Targeted Public Distribution System: Lessons from Food Deficit State In India

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Targeted Public Distribution System: Lessons from Food Deficit State In India"

Transcription

1 Network of Asia-Pacific Schools and Institutes of Public Administration and Governance (NAPSIPAG) Annual Conference 2005 BEIJING, PRC, 5-7 DECEMBER 2005 THEME: THE ROLE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN BUILDING A HARMONIOUS SOCIETY Workshop on Public Administration Strategies that Help or Hinder Societal Harmony Targeted Public Distribution System: Lessons from Food Deficit State In India Dr. Jaya S Anand Associate Professor Institute of Management in Government Kerala, India 1

2 I. INTRODUCTION This paper examines the impact of targeted Public Distribution System in the State of Kerala (in India). The paper examines the strengths and weaknesses of Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) and how the strategy has failed to achieve the objectives envisaged, thereby widening the rich-poor disparities leading to societal disharmony. Field experiences show that the targeting has led to division of the society into Below Poverty Line (BPL) and Above Poverty Line (APL) with the introduction of dual type of ration cards. This underscores the fact that public administration strategies when carried out in the wrong way, even with the best intentions can pave way for greater inequality and thus to more poverty. II. CONCEPT OF TARGETING The targeting of welfare programmes is a subject of world-wide interest and the debate for and against targeting among economist and advisors is going on. The term targeting refers to identifying eligible or (needy) individual and screening out the ineligible for the purpose of transferring resources typically by defining the eligibility criteria (Devereux 1999). The basic idea behind targeting in all welfare programmes falls under 3 general headings (Gebrehiwot,2001). Humanitarian reasons: So that the really needy are assisted and the less needy do not benefit unfairly. Resource and efficiency reasons: So that the scarce resources are used in such a way that they have the greatest impact on the problem to be addressed and Development reasons: So that dependency and economic disincentive effects (at all levels from household to the national) are minimized. For those whose primary concern is equity, such targeting holds at the prospects of channelising maximum benefits to the most vulnerable group, while for those focusing on saving money (Govts, funding agencies), it is likely to be considerably cheaper option than blanket distribution or general food subsidies. The World Bank and IFPRI have all come out strongly in favour of targeted intervention to promote food security and mitigate the social costs of economic adjustment on the poor (Vivian 1995). III. TARGETING THE PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IN INDIA The PDS is the key element of the food security system in India particularly for the poor. It is an instrument for ensuring availability of certain essential food grains, (mainly rice, wheat, sugar and kerosene) at affordable prices. Households are given a ration card that entitles them to buy fixed ration of these commodities The Government through the Food Corporation of India (FCI) procures and stocks food grains, which are released every month for distribution through the PDS network across the country. The responsibility of implementing, monitoring and enforcing legal provision is with the respective State Governments. Earlier, Public Distribution System was a general entitlement scheme to all consumers without any targeting. However, the Government of India in 1997 introduced targeting in the PDS in the form of targeted PDS. The main features of TPDS has been the introduction of targeting or specifically, the division of the entire population into below poverty line (Below Poverty Line) and above poverty line (APL) categories based on the poverty line defined by the Planning Commission. Food grains are now allotted at two sets of prices, a highly subsidized price for the poor and near open market price for others. The targeting it was hoped could play a more meaningful role by translating the macro level self-sufficiency in 2

