Globalizing Cities, Localizing Cultures and Gendering Spaces

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Globalizing Cities, Localizing Cultures and Gendering Spaces"

Transcription

1 Globalizing Cities, Localizing Cultures and Gendering Spaces Lakshmi Lingam, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai. Brief Note prepared for the Workshop on Urban Aspiration in Global Cities Max Planck Institute for the Study of Ethnic and Religious Diversity, 9 12 August2009 Globalization as a process has been linked to geographical realignment of production, consumption and sites of power. It proceeds selectively, including and excluding economies, societies and class groups of people in and out of networks of information, wealth and power. Large cities in several parts of the world are undergoing major economic restructuring and spatial transformations as they seek to align more to the global rather than the local. Inside these globalizing cities a new geography of centers and margins is getting played out vis-à-vis opportunities, access to resources, voice and representation. Globalizing cities are reconfiguring the representation of bodies as signifiers of class and consumption status. Sexuality has become the single most debated issue in contemporary India. Notions of private/public, gender norms and expressions of sexuality are undergoing changes to fit labor and consumer markets. There is an upsurge of right wing nationalism with definitions of sovereignty and nation using the idiom of culture. Women as bearers of culture are made responsible for representing the 'national' or religious identity and therefore expected to abide by cultural codes and styles of dress, thus unleashing fresh controls. Women as active agents negotiate their specific identities at the threshold of the interactions of globalization and traditional forms of gender Lakshmi Lingam August 2009

2 identities. Violence against women and girls and discourses on safety and risk snowball into greater policing and surveillance of the bodies of women and the homeless. Urban spaces are marked with different sexual meanings. From the perspective of the state, maintaining law and order, controlling criminality also translates into regulating bodies and public expression of sexuality. Right wing activists and state machinery play the cultural police. The media deploys double speak, one yardstick for the elite (referred to as Page 3 types) and another for the commoners. Issues of sexuality evoke pleasure, desire and adventure for the affluent; and on the contrary danger and disease for the poor. The HIV/AIDS as well as the population control policy discourses effectively inhabit the realm of controlling poor people s sexual lives and family choices. India and China the two countries with world s largest populations attempt to control population (control women s bodies) through the two-child and one-child norm, respectively. The forces of economic integration and neo-liberal deregulation along with international lending organizations have undermined the significance of the state, its welfare role and eroded democratic governance. However, one witnesses a new constitutionalism with language deployed at the policy level internationally and nationally that resonates with phrases like good governance, devolution of power through decentralization and making cities inclusive, by recognizing diversity and also eliminating poverty. The poor and marginalized groups are merely targets/objects of state policy, both positive and negative, for purportedly not embodying a citizen-like agency. Often the rights of the poor, especially migrants from rural areas, as citizens (especially in Mumbai) are disputed if they do not possess a ration card or photo pass or an electoral identity. Women are even worse off then men, because they are not viewed 2

3 as citizens or having an agency. This scenario is closer to the situation in China where several rights and entitlements are linked to household registration system (hukou). Poverty, inequality, migration and exclusion are interlinked processes, closely linked to economic globalization. Globalization is gendered and produces class-based impacts. In India, pre-existing inequalities based on class, caste, gender and region (urban and rural) have grown starkly in the past decades. While official statistics claim declines in poverty figures, relative poverty, disparities and inequalities between classes have sharpened during the period of economic restructuring or reforms. Growing agrarian distress is leading to farmer s suicides in India and an overall increase in migration to urban areas. Selective urban affluence and wide-ranging rural stagnation is the dominant pattern. Educated middle classes are experiencing a spurt in job opportunities as opposed to working classes. There is rapid decline in the manufacturing sector and growth in the service sector, high technology and knowledge based industries. Increase in women s employment is observed among the middle classes and the poor, for different but interlinked reasons. There is a recomposition of labor force, restratification of occupational groups and reconfiguring of urban spaces and consumption patterns. The co-existence of affluent and poor communities is giving way to walled and gated communities of the better off sections and ghettoization of the poor with the threat of eviction and relocation looming large. Women carry the major responsibility of servicing poor neighborhoods. These processes of marginalization are paving the way for the exclusion of the poor from the common conscience of the other strata and more specifically that of planners. 3

4 Civil society discourses are often exclusionary. Several civil society initiatives, with few exceptions, rarely display sensitivity to the social, cultural and economic diversity that exists in the city. The individuals from the better off sections of the city are positioned as 'tax-paying citizens' and the poor are positioned as the 'other' that places undue claims on the city without actually contributing to it. For example: Issues of pavement dwellers, hawkers on the streets, women working in dance bars, are projected as problems that need to be dealt with as a law and order problem. The poor and women as diverse groups engage in what can be referred to as globalization from below, to resist, contest and claim rights, albeit in limited ways. New Issues and New Debates: Recent debates over dance bars in Mumbai have marked out a contested terrain over women s choices in sexual, economic, religious and cultural terms. Women who work in dance bars confound these discourses even further. The controversy in about prohibiting women from working in dance bars in the state of Maharashtra not only magnified the double standards of society but also introduced a confluence of discourses on livelihoods and sexuality the material and the cultural. The 1990s was also the period when the state and families facilitated the movement of young women into work in the business process outsourcing (BPO) sector (that is, call centres). Markets and families continuously strive to characterise the call centre girls as respectable women participating in globalising India, in clear contrast to the call girls or bar girls, who are characterised as threatening the moral fabric of society even though all these women inhabit the same night. Safe transportation for women who work in call centres is mandated by the government, but no such requirement exists for women who work in various other sectors at night, whether in hospitals or in bars. Government officials within the executive cadres and in the police service, along with many members of the women s movement, share a common value framework in their diagnoses of the issue and in deploying possible solutions. 4

