Norway United Kingdom Germany Poland Italy Belgium Czech Republic Luxembourg Switzerland Netherlands Austria (3) 1. Computing Professional = ISCO 88 category code instead of instead of 24. Source: OECD, based on data from Eurostat, Newcronos database, 26. 4

5 Share of women in selected ICT industries 1 in selected OECD countries, 24 percentage (%) EU countries 2, 24 (%) Korea, 23 (%) United States 3, ISIC rev ISIC rev NAICS Computing Professional = ISCO 88 category code instead of instead of Source: OECD, based on data from Eurostat, Newcronos database, 26.

6 Gender gap in computer courses, selected OECD countries, 25 Percentage of individuals who have taken a computer course in the last 12 months (%) 2 Men Women difference Finland Slovak Republic Ireland Denmark Sweden United Kingdom Czech Republic Poland Iceland Greece Spain Italy Hungary Portugal Norway Germany Netherlands Austria Luxembourg 6 Source: OECD, based on data from Eurostat, New Cronos database, 26.

7 Evolution of Internet access gender gap in selected countries, % United States Sweden United Kingdom Australia Norway Japan Austria Korea 1. Differences in percentage points between women and men internet use/acess; individual home access in Sweden, Internet use from any location in other countries 7 Source: OECD, based on data from national statistical offices and official sources, 26.

8 Individuals using the Internet from any location by gender, 27 % of adults Female Male 4 2 a. 26. b. 25. Source: OECD, ICT database and Eurostat, Community Survey on ICT usage in households and by individuals, January 28. 8

9 (%) Gender differences 1 in Internet usage rate in Korea, 2-26 difference 3s difference 6-19 years difference 2s Expressed as women's internet usage rate minus men's. Source: OECD, based on data from National Internet Development Agency of Korea, All difference 4s difference 6s or older difference 5s 9

10 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% % Gender differences for selected internet activities in selected OECD countries, 25 percentages of individuals 1 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% % Greece Estonia Finland Iceland Czech Republic percentages of individuals 1 Denmark Portugal Norway Netherlands Poland Czech Republic downloading software Ireland Poland Italy Slovak Republic Hungary Portugal Austria Sweden United Kingdom Norway Sweden Belgium Ireland Austria Slovak Republic women men United Kingdom Netherlands seeking health information on injury, disease or nutrition Note: Percentage of indivicuals ages having used Internet in the last 3 months. Differences as percentage of women minus percentage of men. Source: OECD, based on data from Eurostat, New Cronos database, 26 Denmark Iceland Italy Spain Greece Hungary Differences (right-hand scale) Luxembourg Finland Luxembourg 1 3% 2% 1% % -1% -2% -3% 3% 2% 1% % -1% -2% -3%

11 Broadband diffusion and time spent on Internet in Norway, 2-27 Minutes spent on Internet by person an average day (left-hand scale) % of households with Broadband at home (right-hand scale) (minutes) (% of total households) Source: OECD, based on data from Statistics Norway and Eurostat. 11

12 (minutes) Education attainment and time spent on Internet in Norway, All university/high school long university/high school short secondary school primary school Source: OECD, based on data from Statistics Norway. 12

13 Gender and time spent on Internet in Norway, 2-27 (minutes) men All women Source: OECD, based on data from Statistics Norway and Eurostat. 13

14 Age and time spent on Internet in Norway, 2-27 (minutes) All Source: OECD, based on data from Statistics Norway. 14

15 Versatility of Home Internet use Finland (26) Canada (25) 1-2 purposes 3-7 purposes 8-11 purposes 12+ purposes -2 purposes 3-7 purposes 8-11 purposes 12+ purposes Men yrs Women yrs Men 3-49 yrs Women 3-49 yrs Men 5-74 yrs Women 5-74 yrs All men women age 18 to 24 age 25 to 34 age 35 to 44 age 45 to 54 age 55 to 64 age 65 and up % 2% 4% 6% 8% 1 % High speed Low speed % 2% 4% 6% 8% 1 % Source: OECD, based on data from Statistics Finland and statistics Canada. 15

16 Conclusion : a considerable room for policy to close the ICT gender gap ICT Gender Influence of the social capital on the access level Influence of the level of education and skills on diversity and intensity of Internet use, and on the perceived usefulness of ICTs (computer) complexity of interactions at stake in the link between socio-economic status and the intensity and variety of usage Differences in existing pattern of use are magnified by the distorting power of the ICT tools. ICT education & training ICT related employment ICT access & use Leaders & role models Facilitators (intermediaries / mediators) for the Digital inclusion 16

17 Thank you Contact: 17

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