Immigration and Language

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1 NATIONAL CENTER ON IMMIGRANT INTEGRATION POLICY Immigration and Language Michael Fix Michael Fix Senior Vice President Earl Warren Institute University of California, Berkeley May 4, 2009

2 Points of Departure No growth in native labor force Baby boom retirement Global competition Recession Integration: skeletal national policy

3 Language vs. Integration Policy Language access Language acquisition PreK 12 education competition Workforce Data systems

4 Foreign Born Rose to 38 Million (12.6% of US Population) in Foreign-Born Population (millions) Percent Foreign Born of Total 40 million + (2010) 38.1 million (2007) % 13% (2010) % 4.7% (2007) Source: US Census Bureau data; Analyses by the Migration Policy Institute and the Urban Institute.

5 Children of Immigrants (Age 15) In the OECD PISA Data Switzerland Australia New Zealand Canada United States Germany Belgium Austria France Netherlands Sweden OECD average United Kingdom Denmark Greece Spain Norway Portugal Ireland Italy Source: PISA International Database, Percent of PISA students tested

6 Source: MPI Data Hub, March Almost Half of All Metro Areas with 1 Million+ Immigrants Are in the US

7 Demographic Impacts Immigrants are... 1 in 8 US residents 1 in 2 new workers in 1990s Children of immigrants... 23% of all children in US 30% of all low-income children 75% are US citizens

8 The Immigrant Workforce Immigrants are: 13% of US residents 16% of US workers 21% of low-wage workers* 48% of low-skilled workers** * Low-wage workers (ages 18 to 64) earned less than twice the federal minimum wage in **Low-skilled workers (25 and older) are those with less than a high school education. Source: MPI s calculations from March 2008 CPS, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

9 Highly Skilled Immigrants in US Workforce,* in 4 doctors 2 in 5 medical scientists 1 in 3 computer software engineers 1 in 5 computer programmers 1 in 5 postsecondary teachers.... are immigrants Notes: *Refers to persons in the civilian labor force, ages 25 and older. Source: American Community Survey (pooled ).

10 Foreign Born Population Has Fallen Back To Level of Late Estimated foreign-born population (millions) The foreign-born population has declined from a peak of almost 38 million, to less than 37 million. 29 Jan 00 Mar 00 May 00 Jul 00 Sep 00 Nov 00 Jan 01 Mar 01 May 01 Jul 01 Sep 01 Nov 01 Jan 02 Mar 02 May 02 Jul 02 Sep 02 Nov 02 Jan 03 Mar 03 May 03 Jul 03 Sep 03 Nov 03 Jan 04 Mar 04 May 04 Jul 04 Sep 04 Nov 04 Jan 05 Mar 05 May 05 Jul 05 Sep 05 Nov 05 Jan 06 Mar 06 May 06 Jul 06 Sep 06 Nov 06 Jan 07 Mar 07 May 07 Jul 07 Sep 07 Nov 07 Jan 08 Mar 08 May 08 Jul 08 Sep 08 Nov 08 Jan 09 Mar 09 Note: Three month moving average. Source: Migration Policy Institute analysis of Current Population Survey, January 2000 to March 2009.

11 ELL Students in US Schools

12 United States: 3 in 10 Immigrants Are Unauthorized Unauthorized immigrants (11.9 million) 30% Legal temporary migrants (1.4 million) 4% Naturalized citizens (14.2 million) 36% Legal permanent residents (LPRs) (12.3 million) 31% 39.9 million* foreign born in March 2008 * Includes estimate of undercounted immigrants Source: Passel, Jeffery S., and D Vera Cohn A Portrait of Unauthorized Immigrants in the United States. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center.

13 Three Quarters of Children in Unauthorized Families Are Citizens There are 5.5 million children with unauthorized parents: Their children make up 6.8% of all US schoolchildren. 73 percent (4 million) of all children of unauthorized parents are US citizens. 17 percent (1.5 million) are unauthorized. Source: Passel, Jeffery S., and D Vera Cohn A Portrait of Unauthorized Immigrants in the United States. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center.

14 Almost Half of All Immigrant Workers Are Limited English Proficient Percent of full-time immigrant workers (age 25 and over) who are LEP 63% 59% 51% 51% 33% All foreign born 2000 to to to or earlier Source: American Community Survey Limited English proficient (LEP) are persons reporting speaking English less than very well to the Census survey.

15 Notes: *Refers to persons from Europe, Canada, and Oceania. Unskilled occupations require no more than modest on-the-job training (e.g., construction laborers, drivers, and maids). Source: American Community Survey, pooled 2005 and in-55 College-Educated Immigrant Workers in Unskilled Occupations Percent of college-educated workers in unskilled occupations Recent immigrants (arrived in 1996 or later) Long-term immigrants (arrived prior to 1996) US born 44% 35% 33% 18% 19% 17% 23% 22% 20% US born Europe* Latin America Asia Africa

16 LEP Enrollment Growth: United States,1996 to % 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% United States LEP Enrollment Total Enrollment -10% Notes: There were 5.1 million limited English proficient school children in , representing 10 percent of enrolled students. Source: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs (NCELA), 2007.