3 food grains achieved by the country into macro level by ensuring food availability to the poor households(ministry of Civil Supplies,1997).. Two more schemes were introduced in PDS later on, one in 2000, the Antyodaya Anna Yogana Scheme (AAY), which provides rice and wheat at very nominally price to the poorest of the poor, and the other Annapoorna Scheme, which provides monthly free rice for those above the age of 65 years who are not receiving any pension. General Situation in Kerala. Kerala is a relatively small state (area sq km population 30 million), in the south-west corner of India. Kerala s development experience has been what HDR 1996 would call a course of lopsided development with its remarkable human development achievements well comparable with developed countries and an unmatchable economic growth. Food security in Kerala also present a unique picture.. Kerala is known as a 'food deficit' state in India because of the wide gap in the consumption and production of foodgrains especially rice, which is the staple diet of the population. The area and production of rice since the mid -seventies had been witnessing steep decline owing to several factors like sharp rise in the prices of fertilizers and wages, non-availability of labour and preference for more remunerative cash crops. It may be noted that the area under rice, the staple food crop of Kerala has drastically declined from 8.75 lakhs he in to 3.5 lakh he in Kannan (2000) in his working paper on 'Food Security in a Regional Perspective: A view from food deficit' Kerala, mentions about the extent of this deficit, which has increased overtime. Kerala's deficit in rice, which was 55 percent in the mid-seventies, has increased steadily and stands at more than 75% of its requirement in At present, hardly 10% of the food grain requirement is met from the State (Economic Review,2004) Trends in food production of Kerala thus show an alarming situation and this coupled with unemployment can seriously enhance the States vulnerability to food security. The Expert Committee (Govt. of Kerala,1990) which examined this issue remarked that it is not possible for the State to become self sufficient in food and hence emphasized the need for achieving food security rather than food self sufficiency. Food Security in this context assumes great significant as it refers to the ability to ensure access to food to its population through a variety of means. The Public Distribution System (PDS) in Kerala is a government mechanism to ensure food security system so as to reduce the vulnerability of the state in food security arising out of external shocks such as a decline in production, and movement restriction. It is well known that Kerala had one of the best run and most effective PDS with a near universal coverage. To quote the High Level Committee Report (Government of India, 2003) in Kerala, in the mid ninetees, around 95% of households were covered by PDS & the monthly entitlement of grains satisfied the minimum cereal requirements as recommended by Indian Council of Medical Research. The offtake of rationed articles from PDS had also been quite high than in most other states: However, the shift in the Government policy and targeting of PDS restricting subsidy to Below Poverty Line (BPL) families since has opened the Pandora's box. The serious implications including the flaws in targeting and division of the entire community into Above Poverty Line (APL) and BPL has made the system ineffective and the cry for revamping Public Distribution System is now by and large supported by the entire society. IV. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY The study seeks to examine a) the extent to which the consumers particularly the vulnerable depend on PDS for food grains, 3

4 b) the effectiveness of targeting and to identify the flaws in TPDS like errors of exclusion of the eligible poor etc. The study is empirical and had used. both primary and secondary data extensively for analyzing the objectives laid down Initially an exploratory study was conducted by survey of secondary date available, by holding Focus Group Discussions with officials of implementing departments namely Food Corporation of India and Dept. of Food and Civil Supplies and private traders. The objectives relating to the effectiveness of targeting and public distribution system were examined through field survey, focus group discussion with implementing officials and private intermediaries involved in the chain of delivery system (like authorized wholesale dealers and retail dealers) and also the beneficiaries in selected urban and rural areas(grouped as those included in the BPL and APL list) using an interview schedule. 150 households were purposively selected and studied for this. V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The findings of the study show that Targeted PDS has unilaterally increased the price of foodgrains and other essential commodities to the poor and the non-poor. This has seriously affected the vulnerable that depend solely on this system. The system crippled and has become unviable and majority of the people have moved to the open market. The major issues have been studied and presented in detail below. Decline In Offtake and Allotment It is observed that the offtake of rationed articles has come down considerably after the introduction of targeting.. Even the official statistics show that off take of rice in APL category is almost nil.. A cursory look at the field reveals that the consumers in higher income bracket do not buy their allotted quota while the low income group face many problems related to quantity, poor quality food grain, inadequate and untimely allotment, etc.(often deliberately done by intermediaries) The decline in offtake,, among APL can be attributed to higher price along with low quality of grains distributed through PDS when compared with open market. The preference for better quality products, higher wage rate and purchasing power prevailing in the State (when compared to other States) and the remittances from abroad have influenced the buyers. The propaganda by private dealers, regarding the poor quality (in fact the quality of rice, wheat etc has improved) the reduced margin, poor and unhygienic conditions of ration shops, poor quality of service, existence of private shops under the same roof (which is often owned by ration shop dealers) and general perception among higher income strata that PDS is for the poor, made the people move to the open market. The very general perception that for the same quality rice, different prices are to be paid has resulted in dissatisfaction in the entire society. However, a detailed analysis reveals that the offtake in AAY, Annapoorna scheme and BPL has been hundred percent. A striking observation which we could make is that the BPL cardholders are not receiving their entire entitlement at the reduced price. The stock register showed that the allotment was fully lifted by the shopowners,but this has not reached the eligible targeted card holders in full.. It is interesting to note that ration shops had adequate stock for distributing grains at higher price to the needy. In many cases, the food grains were siphoned off to other consumers/traders at higher rates. Dealers complained of inadequate allotment whereas discussion with FCI revealed that on an average buffer stock for 80 days at rate 35 kg per card is maintained and the issue of partial allotment did not exist. This contradictory statement throws light on some serious lapses in the distribution system. Though the Government claims that 35 Kg of rice is allotted to all categories, in practice the dealers and the cardholders are not receiving their entire entitlement. Discussion with the officials revealed that Central Government survey had identified 25% of the population as BPL based on the official poverty line as estimated by the Planning Commission in However according to the Kerala Government s estimate (based on survey), this is 42%. The subsidy for the additional 17 percent was met from the state 4

