CRIMINOLOGY TODAY. AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION sixth edition. By FRANK SCHMALLEGER. Pearson Education, Inc.

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1 CRIMINOLOGY TODAY AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION sixth edition By FRANK SCHMALLEGER Pearson Education, Inc.

2 CRIMINOLOGY TODAY AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION sixth edition By FRANK SCHMALLEGER Chapter 14 Globalization and Terrorism Pearson Education, Inc.

3 Globalization Globalization: A process of social homogenization by which the experiences of everyday life, marked by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, can foster a standardization of cultural expressions around the world Transnational organized crime: Unlawful activity undertaken and supported by organized criminal groups operating across national boundaries 2

4 Transnational Crimes Transnational crime groups have profited more from globalization than legitimate businesses Transnational crime ranges from simple fraudulent and phishing schemes perpetrated globally to illegal trafficking in people, human organs, and illicit drugs 3

5 Human Smuggling and Trafficking Human smuggling: Illegal immigration in which an agent is involved for payment to help a person cross a border clandestinely Trafficking in persons (TIP): The exploitation of unwilling or unwitting people through force, coercion, threat, or deception The key components distinguishing trafficking from smuggling are the elements of fraud, force, or coercion The underlying conditions that give rise to both activities are often similar 4

6 Federal Immigration and Trafficking Legislation Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 Immigration Act of 1924 Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (established the INS) Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 Homeland Security Act of 2002 (dissolved the INS, most functions transferred to DHS) Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of

7 Globalization and Comparative Criminology Comparative criminology: The cross-national study of crime Comparative criminologist: A criminologist involved in the cross-national study of crime Globalization of knowledge: The increase in understanding resulting from a sharing of information among cultures 6

8 Comparative Criminology and Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism: The phenomenon of culture-centeredness by which one uses one s own culture as a benchmark against which to judge all other patterns of behavior Ethnocentrism can interfere with comparative criminology 7

9 Definitional Issues in Reporting Crime Definitional differences Differences in reporting practices Economic differences among countries affect reporting Crime statistics reflect social and political contexts 8

10 Terrorism Terrorism: Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience Terrorist acts are inherently criminal The main distinction between terrorism and criminal act has to do with the offender s political motivation or social ideology 9

11 Terrorism Terrorism usually is: Premeditated or planned Politically motivated Aimed at civilians Carried out by subnational groups Terrorism usually is not: Impulsive or an act of rage Perpetrated for criminal gain Aimed at military targets Perpetrated by an army 10

12 Typologies of Terrorism Motivation-based Nationalist terrorism Religious terrorism State-sponsored terrorism Left-wing terrorism Right-wing terrorism Anarchist terrorism Location-based Domestic terrorism International terrorism 11

13 Terrorism in the U.S. Domestic terrorism: The unlawful use of force or violence by a group or an individual who is based and operates entirely within the U.S. and its territories without foreign direction and whose acts are directed at elements of the U.S. government or population International terrorism: The unlawful use of force or violence by an individual or group that has a connection to a foreign power or whose activities transcend national boundaries against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, to further political or social objectives Foreign terrorism: Acts of terrorism occurring outside the U.S. 12

14 Cyberterrorism Cyberterrorism: A form of terrorism that makes use of high technology, especially computers and the Internet, for planning and carrying out terrorist attacks Infrastructure: The basic facilities, services, and installations needed for a country s functioning 13

15 Cyberterrorism President s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection National Infrastructure Protection Center Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office Functions transferred to the National Cyber Security Division of the DHS in 2003 GovNet 14

16 Terrorism and Technology The technological sophistication of statesponsored terrorist organizations is increasing Some terrorist organizations are seeking to obtain WMDs Bioterrorism: The intentional or threatened use of viruses, bacteria, fungi, or toxins from living organisms to produce death or disease in humans, animals, or plants 15

17 The War on Terrorism Three important legislative initiatives resulted during the first years of the G.W. Bush presidency: The USA PATRIOT Act (2001) Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002) Homeland Security Act (2002) 16

18 The USA PATRIOT Act Designed to fight terrorism but also includes provisions that apply to other types of crime Not a stand-alone law Some question whether the Act unfairly expands police powers at the expense of individual rights and civil liberties 17

19 Department of Homeland Security Established by the Homeland Security Act of 2002 Charged with protecting the nation s critical infrastructure against terrorist attack Director is a member of the Cabinet 18

20 DHS Organization Directorates Border and Transportation Security Emergency Preparedness and Response Science and Technology Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection Management Critical agencies U.S. Coast Guard U.S. Secret Service Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services Office of State and Local Government Coordination Office of Private Sector Liaison Office of Inspector General 19

21 Terrorism Commissions and Reports Gilmore Commission Hart-Rudman Commission Follow-up concluded the U.S. is ill-prepared to prevent/respond to terrorist attacks Bremmer Commission Outlines trends in international terrorism and offers options for addressing that threat 9/11 Commission U.S. not properly prepared to adequately deal with terrorist threats Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism 20

22 Countering the Terrorist Threat White House National Strategy for Combating Terrorism Multipronged initiative aimed at reducing both the threat severity and international reach of international terrorist organizations Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 Facilitated the creation of the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) 21

23 Foreign Terrorist Organizations Foreign terrorist organization (FTO): A foreign organization that engages in terrorist activity that threatens the security of U.S. nationals or the national security of the U.S. and that is so designated by the U.S. Secretary of State Any organization considered for FTO designation must: Be foreign Engage in terrorist activity Threaten the security of U.S. nationals or the national security of the U.S. 22

24 Consequences of FTO Designation It is unlawful for a person in the U.S. or subject to U.S. jurisdiction to provide funds or material support to an FTO Representatives, members of FTO who are aliens may be denied visas or kept from entering the U.S. U.S. financial institutions must block funds of FTOs and their agents and report the blockage to the U.S. Treasury Department 23

25 Foreign Terrorist Organizations The State Department may designate selected foreign governments as state sponsors of international terrorism Four countries currently designated Terrorist Exclusion List Government can deport aliens living in the U.S. who provide material assistance to groups on the list Government can refuse entry to the U.S. to anyone assisting groups on the list Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment (TIDE) Central repository of information on international terrorist identities Supports the government s terrorist screening systems and the U.S. intelligence community s counterterrorism efforts 24

26 Foreign Terrorist Organizations Present U.S. policy focuses largely on terrorist organizations like al-qaeda and their affiliated networks and state supporters The threat of individual or boutique terrorism and spontaneous terrorist activity appears to be on the increase How can the U.S. condemn and combat terrorist activities by Islamic fundamentalist groups without appearing to be anti-islamic in general? 25

27 The Future of Terrorism Trends in modern terrorism Trend toward loosely organized, self-financed, international terrorist networks Trend toward terrorism that is religiously or ideologically motivated Recent growth of cross-national links among different terrorist organizations The proliferation of WMDs is a key concern in the issue of international terrorism 26

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