5 These debates on banning women dancing in bars because it leads to moral decay of men and societies as opposed to protecting women s right to work and need to make it safe had lead to the polarization of the women s activists in the city. This debate provides an opportunity to consider afresh the concept of agency as some kind of freedom to act and its role in contemporary feminist thinking. If all choices are always situated, how do we acknowledge the significance of struggles to earn, to desire or to support, without denying that some choices are more possible and privileged than others? Along with agency, the ways in which we construct sexuality, desire and pleasure also need to be problematised. The women s movement has been divided, at the level of both conceptualisation and strategy, in its response to beauty pageants, media commodification of women s bodies, sex work, pornography and moral policing. The relationship to the state and the stance on censorship has been vexed and much debated. There is a need to complicate and think across the oppositions between coercion and freedom; choice and commodification; culture and economy that have polarised our analytical frameworks and limited our ability to find new critical approaches. Women s movements, lesbian and gay activists and anti-globalisation campaigners of all kinds have also struggled collectively to carve out alternative spaces and modes of regulation. How do we harness that ability to shift the terrain without under-estimating the impact of institutional systems on people s lives? Thinking about these individual and collective efforts is also related to the general political and intellectual crisis over the impossibility of affecting current global economic, cultural and militarised trends. There is a need to critically reflect on how our own situated normative frameworks begin to shape the ways in which we engage with these issues. This exploration seeks to provide a space for investigating how culture, religion, media, kinship, economies, legalities and polities frustrate, mediate or enable the possibility of acting as sexual subjects at this moment in global history. Questions that arise are: 5

6 In what ways are women or gendered persons - bar girls, lap dancers, veil wearers etc. - currently being constructed and constructing themselves as bearers of culture? Do new credit or consumer practices provide an opportunity to harness collective financial agency on sexual and gendered terrain? How are kinship norms and/or reproductive practices being reconstituted through globalising processes? and having an impact on sexual relationships? In what ways are morals, markets and conflicts currently setting agendas for public expression and censoring practices? and influencing the relationship between religion, culture, economics and sexuality as possible constituents of agency? How is access to urban spaces gendered and sexualised? and how is such access affected by changes in migration and mobility patterns? What kinds of sexual and reproductive choices (e.g. partner and child-bearing choices) are becoming more or less publicly acceptable and what does this say about changes in public/private relations? How are globalising processes influencing women s participation in the labour market and how are they impacting on gendered work practices? What do practices of resistance and utopia have to offer our thinking about agency? How do we engage with the state and civil society and their tendency to delegitimise and disenfranchise those with differing normative frameworks? 6

7 Globlising Cities, Localising Cultures and Gendering Spaces Lakshmi Lingam, TISS, Mumbai 10 August 2009 (Gottingen)

8 Mumbai: Its changing contours Developed as a port city during colonial times Developed as a manufacturing hub in the late 19 th century and early 20 th century with a particular focus on textiles End of 20 th century the focus shifted city is now positioned as a financial capital and oriented to service sector struggle to achieve an imagined global city status Lakshmi

9 Shifts evidently in: Labour utilisation patterns Sectoral shifts in occupations with clear class and gender differences Declines in Male employment, especially in the organised sector Increase in Female employment in the service sector at the bottom of the heap Rise in young women s employment in the BPO and hospitality sectors Lakshmi

10 Land Use Patterns Intricately linked to: Population growth Industrial & production requirements Housing Policy Land values & real estate Construction - Real estate Political nexus a re-composition of labor force, re-stratification of occupational groups and reconfiguring of urban spaces and consumption patterns Contemporary landscape is an epitome of contradictions of an urban city with a colonial past and a global future Lakshmi

11 Mumbai: Whose city is it? A new geography of centers and margins is getting played out vis-à-vis opportunities, access to resources, voice and representation Issues of governance, accountability, transparency and civil society responses come up on an everyday basis Poor are denied a citizen-like agency, they are positioned as the 'other' that place undue claims on the city without actually contributing to it Debates on insider and outsider often bring secular groups (wanting a clean Mumbai) and rightist groups (making claims for the sons of the soil ) converge their perspectives on outsiders as disrupting the attempts to achieve a global city Lakshmi

12 Public discourses - Real & material Employment/Livelihoods Housing Access to Public services & amenities (Water, sanitation, health, waste disposal, sewerage, etc.) Claims over spaces or marking out of spaces (festivals & celebrations; access to malls; security and surveillance and gated communities vs. ghettoisation) Lakshmi

13 Public Discourses Cultural & imagined Notions of a true Mumbaikar represented by Lata Mangeskar, Sachin Tendulkar, Ambanis and occasionally the Bacchans Notion of the spirit of Mumbai its grit, determination and resilience Icons of uniqueness with indigenous spirit for example the dabbawalas and economy of Dharavi Lakshmi

14 Cities & Bodies Reconfiguration of bodies as signifiers of culture and consumption of class, caste and religion Notions of public/private, gender norms and sexuality are undergoing change to fit labour and consumer industrial requirements Women as bearers of culture expected to represent national and religious identities dress codes, moral policing, vigilantism are on the raise Lakshmi

15 Urban Aspirations Global city as an expression of Excitement and Desire City that never sleeps the race to be designated as a Pub capital or be able to shop all night shop till you drop whose excitement and desire is seen as legitimate? (pubs and Page 3 life for the wealthy and bars and bar dancing as vice leading to moral decay of the poor and men) Night as a place of work for women and excitement for men (bar dancing) Legitimate and illegitimate night work (call centres and call girls) Lakshmi