5 exchequer till However, this was discontinued and after that the Central allotment of 25% is being distributed among the 42% BPL population. We feel that this dilution has led to a situation wherein the eligible and deserving poor are atleast partially denied physical access of their entitlement. Targeting and BPL identification The main flaw is that in the approved list of BPL families(targeted beneficiaries) certain non eligible have found place whereas the real eligible beneficiaries have been left out. It has been found that the criteria for inclusion in BPL list are solely economical which is often understated. There are complaints that persons having political patronage have found a place in BPL list. A large number of the very poor are in the APL category and are thus denied physical access and their right for subsidized food grains from PDS. The list, which was prepared in 1997, is not periodically revised and updated so as to weed out those who have come up above the poverty line in due course. Though the Civil Supplies Department and Poverty Eradication Mission had conducted a survey in 2001, the list has not yet been officially accepted or released. While income of the family is the sole criteria in Planning Committee s estimate, other noneconomic criteria evolved by Kudumbasree (Poverty Eradication Mission of the Govt) can be adopted for targeting and identifying the poor). The services of Women Groups may be used for annual updation of APL/BPL list. Unless the process of identification of the poor is transparent and foolproof, the TDPS may not serve its real purpose. The introduction of Antyodaya Scheme in 2002(further culling out poorest of the poor from the BPL list)has amounted to further targeting within the existing identified list,thereby adding further chaos and confusion in the society. As rightly pointed out by Swaminathan, targeting can result in greater social division.. Segregating households on the basis of income can lead to division among the poor, social tensions and polarization. Such division can exacerbate existing forms of caste and gender oppression.(swaminathan,2002) Entitlement of Food Grains As per the earlier policy, ration scales were at fixed quantities per person or unit whereas now irrespective of size and need, a family is entitled to a uniform quantity of 35 kg per month per household.this has opened avenues for malpractices and corruption. During the field visit it was observed that for BPL households with small family size, the entitlement of 35 kg was more than their requirements, while in some areas like tribal areas and coastal pockets, this quota was not often sufficient. The earlier system of fixing quota based on family size was more realistic. This assumes greater significance in Kerala context, where the central allotment of (25%) is distributed among 42% of BPL families. Quality Issue Regarding the issue of quality of grains, definitely there is general feeling that the quality has improved compared to pre 1997 period. During our visit to godowns the food samples examined were quite superior whereas the grain at retail shops was not of the same quality in certain cases. There seems to be leakages/malpractices at some level/all levels in the chain of distribution. Often the local people interviewed are also of the view that food grains released from FCI godown often do not reach the target group in same quality and quantity. Neither the Department nor the Government has a mechanism to oversee that this is done. There seems to be mismatch between demand and supply regarding the quality of rice preferred by the cardholder. While the urban mass preferred raw rice and wheat, people in rural areas demanded boiled rice. However the women of interviewed households revealed that non-timely availability of preferred 5

