Specific Issues of Gender in Accessing Social Protection and Labour Market Opportunitites. Athia Yumna, The SMERU Research Institute

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1 Specific Issues of Gender in Accessing Social Protection and Labour Market Opportunitites Athia Yumna, The SMERU Research Institute

2 Structure Introduction Gender Inequality, Poverty and Vulnerabilities Specific Risks and Vulnerabilities Labor Market Opportunities Gender and Social Protection Accessing SP Programs Conclusions The Ways Forward

3 Gender inequality, poverty and vulnerability Longstanding recognition that gender inequality influences experiences of poverty and vulnerability, that men and women are affected differently by the same shocks as well as facing different types of shocks and stresses, and employ diverse coping strategies.

4 Natural disaster Environmental degradation Income Job security Economic shock/crises Lifecycles Social relations Culture/norms Conflicts Health Food security Women Specific Socioeconomic Risks and Vulnerabilities

5 Labor Market Opportunities Participation in Labor Market Labour force Participation Rate (%) Annual Growth Total Men Women Source: Sakernas, various years Main industry for women workers are in agriculture, trade, and social services. During , employment growth of men in agriculture tends to decrease by 0.7%, in contrast, women labor in agriculture increase by 1%. In addition, main occupation for women workers are also in agriculture sector.

6 Wage Differentials Many surveys shows that women receive lower wages than men. Pirmana (2006) reveals that female workers received only 71.2% to 76.7% of the wages their male counterparts received in Suryahadi (2004) also shows that such lower wages were received not only by uneducated or unskilled women but also by those from high educational backgrounds who have relatively high positions as part of professional careers.

7 Labor Market Opportunities (2) Women are widely found in a range of entrepreneurial activities, tends to be concentrated in micro, small, and medium enterprises as a result of their responsibilities for unpaid work, limits on mobility, lack of collateral, and limited financial skills.

8 Conceptual Framework of SP Social Protection defined as encompassing a subset of interventions for the poor to address risk, vulnerability, and chronic poverty Social protection: 3p (protective, preventive, promotive) and transformative Include economic risks and social risks Applying a gender lens to Social Protection: Why? Recognizing gender and intra-household dynamics is essential for informing policies Important gendered effects of the program even though there was no explicit consideration of gender effects in the design

9 Social protection interventions and outcomes Community Social Protection Interventions Household Intra-household Empowerment Poverty and Vulnerability Reduction Equity

10 Gender & Social Protection in Indonesia Emphasis on social assistance and promotional measures in Indonesia Not designed by an informed assessment of gender inequality Link to SP Programs in Indonesia

11 Accessing Social Protection Programs Gender dimension of poverty lack of disaggregated data results in the invisible of Female Headed HHs According to ILO (2006), in 2000 until 2002, the heads of male headed households are dominated by married men (95.57 percent), while the heads of female headed households are dominated by widows or divorcee (80.83 percent). In this context, male headed household has the advantage because of the presence of dual potential job seekers (husband and wife), while female headed household most likely lean on single breadwinner, the woman herself. Legal problems links to accessing SP Problems on access legal documents such as marriage certificate, divorce certificate, and birth certificate and how having the certificates enable the women to gain access to SP Programs (ex: government s education and health programs).

12 Accessing Social Protection Programs (2) Gender unaware policy in social protection programs Inclusion of gender perspectives has varied across different programmes. Gender-specific vulnerabilities have been taken into consideration in the design of certain programmes but neglected in others. By design, except for PKH conditional cash transfer, all programs in Cluster 1 (raskin, BKM, Jamkesmas, BOS fund) are gender neutral. PKH is the only program whose main recipients pregnant mother, mother with neonatus (maternal) or mother with school age children.

13 Conclusion There are many problems are faced by women in Indonesia in accessing social protection as well as labor market opportunities despite their specific economic and social risks. Social protection programs have not been designed by an informed assessment of gender inequality

14 The Ways Forward Entry points for a more gender-sensitive approach to social protection and labour market policy include: Promoting the real incomes of women through equal wages in public works programmes; accounting for intra-household inequalities when distributing cash or in-kind transfers to households; avoiding exacerbating women s time constraints linked to programme activities; providing alternative quality care arrangements for children and/or creating gender-sensitive infrastructure to reduce time poverty; and recognising life-cycle nutritional vulnerabilities, in particular for pregnant women and children under five.

15 Thank you

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