16 Urban Aspirations Expression of love and intimacy in public by young people is an urban aspiration (Valentine s Day and expression of intimacy in public spaces dealt with under public nuisance) Sexual minorities attempt to claim spaces in public discourses often face opposition with the convergence of several political configurations across various religious affiliations Need to conceptualize the discourses/debates, particularly with reference to young people, sexual minorities, migrants, single migrant women, religious and ethnic minorities in order to be able to understand and amplify what we understand as urban aspirations that would complicate the understanding of diversity and difference beyond categories of static identities Lakshmi

17 Thanks! Lakshmi

Understanding Social Equity 1 (Caste, Class and Gender Axis) Lakshmi Lingam

Understanding Social Equity 1 (Caste, Class and Gender Axis) Lakshmi Lingam Understanding Social Equity 1 (Caste, Class and Gender Axis) Lakshmi Lingam This session attempts to familiarize the participants the significance of understanding the framework of social equity. In order

More information

URBANISATION AND ITS ISSUES

URBANISATION AND ITS ISSUES Foundation Course Semester 4 254 URBANISATION AND ITS ISSUES Although the population of India is still predominantly rural, the progress of urbanisation in the last decade has been fairly rapid.population

More information

Contradictions in the Gender-Poverty Nexus: Reflections on the Privatisation of Social

Contradictions in the Gender-Poverty Nexus: Reflections on the Privatisation of Social 1 Chapter in Silvia Chant (ed.) 2010. The International Handbook of Gender and Poverty: Concepts, Research and Policy. Edward Elgar Publishers. Pp. 644-648. Contradictions in the Gender-Poverty Nexus:

More information

INDIAN ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN S STUDIES. XV National Conference on Women s Studies

INDIAN ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN S STUDIES. XV National Conference on Women s Studies INDIAN ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN S STUDIES XV National Conference on Women s Studies Women in a Changing World: Restructured Inequalities, Countercurrents, and Sites of Resistance 22-25 January 2017 Chennai

More information

Diversity and Democratization in Bolivia:

Diversity and Democratization in Bolivia: : SOURCES OF INCLUSION IN AN INDIGENOUS MAJORITY SOCIETY May 2017 As in many other Latin American countries, the process of democratization in Bolivia has been accompanied by constitutional reforms that

More information

Social Change: Modern & Post-Modern Societies. Jennifer L. Fackler, M.A.

Social Change: Modern & Post-Modern Societies. Jennifer L. Fackler, M.A. Social Change: Modern & Post-Modern Societies Jennifer L. Fackler, M.A. What Is Social Change? What Is Social Change? Social Change the transformation of culture and social institutions over time Can be

More information

Andhra Pradesh: Vision 2020

Andhra Pradesh: Vision 2020 OVERVIEW Andhra Pradesh: Vision 2020 Andhra Pradesh has set itself an ambitious vision. By 2020, the State will have achieved a level of development that will provide its people tremendous opportunities

More information

Ireland in the World:

Ireland in the World: Dóchas Submission to Irish Political Parties General Election Manifestos Ireland in the World: An international development agenda for the next Irish Government August 2015 The next General election will

More information

RIJS Volume 2, Issue 7 (July 2013) ISSN: A Journal of Radix International Educational and. Research Consortium RIJS

RIJS Volume 2, Issue 7 (July 2013) ISSN: A Journal of Radix International Educational and. Research Consortium RIJS A Journal of Radix International Educational and Research Consortium RIJS RADIX INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN SOCIAL SCIENCE MAPPING SLUMS OF AN INDUSTRIAL CITY: PROBLEMS AND POLICY CONCERNS- A

More information

Concluding comments of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: Fiji. Initial report

Concluding comments of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: Fiji. Initial report Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women Twenty-sixth session 14 January 1 February 2002 Excerpted from: Supplement No. 38 (A/57/38) Concluding comments of the Committee on the Elimination

More information

Common Dreams, Different Circumstances: Lessons from Contemporary Development Economics

Common Dreams, Different Circumstances: Lessons from Contemporary Development Economics MPRA Munich Personal RePEc Archive Common Dreams, Different Circumstances: Lessons from Contemporary Development Economics Dawood Mamoon University of Islamabad 11 October 2017 Online at https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/81899/

More information

Is Economic Development Good for Gender Equality? Income Growth and Poverty

Is Economic Development Good for Gender Equality? Income Growth and Poverty Is Economic Development Good for Gender Equality? February 25 and 27, 2003 Income Growth and Poverty Evidence from many countries shows that while economic growth has not eliminated poverty, the share

More information

Sustainable cities, human mobility and international migration

Sustainable cities, human mobility and international migration Sustainable cities, human mobility and international migration Report of the Secretary-General for the 51 st session of the Commission on Population and Development (E/CN.9/2018/2) Briefing for Member

More information

Action for Global Justice

Action for Global Justice Action for Global Justice Strategy 2028 1 Overcoming poverty is not a gesture of charity; it is an act of justice NELSON MANDELA Acknowledgments: Sentence here about the authors and contributors. COVER

More information

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION. Jennifer L. Fackler, M.A.

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION. Jennifer L. Fackler, M.A. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION Jennifer L. Fackler, M.A. WHAT IS SOCIAL STRATIFICATION? Social Stratification a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy. Based on 4 basic principles:

More information

Maureen Molloy and Wendy Larner

Maureen Molloy and Wendy Larner Maureen Molloy and Wendy Larner, Fashioning Globalisation: New Zealand Design, Working Women, and the Cultural Economy, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013. ISBN: 978-1-4443-3701-3 (cloth); ISBN: 978-1-4443-3702-0

More information

Community Cohesion and Integration Strategy 2017

Community Cohesion and Integration Strategy 2017 Everyone Different, Everyone Matters Community Cohesion and Integration Strategy 2017 www.calderdale.gov.uk Everyone Different, Everyone Matters Building strong, cohesive and integrated communities Cohesion:

More information

ACORD Strategy Active citizenship and more responsive institutions contributing to a peaceful, inclusive and prosperous Africa.