6 quality of rationed item was the main reason for their purchase from the open market. Even the dealers are not very sure (they say so) regarding the time when the preferred quality would be available. The FCI claims that they have sufficient stock of both raw and boiled rice, which is distributed, based on the approved request presented by fair price shopkeepers. Here it is suggested that an assessment may be made and allotment done based on regional preferences. The weekly indent form (submitted by dealers) may be suitably modified so that the requirements of raw/boiled rice and wheat based on the cardholders preferences in the area can be separately indicated. A computerised inventory management and distribution system after assessing the district wise demand for raw and boiled rice may be introduced to ensure that micro level allotment and distribution of rational articles (at the district/regional level) is fair and equitable. Though the grains released from FCI pass the test of QC stipulated by FCI (like broken rice, moisture content etc restricted to certain percentage) it does not actually qualify the real taste preferences of Keralites. Quality being a major issue, we suggest the following options- some short and long term strategies (1) Augment domestic production especially rice (2) Allocate food subsidy as cash to the State and give autonomy to States in implementation so that specific regional needs can be taken care of. (3) Procuring paddy from local farmers at Minimum Support Price, centralized processing and distributing through ration shops Monitoring and Involvement of Civic/Local Bodies The key stone in the PDS is the fair price shop and the kingpin of the system is the retail dealer. The entire success of the system depends on how efficiently and effectively the shops are run.hence supervision is extremely important Though from time to time, various guidelines were issued to restructure the system, many of them have either remained in papers or have not been implemented successfully. The Central Government in 1999 had issued guidelines and emphasized on the need for constituting Vigilance Committees with involvement of Panchayat Raj Institutions at all levels to ensure greater public participation (Planning Committee 2004). The Vigilance Committees are yet to be formed and empowered to monitor the functioning of fair price shops(fps). During our field visits, we had seen that in areas where there is 'healthy participation of local bodies/ngos, the system has proved to be extremely beneficial for the poor and the needy. Their involvement have made the operations of FPS more transparent and accountable thereby reducing leakages and corruption by effective monitoring of the PDS. Awareness Among Cardholders Kerala is a cent percent literate State. Still in many cases, the AAY cardholders are not even aware of their entitlement or the price. Due to irregular and inadequate allotment/stock and the (false) propaganda that allotment is insufficient to cardholders, the ration dealers often dictate terms as to the price and quantity. Some dealers admitted that they adjusted commodities from the non-buyers and made available rice etc to the poor. However the field survey revealed that this was done at higher prices. Though a model Citizens Charter was prepared in 1997 by the Central Ministry for adoption by the State,it has not yet materialised. This charter stipulates essential information such as entitlements, procedure for the issue of ration cards, the right of the public for information and so on. It is high time that citizen's charters are published and exhibited. Publication of the charter will help create awareness among the public about their rights and will make the staff and FPS dealers more efficient thereby weeding out corruption. 6

