AFGHAN OPIATES TRAFFICKING

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1 AFGHAN OPIATES TRAFFICKING THROUGH THE SOUTHERN ROUTE March 2014 Afghan Opiate Trade Project Statistics And Surveys Section

2 Afghan Opiate Trade Project (AOTP) Main Objectives: Global threat/risk and response analysis of Afghan Opiates on public security and health Capacity Building Enhance local research, monitoring and reporting capacity in order to help design local/global policies and strategies Increasing the awareness and knowledge database on threats of Afghan Opiates

3 Programme Implementation Government Institutions Data/Information exchange Data/Information analysis Threat Assessment of Opiate Trade Capacity building on Research Paris Pact, Regional Programmes and UNODC Field Offices Afghan Opiate Trade Project Regional Bodies (eg: CARICC, SECI, AUC, WACS, WACI, etc) International Organisations (eg: Europol, WCO, etc)

4 AOTP Activities: Capacity Building Research Coming soon

5 Supply and Demand SUPPLY : Global Opium Poppy Cultivation , , , , ,000 Others Mexico and Colombia South-East Asia Afghanistan DEMAND - USERS Estimated number of opiate users : 2002 : 15.2 million 2011 : 16.5 million 50, : 179, 653 ha (41% in Afghanistan) : Around 300,000 ha (70 % in Afghanistan) Net increase in 10 years : Global (68%), Afghanistan (190%) : Further increase is expected Number of Opiate User Region Change Percent Change Western Europe 1,270,000 1,120, ,000-12% Eastern Europe 2,760,000 1,890, ,000-32% N. America 1,490,000 1,380, ,000-7% Rest of Americas 1,030, , ,000-80% Asia 7,770,000 10,020,000 2,250,000 29% Oceania 100,000 40,000-60,000-60% Africa 800,000 1,820,000 1,020, % Total 15,220,000 16,480,000 1,260,000 8%

6 Afghan opiate trafficking routes Some tons of heroin produced in Afghanistan. Out of this: - 90 tons are trafficked via Northern route. - the rest is via borders with Iran and Pakistan

7 Combined Maritime Forces Challenges in the Indian Ocean Since 2012

8 South-West Asia Heroin Seizures reported in South-West Asia Account for 25%-43% of global seizures % of global seizures 25% 31% 37% 38% 39% 47% 54% 43%

9 South-West Asia Sizes of heroin seizures (in kg), Sizes of Afghanistan seizures Sizes of Pakistan seizures Main focus on interdiction of <10kg. These account for <10% of total weight Large seizures >100kg accounts make up only 3% of all seizures. These account for 65-70% of total weight. Modes of trafficking in Pakistan

10 South-West Asia Arrests related to heroin seizures (>10kg),

11 Arrests related to heroin seizures (>10kg),

12 South-West Asia Nationalities Arrested, Arrested in Pakistan Arrested globally departed from Pakistan Other* include citizens of Kenya, Philippines, South Africa, Canada, Ghana, India, Italy, Mali, Mozambique, Spain and Ukraine. * Benin, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia and Togo; **Italy and the Netherlands Heroin traffickers arrested globally, departed from Iran

13 Middle East and Gulf States Aggregate Heroin Seizures Account for 1% of global seizures Middle East and Gulf States: Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Palestine, Syria, UAE, Yemen

14 Middle East and Gulf States Air and mail to Europe Land to Africa Air and sea to Africa

15 Heroin seizures MEGS <-> Pakistan/Iran Seized in/ Departed from No. of seizures Weight (kg) Bahrain Pakistan 6 3 Kuwait Pakistan Qatar Pakistan 1 10 Saudi Arabia Pakistan UAE Afghanistan 2 1 Iran 1 16 Pakistan Seized in/ Destined for No. of seizures Weight (kg) Iran Kuwait 1 1,000 Pakistan Bahrain Kuwait Oman? Qatar Saudi Arabia UAE

16 Middle East and Gulf States Individual heroin seizures in MEGS

17 Middle East and Gulf States Nationalities of heroin-related traffickers arrested ( )

18 Africa seizures by region Aggregate Heroin Seizures Account for only 1% of global seizures (despite increase since 2009) Source: DELTA (UNODC) Africa heroin seizures by region ( ): East Africa: 34%, 54%, 41% West & Central Africa: 31%, 35%, 42% North Africa: 35%, 11%, 17% Southern Africa: 1%

19 Africa individual seizures & routes To Europe and North America From MEGS and Iran/Pakistan To Europe and North America SE/E Asia & Oceania