ACORD Strategy Active citizenship and more responsive institutions contributing to a peaceful, inclusive and prosperous Africa. ACORD Strategy 2016 2020 Active citizenship and more responsive institutions contributing to a peaceful, inclusive and prosperous Africa. 1 ACORD S VISION, MISSION AND CORE VALUES Vision: ACORD s vision

More information

Chapter 8: Human Population

Chapter 8: Human Population Chapter 8: Human Population Concepts and terms to know: Doubling rate Quality of life IPAT model (I = P x A x T x S) Demography Population size Population density/distribution Age structure Sex ratios

More information

Module 6: Urban Planning and Design Lecture 42:City Design and Contemporary Urban Changes. The Lecture Contains: Cities as sites of consumption

Module 6: Urban Planning and Design Lecture 42:City Design and Contemporary Urban Changes. The Lecture Contains: Cities as sites of consumption The Lecture Contains: Cities as sites of consumption The Divided city: gentrification and ghettoization The Mega-transformation of Mumbai References file:///d /NPTL%20WORK/Dr.%20Anindita%20Chakrabarti/UrbanSociology/lecture42/42_1.htm

More information

Urban Gender-Based Violence Risk Assessment Guidance: Identifying Risk Factors for Urban Refugees

Urban Gender-Based Violence Risk Assessment Guidance: Identifying Risk Factors for Urban Refugees PILOT WOMEN S REFUGEE COMMISSION Urban Gender-Based Violence Risk Assessment Guidance: Identifying Risk Factors for Urban Refugees Urban Risks Refugees living in cities face high risks of gender-based

More information

10 th Southern Africa Civil Society Forum (27th-30th July 2014, Harare, Zimbabwe)

10 th Southern Africa Civil Society Forum (27th-30th July 2014, Harare, Zimbabwe) 10 th Southern Africa Civil Society Forum (27th-30th July 2014, Harare, Zimbabwe) THE SADC WE WANT: ACTING TOGETHER FOR ACCOUNTABILITY, PEACE AND INCLUSIVE DEVELOPMENT 1. Preamble 1.2. We, the representatives

More information

Alice According to You: A snapshot from the 2011 Census

Alice According to You: A snapshot from the 2011 Census Research Brief 201301 Alice According to You: A snapshot from the 2011 Census Pawinee Yuhun, Dr Andrew Taylor & James Winter The Northern Institute Charles Darwin University (Image source: Alice Springs

More information

AIX Australia Today Trimester 3/Summer Intensive

AIX Australia Today Trimester 3/Summer Intensive AIX290-390 Australia Today Trimester 3/Summer Intensive 2014-15 Syllabus 1 P age Introduction This unit provides an overview of contemporary Australian life in an historical context. It has an interdisciplinary

More information

Oxfam COUNTRY strategy kenya INFLUENCING societies

Oxfam COUNTRY strategy kenya INFLUENCING societies Oxfam COUNTRY strategy kenya 2015-2020 INFLUENCING societies Peter a fisherman and trader, fishing in Lake Turkana Photo: Brian Inganga/Oxfam Front cover photo: The women of Nawoyatir village sing and

More information

Sex Work and Sexual Rights. Week 9 Feminist Studies 60, Winter 2009 Dr. Mireille Miller-Young

Sex Work and Sexual Rights. Week 9 Feminist Studies 60, Winter 2009 Dr. Mireille Miller-Young Sex Work and Sexual Rights Week 9 Feminist Studies 60, Winter 2009 Dr. Mireille Miller-Young Sexual Politics of Representation Stereotypes legitimate inequality, and provide rationales for exploitation

More information

Globalisation and legal pluralism

Globalisation and legal pluralism 19 Globalisation and legal pluralism KEEBET von BENDA-BECKMANN* For a long time the concept of legal pluralism was strictly rejected by legal theorists who insisted that the law of the nation state was

More information

Making Class and Place in Contemporary China

Making Class and Place in Contemporary China 40 MADE IN CHINA - BALANCING ACTS Making Class and Place in Contemporary China Roberta Zavoretti Rural-to-urban migrants in China are often depicted as being poor, uncivilised, and having a lower level

More information

Urban Poverty in Yangon Greater City. A qualitative study of urban poverty, its causes and consequences. WFP UNICEF UN-Habitat, 2014

Urban Poverty in Yangon Greater City. A qualitative study of urban poverty, its causes and consequences. WFP UNICEF UN-Habitat, 2014 Urban Poverty in Yangon Greater City A qualitative study of urban poverty, its causes and consequences. WFP UNICEF UN-Habitat, 2014 Methodology Qualitative study KII and informal discussions, few FGD s:

More information

Pages What is cultural diffusion? 2. What is diversity?

Pages What is cultural diffusion? 2. What is diversity? 10.24.16 Pages 96-97 1. What is cultural diffusion? 2. What is diversity? POPULATION & MOVEMENT Core Concept 6 Population Growth World Population = ~7 Billion Demographers are people who study human populations

More information

Policies empowering migrant women and girls in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

Policies empowering migrant women and girls in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Policies empowering migrant women and girls in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 24 March 2016, 1:15pm 2:30pm / UNHQ Conference Room 7, Global Migration Group Presentation by Carol

More information

MECHELEN DECLARATION ON CITIES AND MIGRATION

MECHELEN DECLARATION ON CITIES AND MIGRATION MECHELEN DECLARATION ON CITIES AND MIGRATION 1. We, Mayors and leaders of Local and Regional Governments, recalling the relevant provisions of the Sustainable Development Goals, the New Urban Agenda and

More information

Strategy for Sweden s development cooperation with Zimbabwe

Strategy for Sweden s development cooperation with Zimbabwe Strategy for Sweden s development cooperation with Zimbabwe 2017 2021 Strategy for Sweden s development cooperation with Zimbabwe 1 1. Focus The objective of Sweden s international development cooperation