7 VI. CONCLUDING REMARKS The sustainability of Public Distribution System is now a matter of concern. To quote the High Level Committee report the introduction of targeting has not reduced the expenditure on the food subsidy while it has at the same time weakened the impact of price stabilization and weakened the overall system. The study reveals that inspite of inherent weaknesses and growing customer dissatisfaction, the participation rate of middle and low income group on PDS is still more than 72%(as per our study).. It may be noted that the real poor and those excluded from the list still depend on the Public Distribution System every month for subsidized food grains. The role played by PDS in providing free ration in times of crisis the. like Tsunami etc., has also been acclaimed. This throws light on the fact that subsidized food distribution system to the needy is of paramount significance in the food deficit State Kerala. With the difference between the BPL and market prices much larger now,(more than Rs 5/- per Kg) there is certainly a stronger incentive to divert supplies to the open market and make quick profit. As Mooij (1999) observed in the study on Bihar, 'it was difficult for the PDS dealers to make profits without being corrupt. The commission they get is quite low and the dealers seems to have shifted the burden of increased transportation costs, handling/holding costs to the poor in form of reduction in quality and improper billing.. Such a leakage coupled with exclusions in targeting implies that the entire subsidy does not always reach the poor. The multiplicity of schemes in the system and a huge range of actors (more than 5) in implementing the PDS has severely undermined the capacity of the system to serve the needs of the poor. (Jenkin 2002) Reverting to a system of allocating grains at uniform price with universal coverage may not be feasible in the present context as the Government may find it difficult because of the fiscal squeeze. As suggest by experts like Madhura Swaminathan, geographical targeting with focus on slums, tribal and coastal areas having high concentration of poor is a better option. The participatory Community-based targeting with the help of Kudumbasree women groups can well be tried and tested out in Kerala,so long it is apolitical. This can ensure that the entire food requirements of the poor are met from the PDS itself and the elite and the traders do not exploit them. However many aspects indicated in the guidelines issued by the Central Government are not yet operationalised. Overall what is needed is the immediate implementation of guidelines issued by Central Government rather than the formulation of new policy directions or guidelines. Constitution of Vigilance Committees at various levels, publicizing citizens charter, effective supervision at all levels, sensitizing the targeted poor on their entitlements and price of commodities and revision of APL/BPL list need to be taken up by the Government on a priority basis, if the desired objectives of TPDS are to be achieved. There is a need for more consistent set of policies designed to cater to the specific needs of the State. These would range from strategies that promote the growth of the agricultural sector to a more community oriented Public Distribution System involving all major actors in the distribution channel. It also needs to address new kinds of challenges on the human development front in Kerala i.e., security for the growing population of the aged. References Devereux Stephen (1999) Targeting transfers: innovative solutions to familiar problems IDS Bulletins Vol 30, No

8 Government of Kerala, 'Economic Review', (2004) - State Planning Board, Kerala Gebrehiwot, Yosef,(2001):Targeting Food aid to the Rural Food Insecure: Evidence and lessons from Ethiopia, Working Paper Series No 329,Institute Of Social Science, New Delhi. Goetz, Ann Maria,Rob Jenkins (2002), 'Civil Society Engagement and India's Public Distribution System: Lessons from the Rationing Kruti Samiti in Mumbai, World Development Report 2003/04 Workshop, Oxford. Government of India (1997) Ministry of Civil Supplies, Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution, Focus on the Poor, Guidelines for the Implementation of the TPDS. Kannan, KP, (2000), Food Security in a Regional Perspective : A view form Food Deficit' Kerala, working Paper NO. 304 Centre for Development Studies, Kerala Sen, A (1995): The Political Economy of Targeting in Van De Walla, D & K Nead (Ed). Public spending and the poor, Baltimore John Hopkins University Press, Swaminathan, Madhura (2003): The Dangers of Narrow Targeting: As assessment of the TPDS in Dev,M., Kannan, KP and Ramachandran, N (eds), Towards a Food Secure India, Institute for Human Development, India. 8

State Response and Policy Initiative towards Food Security: Politics of Hunger and Food Policy

State Response and Policy Initiative towards Food Security: Politics of Hunger and Food Policy CHAPTER III State Response and Policy Initiative towards Food Security: Politics of Hunger and Food Policy Food insecurity has been the major concern of food policy in India. The hunger and food insecurity

More information

PUNJAB PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (LICENSING AND CONTROL)

PUNJAB PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (LICENSING AND CONTROL) PUNJAB PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (LICENSING AND CONTROL) ORDER, 2003 GOVERNMENT OF PUNJAB DEPARTMENT OF FOOD, CIVIL SUPPLIES AND CONSUMER AFFAIRS (FOOD DISTRIBUTION-I BRANCH) The 14 th February, 2003.

More information

FOOD SECURITY BILL 1

FOOD SECURITY BILL 1 FOOD SECURITY BILL 1 FOOD SECURITY BILL FOREWORD For the many poor people in the country, getting food grains at cheap prices that they can afford will now no longer be a problem. The Government of India

More information

CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS, LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY AND DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS, LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY AND DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH CHAPTER 13 CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS, LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY AND DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Poverty is a scourge that must be overcome, and this can only be accomplished through concerted international

More information

Free Trade or Food Security Did India succeed at WTO Bali?