20 Heroin from Africa ( ) Seized in Africa intended for global destinations Intended for No. of seizures Weight (kg) Australia 1 0 Cameroon 2 7 China 2 4 Greece 1 3 Hungary 1 5 Italy 4 3 Japan 2 1 Malaysia 1 1 Mauritania 2 1 Mauritius 13 7 Qatar 1 2 Spain 2 3 Thailand 1 1 UAE 1 4 UK 2 2 USA Seized globally from Africa Departed from No. of seizures Weight (kg) Benin 6 9 Burundi 2 10 Egypt 2 0 Ethiopia 9 14 Ghana Ivory Coast 3 14 Kenya Liberia 1 1 Madagascar 5 6 Mali 3 33 Morocco 4 15 Mozambique Niger 2 3 Nigeria South Africa Tanzania Uganda USA Seizing country France, Italy, Slovenia Belgium Netherlands Hong Kong, Italy, USA

21 Africa Significant seizures in Africa,

22 Africa ( ) AIR seizures are most frequently made (75%) but accounts for only 18% of quantity) SEA seizures are few (8%), but account for bulk of quantity (71%)

23 South Asia Bangladesh: - From Pakistan or Afghanistan: by air (directly or transiting UAE / Thailand) India: - Afghanistan (air) - Pakistan (land: highways or train) Maldives: (air) transiting Sri Lanka or Qatar Sri Lanka: mainly by air. : From India: (air/mail) - to Europe, Australia, North America, China, Liberia, South Africa. Transiting Germany/France Bangladesh->Hong Kong: :

24 South Asia Significant seizures (>11 kg) officially reported in South Asia ( ) Mode of trafficking

25 East and South-East Asia ( ) Seized in ESEA Seized globally destined for ESEA

26 Nationalities of arrested traffickers In South Asia In East & South-East Asia

27 Europe Individual heroin seizures in Europe (via Southern Route), % of total reported individual heroin seizures in Europe 2013 : 73% 2012 : 52% 2011 : 32% Modes of trafficking for heroin seized in Europe (% of weight) 64% 32% 4% 0.4% Air Sea Land Mail

28 Europe Significant (>20kg) heroin seizures in Europe, via Southern Route ( ) Date Amount Mode of Departed Concealment Seized In (kg) Trafficking From Method France Air Pakistan Freight UK Sea Pakistan Container UK Air Pakistan Baggage UK Air Pakistan Baggage Belgium Sea Pakistan Container UK Sea Pakistan Container UK Sea Pakistan Container Spain Air Pakistan Baggage UK Sea Pakistan Container UK Air Pakistan Freight Belgium Sea Pakistan Container Spain Sea Pakistan Container Italy Air Mali Luggage UK Sea Pakistan Container UK Sea Pakistan Container UK Sea Pakistan Container UK Sea Pakistan Container UK Air Pakistan Freight UK Air Pakistan Freight UK Air Pakistan Baggage Netherlands Air South Africa Freight Belgium Sea Mozambique Container

29 Trafficking route to Europe Europe Nationalities arrested ( )

30 North America Seizures (<10kg) officially reported via Southern Route Date In USA and Canada ( ) Amount (kg) Mode of Trafficking Seized in Departed from Intended destination Sea Canada Pakistan Canada Air Canada Pakistan Canada Air Canada Pakistan Canada Mail U.S. Pakistan Canada Air Canada Pakistan Unknown Mail Canada Pakistan Canada Sea U.S. UAE U.S Air U.S. Pakistan U.S Air Canada Pakistan Canada Air U.S. Ghana U.S Air Canada Pakistan Unknown Air Canada Pakistan Canada

31 North America Heroin seizures in USA and Canada ( ) Seizures made globally destined for North America

32 Date Amount (kg) Mode of Trafficking Seized In Departed From Intended Destination Sea Australia Thailand Australia Sea Australia I.R. of Iran Australia Sea Australia Sea Australia Malaysia Australia Sea Australia Pakistan Australia Sea Australia Pakistan Australia Unknown Australia China Australia Air Australia Thailand Australia Air Australia Malaysia Australia Air Australia Thailand Australia Air Australia Air Australia India Australia Mail Australia Malaysia Australia Air Australia Singapore Australia Air Australia Hong Kong Australia Mail Australia Iran Australia Air Australia Madagascar Australia Mail Australia Air Australia Hong Kong Australia Air Australia Malaysia Australia Air Australia Malaysia Australia Air Australia Malaysia Australia Air Australia Malaysia Australia Oceania Officially reported heroin seizures, by Southern Route ( )

33 Acetic Anhydride Acetic Anhydride trafficking into South-West Asia

34 Summary Increasing supply of Afghan heroin Increased trafficking through Southern Route since 2010 Changing patterns of opiate markets Misuse of licit trade channels Africa remains vulnerable Increase in maritime trafficking Middle East and Gulf States pivot joining regions Lack of data and information sharing

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