More information

BRASILIA CONSENSUS. Bearing in mind that the Region has joined the United Nations Secretary-General s Campaign Unite to End Violence against Women,

BRASILIA CONSENSUS. Bearing in mind that the Region has joined the United Nations Secretary-General s Campaign Unite to End Violence against Women, 16 July 2010 ENGLISH ORIGINAL: SPANISH BRASILIA CONSENSUS The Governments of the countries participating in the eleventh session of the Regional Conference on Women in Latin America and the Caribbean,

More information

PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF ALL HUMAN RIGHTS, CIVIL, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS, INCLUDING THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT

PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF ALL HUMAN RIGHTS, CIVIL, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS, INCLUDING THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT UNITED NATIONS A General Assembly Distr. GENERAL A/HRC/10/11/Add.1 5 March 2009 Original: ENGLISH HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL Tenth session Agenda item 3 PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF ALL HUMAN RIGHTS, CIVIL, POLITICAL,

More information

2. They are Fundamental to the governance of the country

2. They are Fundamental to the governance of the country LECTURE NOTES DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES Article 36 to 51 of the Constitution of India embodies the Directive Principles of State policy and for these we are indebted to the Constitution of Ireland. The objective

More information

Chapter 7. The Cultural Construction of Social Hierarchy

Chapter 7. The Cultural Construction of Social Hierarchy Chapter 7 The Cultural Construction of Social Hierarchy Problem 7 Why are modern societies characterized by social, political, and economic inequalities? Questions 7-1 How do societies rank people in social

More information

Freedom of Expression vs. Regulation of Cyberspace Ms. Sudhiti Naskar

Freedom of Expression vs. Regulation of Cyberspace Ms. Sudhiti Naskar Freedom of Expression vs. Regulation of Cyberspace By Ms. Sudhiti Naskar The world of Internet is a charming place. With no virtual boundaries of geographies, culture and class - anybody - who can afford

More information

SDGS & HUMAN RIGHTS MONITORING GUIDANCE FOR NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION

SDGS & HUMAN RIGHTS MONITORING GUIDANCE FOR NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION SDGS & HUMAN RIGHTS MONITORING GUIDANCE FOR NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION SDGS AND HUMAN RIGHTS MONITORING - Guidance for National Implementation Author: Nadja Filskov For comments, please contact: nafi@humanrights.dk

More information

CLASS VIII: OUR PASTS III

CLASS VIII: OUR PASTS III CLASS VIII: OUR PASTS III Where, When, How (a) An overview of the period. (b) Introduction to the new geographical categories. (c) An outline of the time frame. (d) An introduction to the sources. (a)

More information

HABITAT III ISSUE PAPERS

HABITAT III ISSUE PAPERS HABITAT III ISSUE PAPERS 1 - INCLUSIVE CITIES New York, 31 May 2015 (not edited version 2.0) ISSUE PAPER ON INCLUSIVE CITIES KEY WORDS Inclusive growth, inclusion, equality, social inclusion/exclusion,

More information

INTRODUCTION I. BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION I. BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION I. BACKGROUND Bihar is the second most populous State of India, comprising a little more than 10 per cent of the country s population. Situated in the eastern part of the country, the state

More information

2 nd WORLD CONGRESS RESOLUTION GENDER EQUALITY

2 nd WORLD CONGRESS RESOLUTION GENDER EQUALITY 2CO/E/6.3 (final) INTERNATIONAL TRADE UNION CONFEDERATION 2 nd WORLD CONGRESS Vancouver, 21-25 June 2010 RESOLUTION ON GENDER EQUALITY 1. Congress reiterates that gender equality is a key human rights

More information

South Africa s Statement to the 48th Session of the UN Commission on Population and Development. Presented by

South Africa s Statement to the 48th Session of the UN Commission on Population and Development. Presented by South Africa s Statement to the 48th Session of the UN Commission on Population and Development Presented by Ms Bathabile Dlamini, MP Minister of Social Development Republic of South Africa New York, 13-17

More information

A) Following the Civil War, government subsidies for transportation and communication systems helped open new markets in North America.

A) Following the Civil War, government subsidies for transportation and communication systems helped open new markets in North America. WXT-1.0: Explain how different labor systems developed in North America and the United States, and explain their effects on workers lives and U.S. society. WXT-2.0: Explain how patterns of exchange, markets,

More information

Cooperatives, Economic Democracy and Human Security: Perspectives from Nepal

Cooperatives, Economic Democracy and Human Security: Perspectives from Nepal 1 st National Cooperative Congress March 27, 2014, Kathmandu Cooperatives, Economic Democracy and Human Security: Perspectives from Nepal Yuba Raj Khatiwada, Ph. D. Governor, Nepal Rastra Bank 1 Introduction

More information

Abstract. Introduction

Abstract. Introduction Introduction Abstract Globalization is the most widely debated and discussed phenomenon in all over the world. The world opinion is divided on what constitute globalization and whether the globalization

More information

Cuba: Lessons Learned from the End of Communism in Eastern Europe Roundtable Report October 15, 1999 Ottawa E

Cuba: Lessons Learned from the End of Communism in Eastern Europe Roundtable Report October 15, 1999 Ottawa E Cuba: Lessons Learned from the End of Communism in Eastern Europe Roundtable Report October 15, 1999 Ottawa 8008.1E ISBN: E2-267/1999E-IN 0-662-30235-4 REPORT FROM THE ROUNDTABLE ON CUBA: LESSONS LEARNED

More information

Economic Globalization and the Free Market Ethos: A Gender Perspective.