Free Trade or Food Security Did India succeed at WTO Bali? 122 Free Trade or Food Security Did India succeed at WTO Bali? DR. DEVPARNA ROY a and FLORIAN DOERR b a. Polson Institute for Global Development, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853, USA, Email: dr53@cornell.edu

More information

Social Dimension S o ci al D im en si o n 141

Social Dimension S o ci al D im en si o n 141 Social Dimension Social Dimension 141 142 5 th Pillar: Social Justice Fifth Pillar: Social Justice Overview of Current Situation In the framework of the Sustainable Development Strategy: Egypt 2030, social

More information

CHHATTISGARH BILL (No. of 2012) CHHATTISGARH FOOD SECURITY BILL, 2012.

CHHATTISGARH BILL (No. of 2012) CHHATTISGARH FOOD SECURITY BILL, 2012. Section CHHATTISGARH BILL (No. of 2012) CHHATTISGARH FOOD SECURITY BILL, 2012. TABLE OF CONTENTS Description CHAPTER-I PRELIMINARY 1. Short title, extent and commencement. 2. Definitions. CHAPTER-II PROVISIONS

More information

THE NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY BILL, 2013 ARRANGEMENT OF CLAUSES CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY

THE NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY BILL, 2013 ARRANGEMENT OF CLAUSES CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY CLAUSES THE NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY BILL, 2013 ARRANGEMENT OF CLAUSES CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY 1. Short title, extent and commencement. 2. Definitions. CHAPTER II PROVISIONS FOR FOOD SECURITY 3. Right to receive

More information

THE NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY BILL, 2011

THE NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY BILL, 2011 AS INTRODUCED IN LOK SABHA CLAUSES THE NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY BILL, 2011 ARRANGEMENT OF CLAUSES CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY 1. Short title, extent and commencement. 2. Definitions. CHAPTER II PROVISIONS FOR

More information

Indian Express, Delhi Fri, 29 Apr 2016, Page 9 Width: cms, Height: cms, a4, Ref:

Indian Express, Delhi Fri, 29 Apr 2016, Page 9 Width: cms, Height: cms, a4, Ref: Indian Express, Delhi Fri, 29 Apr 2016, Page 9 Width: 12.75 cms, Height: 13.54 cms, a4, Ref: 45.2016-04-29.147 Millennium Post, Delhi Fri, 29 Apr 2016, Page 6 Width: 20.32 cms, Height: 22.01 cms, a3, Ref:

More information

Impact of MGNREGS on Labour Supply to Agricultural Sector of Wayanad District in Kerala

Impact of MGNREGS on Labour Supply to Agricultural Sector of Wayanad District in Kerala Agricultural Economics Research Review Vol. 25(No.1) January-June 2012 pp 151-155 Research Note Impact of MGNREGS on Labour Supply to Agricultural Sector of Wayanad District in Kerala Merin S. Thadathil*

More information

Is Economic Development Good for Gender Equality? Income Growth and Poverty

Is Economic Development Good for Gender Equality? Income Growth and Poverty Is Economic Development Good for Gender Equality? February 25 and 27, 2003 Income Growth and Poverty Evidence from many countries shows that while economic growth has not eliminated poverty, the share

More information

Poverty profile and social protection strategy for the mountainous regions of Western Nepal

Poverty profile and social protection strategy for the mountainous regions of Western Nepal October 2014 Karnali Employment Programme Technical Assistance Poverty profile and social protection strategy for the mountainous regions of Western Nepal Policy Note Introduction This policy note presents

More information

Cooperatives, Economic Democracy and Human Security: Perspectives from Nepal

Cooperatives, Economic Democracy and Human Security: Perspectives from Nepal 1 st National Cooperative Congress March 27, 2014, Kathmandu Cooperatives, Economic Democracy and Human Security: Perspectives from Nepal Yuba Raj Khatiwada, Ph. D. Governor, Nepal Rastra Bank 1 Introduction

More information

INTRODUCTION I. BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION I. BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION I. BACKGROUND Bihar is the second most populous State of India, comprising a little more than 10 per cent of the country s population. Situated in the eastern part of the country, the state