17 LEP Enrollment Growth: California, 1995 to % 20% California LEP Enrollment 15% 10 % 5% Total Enrollment 0% -5% % Source: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs (NCELA), 2006.

18 LEP Enrollment Growth: North Carolina, 1995 to % 350% 300% North Carolina LEP Enrollment 250% 200% 150% 100% 50% 0% Total Enrollment Year Source: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs (NCELA), 2006

19 LEP Students Attend Linguistically Segregated Schools 57% English proficient children LEP children 53% 29% 30% 1% 16% 10% 4% Less than 1% 1% to 10% 11% to 30% 31% or More Source: Schools and Staffing Survey, Percent LEP Enrollment in School

20 Most LEP Children are Native Born 1st generation 2nd and higher generation Recent arrivals: 52% 75% Recent arrivals: 42% 43% 57% 25% K to 5th grade 6th to 12th grade Notes: The figures refer to LEP students ages 5 to 18 currently enrolled in school. Source: US Census, 2000.

21 Former LEPs Do Better Average Scores of 8th Graders in Math by English Proficiency: NAEP Non-LEP Former LEP LEP Source: US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 1996 to 2007 Math Assessments.

22 First Generation Immigrant Children's Shortfall In Science Scores Relative to Natives (Age 15) Large difference between immigrants and natives. Small difference between immigrants and natives. Mean PISA Science Score Differential Between Native and First Generation Students Switzerland Belgium Austria Denmark Sweden Germany Netherlands Portugal France Spain Norway OECD average United States United Kingdom Canada New Zealand Australia Note: A rough estimation is that 35 points is equivalent to one year of schooling. Source: PISA International Database, 2006.

23 E Pluribus Unum Prizes: Recognizing Exceptional US Immigrant Integration Initiatives MPI s National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy, with the J.M. Kaplan Fund, has launched a new national awards program that will give four $50,000 awards annually to exceptional initiatives that promote immigrant integration in hopes of providing inspiration and program models to others doing similar work.

24 Internationals Network for Public Schools, New York, NY Source:

25 Policy Implications Adults: Address wide unmet needs. Integrate language and skill training. Differentiate instruction. Greater attention to credentialing. Children: Accountability for academic progress. Extended time for learning.

26 For More Information Find data, reports, and other analysis by state and for the nation: and ACS data and new databases are coming online!

27 For More Information Michael Fix Senior Vice President Migration Policy Institute th Street, NW Washington, DC (202)

28

29 Immigrant Populations: Largest and Fastest Growing States

30 ELL Students in US Schools

31 2/3 of ELL Students Are in 10 States; 1/3 are in California Percent ELLs in the state's ELL enrollment total K-12 enrollment United States 5,113, State share (%) of the national ELL enrollment California 1,591, Texas 684, Florida 299, New York 203, Illinois 192, Arizona 155, Colorado 90, Washington 75, Nevada 72, New Mexico 70, Top 10 states 3,436, Source: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs (NCELA), 2006

32 Source: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition & Language Instruction Educational Programs (NCELA), 2006 *Percent ELLs in the district s total K-12 enrollment. ELL Enrollment ( ): 2005): Top 10 School Districts Percent Number of ELLs ELLs* United States 5,113, Los Angeles, CA 328, New York City, NY 122, Chicago, IL 82, Miami-Dade, FL 62, Houston, TX 61, Clark County, NV 53, Dallas, TX 51, San Diego, CA 38, Santa Ana, CA 36, Broward County, FL 29, Top 10 districts 868,340 Percentage of all ELLs 17.0%

33 Generational Progress Continues for All Groups Percent Teenagers (Ages 16 to 20) Enrolled in School Full-Time, by National Origin and Generation, % 70% 60% 69% 73% 56% 67% 76% 57% 68% 62% 59% 50% 40% 35% 30% 20% 10% 0% Europe* Asia Mexico Other Americas Europe* Asia Mexico Other Americas Whites African Americans 1st Generation 2nd Generation 3rd+ Generation * Europe refers to Europe, Canada, and Australia. Source: Waldinger and Reichl, 2006, Current Population Survey, March

34 English Proficiency of Adults PROSE LITERACY Below basic Basic Intermediate Proficient IMMIGRANTS 46% 27% 22% 5% 13.1 million 7.6 million 6.2 million 1.4 million US BORN 9% 28% 49% 14% 17.3 million 52.2 million 90.7 million 26.1 million Source: Migration Policy Institute analysis of 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy data in Batalova and Fix (2009).

35 Workforce Preparation Issues Adult English language acquisition scale and effectiveness of English instruction programs clustering of instruction at lowest levels unintegrated nature of English and workforce skills programs bricks and mortar vs. anytime-anywhere instruction Immigrant/LEP participation in workforce training programs Career pathways for LEP youth Recognition of foreign credentials

36 Key K-12 K Issues Quality of English instruction services Alignment of ELL and mainstream curricula Native language instruction and testing policies Use of valid and reliable assessments Teacher recruitment/retention Pre-service and in-service training Need for additional time Lack of targeted federal, state, and local funding to meet immigrant/ell needs

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