Economic Globalization and the Free Market Ethos: A Gender Perspective. Economic Globalization and the Free Market Ethos: A Gender Perspective. By Chineze J. Onyejekwe Abstract This paper focuses on the consequences of economic globalization on women s welfare. The principles

More information

Lao Vision Statement: Recommendations for Actions

Lao Vision Statement: Recommendations for Actions Lao Vision Statement: Recommendations for Actions Preamble The National Growth & Poverty Eradication Strategy (NGPES) states: Rural development is central to the Government s poverty eradication efforts

More information

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography : Chapter 6 Population

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography : Chapter 6 Population NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography : Chapter 6 Population Question 1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below (i) Migrations change the number, distribution and

More information

Area of study 2: Dynamic Places

Area of study 2: Dynamic Places Area of study 2: Dynamic Places Topic 3: Globalisation Overview Globalisation and global interdependence continue to accelerate, resulting in changing opportunities for businesses and people. Inequalities

More information

Committee on International Trade Committee on Women s Rights and Gender Equality

Committee on International Trade Committee on Women s Rights and Gender Equality European Parliament 2014-2019 Committee on International Trade Committee on Women s Rights and Gender Equality 2017/2015(INI) 19.9.2017 DRAFT REPORT on gender equality in EU trade agreements (2017/2015(INI))

More information

Human Rights and Social Justice

Human Rights and Social Justice Human and Social Justice Program Requirements Human and Social Justice B.A. Honours (20.0 credits) A. Credits Included in the Major CGPA (9.0 credits) 1. credit from: HUMR 1001 [] FYSM 1104 [] FYSM 1502

More information

POPULATION STUDIES RESEARCH BRIEF ISSUE Number

POPULATION STUDIES RESEARCH BRIEF ISSUE Number POPULATION STUDIES RESEARCH BRIEF ISSUE Number 2008021 School for Social and Policy Research 2008 Population Studies Group School for Social and Policy Research Charles Darwin University Northern Territory

More information

ANALYSIS OF SOCIOLOGY MAINS Question Papers ( PAPER I ) - TEAM VISION IAS

ANALYSIS OF SOCIOLOGY MAINS Question Papers ( PAPER I ) - TEAM VISION IAS VISION IAS www.visionias.wordpress.com www.visionias.cfsites.org www.visioniasonline.com ANALYSIS OF SOCIOLOGY MAINS Question Papers 2000-2005 ( PAPER I ) - TEAM VISION IAS Q.No. Question Topics Subtopics

More information

How does development vary amongst regions? How can countries promote development? What are future challenges for development?

How does development vary amongst regions? How can countries promote development? What are future challenges for development? Chapter 9- Development How does development vary amongst regions? How can countries promote development? What are future challenges for development? Human Development Index (HDI) Development process of

More information

Regional Disparities in Employment and Human Development in Kenya

Regional Disparities in Employment and Human Development in Kenya Regional Disparities in Employment and Human Development in Kenya Jacob Omolo 1 jackodhong@yahoo.com; omolo.jacob@ku.ac.ke ABSTRACT What are the regional disparities in employment and human development

More information

Third International Conference on Health Promotion, Sundsvall, Sweden, 9-15 June 1991

Third International Conference on Health Promotion, Sundsvall, Sweden, 9-15 June 1991 Third International Conference on Health Promotion, Sundsvall, Sweden, 9-15 June 1991 Sundsvall Statement on Supportive Environments for Health (WHO/HPR/HEP/95.3) The Third International Conference on

More information

TST Issues Brief: POPULATION DYNAMICS 1

TST Issues Brief: POPULATION DYNAMICS 1 TST Issues Brief: POPULATION DYNAMICS 1 I. Stocktaking Population trends are characterized by an increasing divergence between countries. Whereas the least developed countries continue to see high population

More information

COVENANT UNIVERSITY NIGERIA TUTORIAL KIT OMEGA SEMESTER PROGRAMME:

COVENANT UNIVERSITY NIGERIA TUTORIAL KIT OMEGA SEMESTER PROGRAMME: COVENANT UNIVERSITY NIGERIA TUTORIAL KIT OMEGA SEMESTER PROGRAMME: DEMOGRAPHY AND SOCIAL STATISTICS COURSE: DSS 329 DISCLAIMER The contents of this document are intended for practice and leaning purposes

More information

The Eighth Session of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 3-7 February 2014

The Eighth Session of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 3-7 February 2014 1 The Eighth Session of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 3-7 February 2014 Statement by Ambassador Masood Khan, Permanent Representative of Pakistan On Promoting equality,

More information

22. POLITICAL SCIENCE (Code No. 028)

22. POLITICAL SCIENCE (Code No. 028) 22. POLITICAL SCIENCE (Code No. 028) (2017-18) Rationale At the senior secondary level students who opt Political Science are given an opportunity to get introduced to the diverse concerns of a Political

More information

Overview The Dualistic System Urbanization Rural-Urban Migration Consequences of Urban-Rural Divide Conclusions

Overview The Dualistic System Urbanization Rural-Urban Migration Consequences of Urban-Rural Divide Conclusions Overview The Dualistic System Urbanization Rural-Urban Migration Consequences of Urban-Rural Divide Conclusions Even for a developing economy, difference between urban/rural society very pronounced Administrative

More information

Defining poverty. Most people think of poverty in terms of deprivation lack of food, shelter, and clothing.