More information

Corruption: Costs and Mitigation Strategies

Corruption: Costs and Mitigation Strategies Corruption: Costs and Mitigation Strategies Presented by Bernardin AKITOBY Assistant Director INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND SEPTEMBER 2017 Motivation Corruption has been identified as one of the most important

More information

A PREVENTIVE APPROACH TO AVOID POVERTY FROM SOCIETY

A PREVENTIVE APPROACH TO AVOID POVERTY FROM SOCIETY A PREVENTIVE APPROACH TO AVOID POVERTY FROM SOCIETY SUNITA RANI Research Scholar, department of economics CDLU, SIRSA (India) ABSTRACT The main reason of undevloping country is poverty. India is also one

More information

Report of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee Task Force on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises

Report of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee Task Force on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises Report of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee Task on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises A. Background 13 June 2002 1. The grave allegations of widespread sexual exploitation

More information

NEPAL. mvam Food Security Monitoring Survey respondents interviewed. 6.2 members per household on average. 17% female headed households

NEPAL. mvam Food Security Monitoring Survey respondents interviewed. 6.2 members per household on average. 17% female headed households NEPAL mvam Bulletin #1: June 2017 mvam Food Security Monitoring Survey Mid-Western and Far-Western The eight districts of the mid and far-western mountains of are some of the most food insecure areas in

More information

RP297. Resettlement and Rehabilitation (R&R) Entitlement Framework

RP297. Resettlement and Rehabilitation (R&R) Entitlement Framework Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized FINAL REPORT Resettlement and Rehabilitation (R&R) Entitlement Framework RP297 Under

More information

From Growth Models to Development Outcomes: An ACP 1 Response to the Sustainable Development Solutions Network Report 2

From Growth Models to Development Outcomes: An ACP 1 Response to the Sustainable Development Solutions Network Report 2 From Growth Models to Development Outcomes: An ACP 1 Response to the Sustainable Development Solutions Network Report 2 "...sustainable development is the result of the sum of the actions of all people

More information

Poverty Profile. Executive Summary. Kingdom of Thailand

Poverty Profile. Executive Summary. Kingdom of Thailand Poverty Profile Executive Summary Kingdom of Thailand February 2001 Japan Bank for International Cooperation Chapter 1 Poverty in Thailand 1-1 Poverty Line The definition of poverty and methods for calculating

More information

Fair Trade for an Equitable Economic Order. Anne-Françoise Taisne

Fair Trade for an Equitable Economic Order. Anne-Françoise Taisne Fair Trade for an Equitable Economic Order Anne-Françoise Taisne France, Activist 1 FAIR TRADE FOR AN EQUITABLE ECONOMIC ORDER Fair trade organisations have been working for more than 40 years for more

More information

IJBARR E- ISSN X ISSN AN ANALYSIS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF HANDLOOM WORKERS IN INDIA

IJBARR E- ISSN X ISSN AN ANALYSIS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF HANDLOOM WORKERS IN INDIA AN ANALYSIS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF HANDLOOM WORKERS IN INDIA Lakshmy Devi C.S Assistant Professor, P.G Department of Economics, D.B College, Sasthamcotta, Kollam, Kerala. Abstract Indian Handloom

More information

CHAPTER 10: Fundamentals of International Political Economy

CHAPTER 10: Fundamentals of International Political Economy 1. China s economy now ranks as what number in terms of size? a. First b. Second c. Third d. Fourth 2. China s economy has grown by what factor each year since 1980? a. Three b. Five c. Seven d. Ten 3.

