4/17/2008. Mr. Kanyang onda. The Korean Conflict (US) 6.25 War (South Korea) Fatherland Liberation War (North Korea)

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1 Mr. Kanyang onda The Korean Conflict (US) 6.25 War (South Korea) Fatherland Liberation War (North Korea) War to Resist America and Aid Korea (China) Generally referred to as The Forgotten War because it is a major war of the 20 th Century that has not received its deserved attention First armed conflict of the Cold War First incidence of the Cold War getting hot Korea a unified country since the 6 th Century AD Annexed by Japan in 1910 Japan surrenders Korea at the end of World War II in August 1945 As in Europe, Korean peninsula divided between US and USSR US administers Korea south of the 38 th Parallel, USSR the North Neither country wants a prolonged occupation, instead sponsor compliant governments 1

2 North Korean leader Communist from a young age Spent time in both the Soviet Union and China Fought against Japanese occupation in China Established a Communist government in North Korea; wanted the whole country to be communist First president of the Republic of Korea (S. Korea) Spent time in the United States, earned degrees from George Washington and Harvard Leader of choice for US due to his anti-communist views and familiarity with Western ways and ideals Wanted to unite Korea, under a democracy Border skirmishes at the 38 th Parallel common South Korean incursion across the 38 th Parallel in Summer 1950 proves the spark of the war North Korean forces invade on 25 th June 1950 Better-equipped, prepared and experienced, they overrun the South, take Seoul in 3 days 2

3 The United States prepares for a counterattack even before UN or Congressional approval UN Security Council votes to repel the North Korean invasion; Soviet Union abstains US-dominated UN forces, led by World War II war hero Douglas MacArthur, enter war UNITED NATIONS FORCE Canada Ethiopia Australia Colombia New The Zealand Philippines United Belgium Kingdom Luxembourg France South Korea South Africa United Turkey States Thailand Greece The Netherlands COMMUNIST FORCES North Korea China Soviet Union North Korea forces (Korea People s Army KPA) continue their relentless march south In one month, they occupy over 90% of South Korea UN forces concentrate around the city of Pusan on the southern tip of the peninsula They hold out desperately there to mid-september 3

4 UN forces make a daring landing at the port of Incheon in mid-september 1950 The new reinforcements retake Seoul and quickly surround the North s forces Facing destruction, the KPA retreats and is swept out of the South by early October UN forces chase them into North Korea Escalation continuing a military campaign beyond established goals UN forces decide to take the whole of Korea China alarmed, fear that Allied forces will cross the Yalu River into its territory China entered the war in November 1950 alongside the PKA with Soviet support General MacArthur dismissed for insubordination Several offensives and victories led to the retreat of UN forces back into the South Communist forces recapture Seoul in January 1951 Allied counteroffensive leads to the retaking of Seoul in March 1951 and expulsion of Communist forces 2 months later 4

5 Next 2 years of war characterised by a stalemate with little to no territorial gains Peace negotiations begin in 1951, last for 2 years Ceasefire agreement signed on 27 th July 1953 between the United Nations, North Korea and China South Korea refused to sign any treaty that kept Korea divided; technically, a state of war still exists between the two countries Over 5 million deaths, including 4 million Koreans, a million Chinese and 37,000 Americans Utter devastation and destruction on both sides Continued separation of Korea at the DMZ; one nation, two states Tensions between North and South continue to this day Set a precedent for future proxy wars (Vietnam, Iran-Iraq, Angola etc) Highlighted the very real nature of the Cold War, led to the strengthening of NATO and the Warsaw Pact 5

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