Defining poverty. Most people think of poverty in terms of deprivation lack of food, shelter, and clothing. Poverty and Wealth Outline for today Poverty and inequality Types of economic systems and views on poverty (capitalism, socialism, mixed economies) Poverty and environmental degradation Overconsumption

More information

Oxfam Education

Oxfam Education Background notes on inequality for teachers Oxfam Education What do we mean by inequality? In this resource inequality refers to wide differences in a population in terms of their wealth, their income

More information

CHANTAL MOUFFE GLOSSARY

CHANTAL MOUFFE GLOSSARY CHANTAL MOUFFE GLOSSARY This is intended to introduce some key concepts and definitions belonging to Mouffe s work starting with her categories of the political and politics, antagonism and agonism, and

More information

Feminization of Poverty & Globalization S. Khan 1. Impact of Globalization on the Feminization of Poverty in South Asia. Saba Khan

Feminization of Poverty & Globalization S. Khan 1. Impact of Globalization on the Feminization of Poverty in South Asia. Saba Khan Feminization of Poverty & Globalization S. Khan 1 Impact of Globalization on the Feminization of Poverty in South Asia Saba Khan Feminization of Poverty & Globalization S. Khan 2 Impact of Globalization

More information

The People's Food Policy Project: Introducing Food Sovereignty in Canada

The People's Food Policy Project: Introducing Food Sovereignty in Canada The People's Food Policy Project: Introducing Food Sovereignty in Canada By: Cathleen Kneen, August 2012 Summary The People's Food Policy Project (2008-2011) mobilized approximately 3,500 people across

More information

Human development in China. Dr Zhao Baige

Human development in China. Dr Zhao Baige Human development in China Dr Zhao Baige 19 Environment Twenty years ago I began my academic life as a researcher in Cambridge, and it is as an academic that I shall describe the progress China has made

More information

Inclusion and Gender Equality in China

Inclusion and Gender Equality in China Inclusion and Gender Equality in China 12 June 2017 Disclaimer: The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Asian Development

More information

CO STITUTO OF UGA DA PEOPLES CO GRESS.

CO STITUTO OF UGA DA PEOPLES CO GRESS. CO STITUTO OF UGA DA PEOPLES CO GRESS. As Amended and Adopted by the Annual Delegates Conference on the 22 day of November, 2008. Contents. Preamble Article 1 Article 2 Article 3 Article 4 Article 5 Article

More information

LIFESTYLE OF VIETNAMESE WORKERS IN THE CONTEXT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION

LIFESTYLE OF VIETNAMESE WORKERS IN THE CONTEXT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION LIFESTYLE OF VIETNAMESE WORKERS IN THE CONTEXT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION BUI MINH * Abstract: It is now extremely important to summarize the practice, do research, and develop theories on the working class

More information

Kenya. Strategy for Sweden s development cooperation with MFA

Kenya. Strategy for Sweden s development cooperation with MFA MINISTRY FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS, SWEDEN UTRIKESDEPARTEMENTET Strategy for Sweden s development cooperation with Kenya 2016 2020 MFA 103 39 Stockholm Telephone: +46 8 405 10 00, Web site: www.ud.se Cover:

More information

Economic Reform, Social Policy and Political Poverty in Post-Soviet Countries

Economic Reform, Social Policy and Political Poverty in Post-Soviet Countries Olga Vladimirovna Nechiporenko Doctor of Sociology, Institute of Philosophy and Low, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation Economic Reform, Social Policy and Political

More information

INTER-AGENCY STANDING COMMITTEE POLICY ON GENDER EQUALITY AND THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN AND GIRLS IN HUMANITARIAN ACTION

INTER-AGENCY STANDING COMMITTEE POLICY ON GENDER EQUALITY AND THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN AND GIRLS IN HUMANITARIAN ACTION 3 rd November 2017 INTER-AGENCY STANDING COMMITTEE POLICY ON GENDER EQUALITY AND THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN AND GIRLS IN HUMANITARIAN ACTION A. PURPOSE The purpose of this Policy is to guide the Inter-Agency

More information

Class X Chapter 4 Gender Religion and Caste Social Science

Class X Chapter 4 Gender Religion and Caste Social Science Question 1: Mention different aspects of life in which women are discriminated or disadvantaged in India. In India, women are discriminated and disadvantaged n the following ways: (a) They are not provided

More information

Athens Declaration for Healthy Cities

Athens Declaration for Healthy Cities International Healthy Cities Conference Health and the City: Urban Living in the 21st Century Visions and best solutions for cities committed to health and well-being Athens, Greece, 22 25 October 2014

More information

RECENT CHANGING PATTERNS OF MIGRATION AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF URBANIZATION IN WEST BENGAL: A DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

RECENT CHANGING PATTERNS OF MIGRATION AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF URBANIZATION IN WEST BENGAL: A DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS 46 RECENT CHANGING PATTERNS OF MIGRATION AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF URBANIZATION IN WEST BENGAL: A DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS Raju Sarkar, Research Scholar Population Research Centre, Institute for Social and Economic

More information

Annexes Diagram of multiple lenses 8 2. Relationships of duty-bearers and rights-holders 22

Annexes Diagram of multiple lenses 8 2. Relationships of duty-bearers and rights-holders 22 Contents List of abbreviations and acronyms 2 Foreword 3 I. Introduction 5 A. Purpose 5 B. Background 5 C. Rationale - Why an integrated approach? 6 II. Conceptual framework 7 III. A closer look at culture,

More information

The global city: strategic site/new frontier

The global city: strategic site/new frontier The global city: strategic site/new frontier Saskia Sassen, 2001 http://www.india-seminar.com/2001/503/503%20saskia%20sassen.htm The master images in the currently dominant account about economic globalization

More information

SOCIOLOGY (SOC) Roosevelt University 1

SOCIOLOGY (SOC) Roosevelt University 1 Roosevelt University 1 SOCIOLOGY (SOC) SOC 101 - INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY Basic theories and concepts of sociology; culture; roles and norms; personality and group; forms of social organization; class,

More information

Urban Bias: The Continuing Debate

Urban Bias: The Continuing Debate Urban Bias: The Continuing Debate 1. Students of development and development practitioners have long concerned themselves with urban-rural relationships in developing countries. A familiar assumption has

