MARITIME SECURITY IN THE CHANGING INTERNATIONAL GEO-STRATEGIC SCENARIO AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE EAST COAST OF AFRICA

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1 MARITIME SECURITY IN THE CHANGING INTERNATIONAL GEO-STRATEGIC SCENARIO AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE EAST COAST OF AFRICA BRIGADIER NGEWA MUKALA, MBS, SS KENYA NAVY

2

3 France s weight 1,5 Million nationals French EEZ ( square Kms = 7 times French EEZ in Europe ) Political : UNSC permanent member

4 THE FRENCH POLICY IN THE INDIAN OCEAN AREA STABILIZATION AND PEACE KEEPING PARTICIPATION TO THE ACTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY: A COALITION PARTNER HUMANITARIAN MISSIONS.

5 CJTF-HoA WHAT IS IT FOR? ERITREA YEMEN SUDAN DJIBOUTI CENTCO M EUCOM ETHIOPIA SOMALIA UGANDA KENYA TANZANIA EUCOM PACOM SEYCHELLES CENTCOM COMOROS PACOM MADAGASCAR

6 COALITION STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES UNIFIED EFFORT FOSTER REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE INTERAGENCY COORDINATION BUILD LITTORAL DOMAIN INCREASE COALITION ENGAGE AFRICAN UNION AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS SUSTAINED CAPACITY BUILDING

7 DIPLOMATIC DEVELOPMENT DEFENCE

8 INDIA INTEREST THE PRIMARY AREA OF INDIAN MARITIME INTEREST RANGES FROM THE PERSIAN GULF IN THE NORTH, TO ANTARCTICA IN THE SOUTH, AND, FROM THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE AND THE EAST COAST OF AFRICA IN THE WEST TO THE STRAIT OF MALACCA AND THE ARCHIPELAGOS OF MALAYSIA AND INDONESIA IN THE EAST.

9 SECURITY ANALYSIS IN IOR TERRORISM WAR-LORDISM ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION PIRACY ARMS AND DRUG SMUGGLING INTER-STATE CONFLICT INTRA-STATE CONFLICT

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11 SITUATION IN IOR INHERENTLY UNSTABLE REGION INSTABILITY MANIFESTS MOST PROFOUNDLY IN THE MARITIME DOMAIN TERRORISM, PIRACY, DRUGS & ARMS SMUGGLING ARE WELL ENTRENCHED PHENOMENA EVIDENCE OF MILITARY BRINKMANSHIP IN TROUBLE SPOTS OF INTER-STATE CONFLICT

12 SLOCS AND CHOKE POINTS SECURITY CHOKE POINTS HOLD KEY TO UNINTERRUPTED OIL SUPPLIES ST OF HORMUZ HAS A DAILY TRANSIT VOLUME OF 15.4 MILLION BARRELS CLOSURE OF HORMUZ WILL CUT OFF OIL SUPPLIES EASTWARD AND WESTWARD SIMILARLY CLOSURE OF MALACCA WILL THROTTLE EAST AND SE ASIA AND AFRO- ASIA TRADE

13 CHOKE POINTS Suez Israel Jordan Iran Hormuz Egypt UAE Oman Bab-el- Mandeb Eritrea Ethiopia Djibouti Yemen Somalia Sri Lanka Malacca Thailand Malaysia Sunda Indonesia Singapore Malaysia Indonesia Madagascar Mauritius Lombok Reunion East-of-Madagascar South Africa Mozambique Channel Cape of Good Hope Australia

14 OIL ROUTES Israel Jordan Egypt Eritrea Sudan Ethiopia Iraq Saudi Arabia Djibouti Yemen Kuwait Bahrain Somalia Qatar Iran UAE Oman Pakistan Bangladesh Sri Lanka China Myanmar Vietnam Thailand Cambodia Kenya Malaysia Singapore Indonesia Brunei Malaysia Indonesia Tanzania Mozambique Madagascar Mauritius Reunion South Africa Yearly Average : 100,000 ships Malacca Strait Yearly Average : 60,000 ships Australia

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16 MARITIME SECURITY

17 TRADITIONAL ROLES OF THE NAVY DIPLOMATIC POLICING MILITARY

18 DIPLOMATIC DEVELOPMENT DEFENCE

19 CHALLENGES IN THE MARITIME DOMAIN IN EAST COAST OF AFRICA Threat on the SLOCs Maritime terrorism War-lordism Gun-running Illegal immigration Piracy Smuggling and trafficking Illegal exploitation of Ocean resources

20 SCENARIO - PEACE ROLES Policing Fishery protection Fishery monitoring Anti poaching Anti piracy Anti smuggling Pollution prevention Support to navigation Buoy maintenance Hydrographic survey Meteorology Humanitarian Search & rescue Sea borne fire-fighting Shore disaster relief

21 SCENARIO - PEACE ROLES CONT Civil support Salvage & recovery Surface towing UW salvage Pollution control Dispersant spraying Oil recovery Resource management Oceanographic survey Geological survey Fish stock management

22 MARITIME SECURITY: Building Capabilities Law Enforcement Coordination Emergency Fishing Warning Disputes Sea Lines of Port Security Communication Search and Rescue Environmental Anti- Military Monitoring Smuggling Coordination Disaster Trade Border Oil Spill Relief Mechanisms Anti- Enforcement Response Piracy Maritime Safety Protection of Natural Resources Maritime Mobility Maritime Security National Defense

23 INCOME GENERATION FISH GAS, OIL, DIAMONDS, MANGANESE NODULES, PEARLS SALT ENERGY FROM WIND / WAVES LEISURE & TOURISM FREE TRADE AREA

24 The Building Blocks Political Will Legislation Assets - Sea, Air, Personnel Command and Control

25 Limburg October 2002

26 Port of Mombasa: Comparative Position THE PORT OF MOMBASA GATEWAY TO EAST & CENTRAL AFRICA

27 STRENGTHS Strong Market Position Proximity to Europe, Middle East and Asia Large captive cargo base THE PORT OF MOMBASA Natural and sheltered deep water harbour EAST & GATEWAY TO

28 Build Awareness WAY FORWARD Build Capability Build Command and Control Integration Use a holistic, cooperative approach Seek areas of cooperation

29 Sustainable development of African EEZs is worth the investment Investment, not aid CONCLUSIONS African States must take the lead Multi-agency approach: Co-ordination, Co-operation, Communication Major role for navies as a force for good

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31 END AND CLARIFICATION

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