More information

1178 th Meeting of the Permanent Council

1178 th Meeting of the Permanent Council 1178 th Meeting of the Permanent Council ODIHR.GAL/13/18 9 March 2018 ENGLISH only Hofburg, Vienna 8 March 2018 Address by Ingibjörg Sólrún Gísladóttir Director of the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions

More information

Terms Of Reference UN Women Civil Society Advisory Group Bosnia and Herzegovina

Terms Of Reference UN Women Civil Society Advisory Group Bosnia and Herzegovina Terms Of Reference UN Women Civil Society Advisory Group Bosnia and Herzegovina Background UN Women office in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) was established in 2008 to provide support to governmental and

More information

LONDON, UK APRIL 2018

LONDON, UK APRIL 2018 INCLUSIVE GOVERNANCE: THE CHALLENGE FOR A CONTEMPORARY COMMONWEALTH Monday 16 April 2018 Day One: Leave No one Behind : Exploring Exclusion in the Commonwealth 0800 1000 1045 1130 1300 Registration Official

More information

Chapter III SOCIO- ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF SLUM POPULATION IN PIMPRI- CHINCHWAD URBAN AREA

Chapter III SOCIO- ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF SLUM POPULATION IN PIMPRI- CHINCHWAD URBAN AREA Chapter III SOCIO- ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF SLUM POPULATION IN PIMPRI- CHINCHWAD URBAN AREA 1. Introduction 2. Economic status of slum population in Pimpri Chinchwad urban area 2.1: Average Annual income

More information

Mitigating Risk of Gender-Based Violence. Research. Rethink. Resolve.

Mitigating Risk of Gender-Based Violence. Research. Rethink. Resolve. Mitigating Risk of Gender-Based Violence Research. Rethink. Resolve. GBV Vulnerability Factors Research. Rethink. Resolve. What makes women and girls and men and boys vulnerable to GBV during conflict

More information

Leaving No One Behind:

Leaving No One Behind: Leaving No One Behind: Equality and Non-Discrimination at the Heart of Sustainable Development A Shared United Nations System Framework for Action United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination

More information

LIFE FOR A SEX TRAFFICKING VICTIM THE STATISTICS: FOCUS EUROPE

LIFE FOR A SEX TRAFFICKING VICTIM THE STATISTICS: FOCUS EUROPE Human trafficking is an organized criminal industry that affects every nation. While the statistics can seem overwhelming, it is important to remember that every number represents the life of a human being.

More information

Migration and Informality

Migration and Informality Migration and Informality Alakh N. Sharma Dhruv Sood Institute for Human Development NIDM Building, 3 rd Floor, IP Estate Mahatma Gandhi Marg New Delhi-110002 Why People Migrate? Labour migration is an

More information

Globalisation and the Knowledge Economy the Case of Ireland

Globalisation and the Knowledge Economy the Case of Ireland Globalisation and the Knowledge Economy the Case of Ireland Andrew McDowell Chief Economist October 2006 The Development of the Irish Economy 1988 1997 2004 MAY 1997 MAY 1997 2 Ireland s Economic Transformation

More information

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL A CITIZENS AGENDA

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL A CITIZENS AGENDA COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Brussels, 10.5.2006 COM(2006) 211 final COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL A CITIZENS AGENDA DELIVERING RESULTS FOR EUROPE EN EN COMMUNICATION

More information

Indonesia: Middle Income Country in Transition

Indonesia: Middle Income Country in Transition Indonesia: Middle Income Country in Transition A Special Open Forum and Lunch with Sri Mulyani Indrawati Managing Director, World Bank Former Minister of Finance, Republic of Indonesia February 29, 2012

More information

Plurilateralism and the Global South. --Kamal Mitra Chenoy *

Plurilateralism and the Global South. --Kamal Mitra Chenoy * India Brazil South Africa Academic Forum: A Policy Dialogue Brasilia, 12-13 April, 2010. DRAFT VERSION Plurilateralism and the Global South --Kamal Mitra Chenoy * Countries with common interests have traditionally

More information

fundamentally and intimately connected. These rights are indispensable to women s daily lives, and violations of these rights affect

fundamentally and intimately connected. These rights are indispensable to women s daily lives, and violations of these rights affect Today, women represent approximately 70% of the 1.2 billion people living in poverty throughout the world. Inequality with respect to the enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rights is a central

More information

MARTIN LUTHER KING COALITION OF GREATER LOS ANGELES

MARTIN LUTHER KING COALITION OF GREATER LOS ANGELES MARTIN LUTHER KING COALITION OF GREATER LOS ANGELES JOBS, JUSTICE AND PEACE MISSION STATEMENT "The Martin Luther King Coalition for Jobs, Justice and Peace is a broad coalition of individuals and community

More information

Best Personal Counseling & Guidance about SSB

Best Personal Counseling & Guidance about SSB Best Personal Counseling & Guidance about SSB Contact - R S Rathore @ 9001262627 visit us - www.targetssbinterview.com Lecturette Topics for SSB Adult Education Indo US Relations Beauty Pageants Cable

More information

FACULTY OF ARTS SYLLABUS

FACULTY OF ARTS SYLLABUS FACULTY OF ARTS SYLLABUS MASTER OF ARTS (SOCIOLOGY) JODHPUR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY JODHPUR PREVIOUS PAPER I PAPER II PAPER III PAPER IV SOCIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS SOCIAL THINKERS RURAL SOCIOLOGY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

More information

Korea s average level of current well-being: Comparative strengths and weaknesses

Korea s average level of current well-being: Comparative strengths and weaknesses How s Life in Korea? November 2017 Relative to other OECD countries, Korea s average performance across the different well-being dimensions is mixed. Although income and wealth stand below the OECD average,

More information