More information

Tribal Poverty and Governance Issues in Maharashtra. Rohit Mutatkar Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai

Tribal Poverty and Governance Issues in Maharashtra. Rohit Mutatkar Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai Preliminary Draft - Not for Circulation Tribal Poverty and Governance Issues in Maharashtra Rohit Mutatkar Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai Introduction: Tribal development is known to be a priority

More information

Public Affairs Index (PAI)

Public Affairs Index (PAI) Public Affairs Index (PAI) A Closer look at Andhra Pradesh NOTE: All the data and rankings presented in PAI represent the united Andhra Pradesh (before the bifurcation) Contents of the Presentation About

More information

IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN INDIA. Mr. S. MOHANDASS. Head, Research Department of Commerce,

IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN INDIA. Mr. S. MOHANDASS. Head, Research Department of Commerce, IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN INDIA Mr. S. MOHANDASS Head, Research Department of Commerce, Sri Vinayaga College Of Arts and Science, Ulundurpet Mr. E. SUBRAMANIYAN

More information

SOCIAL WORK PROFESSION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

SOCIAL WORK PROFESSION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL WORK PROFESSION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT Bonela Ganapathi Research Scholar (RJNF) Dept. of Social Work Andhra University Visakhapatnam Abstract As we know India lives in its villages, despite it our

More information

Addis Ababa Integrated Housing Development Program: A strategy for Urban Poverty Reduction and

Addis Ababa Integrated Housing Development Program: A strategy for Urban Poverty Reduction and Addis Ababa Integrated Housing Development Program: A strategy for Urban Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation Mekonen Wube Ermed Urban planner,m.sc Addis Ababa Housing Development

More information

More sustainable hunger eradication and poverty reduction in Vietnam

More sustainable hunger eradication and poverty reduction in Vietnam More sustainable hunger eradication and poverty reduction in Vietnam Vu Van Ninh* Eliminating hunger, reducing poverty, and improving the living conditions of the poor is not just a major consistent social

More information

INDIA : ORISSA CYCLONE

INDIA : ORISSA CYCLONE INDIA : ORISSA CYCLONE 6 December 1999 appeal no. 28/99 situation report no. 4 period covered: 17th - 26th November 1999 As the full impact of the super cyclone that devastated Orissa one month ago becomes

More information

Third International Conference on Health Promotion, Sundsvall, Sweden, 9-15 June 1991

Third International Conference on Health Promotion, Sundsvall, Sweden, 9-15 June 1991 Third International Conference on Health Promotion, Sundsvall, Sweden, 9-15 June 1991 Sundsvall Statement on Supportive Environments for Health (WHO/HPR/HEP/95.3) The Third International Conference on

More information

Lao Vision Statement: Recommendations for Actions

Lao Vision Statement: Recommendations for Actions Lao Vision Statement: Recommendations for Actions Preamble The National Growth & Poverty Eradication Strategy (NGPES) states: Rural development is central to the Government s poverty eradication efforts

More information

END OF UNIVERSALISM WHAT ABOUT THE NORDIC SUCCESS STORY

END OF UNIVERSALISM WHAT ABOUT THE NORDIC SUCCESS STORY END OF UNIVERSALISM WHAT ABOUT THE NORDIC SUCCESS STORY JORMA SIPILÄ INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED SOCIAL RESEARCH UNIVERSITY OF TAMPERE, FINLAND OCTOBER 18, 2016 2 Right to daycare 3 WHY THIS TOPIC? Universalism

More information

Civic Engagement and Accountability in Public Service Delivery: South Asian Perspective

Civic Engagement and Accountability in Public Service Delivery: South Asian Perspective Civic Engagement and Accountability in Public Service Delivery: South Asian Perspective Abu Elias Sarker, Ph.D College of Business Administration University of Sharjah PO Box 27272, Sharjah United Arab

More information

Reducing Poverty in the Arab World Successes and Limits of the Moroccan. Lahcen Achy. Beirut, Lebanon July 29, 2010

Reducing Poverty in the Arab World Successes and Limits of the Moroccan. Lahcen Achy. Beirut, Lebanon July 29, 2010 Reducing Poverty in the Arab World Successes and Limits of the Moroccan Experience Lahcen Achy Beirut, Lebanon July 29, 2010 Starting point Morocco recorded an impressive decline in monetary poverty over

More information

CONTENTS THE NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY BILL, 2011 CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY. 1. Short title, extend and commencement Definitions...

CONTENTS THE NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY BILL, 2011 CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY. 1. Short title, extend and commencement Definitions... CONTENTS THE NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY BILL, 2011 Sections Page CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY 1. Short title, extend and commencement... 7 2. Definitions... 7 CHAPTER II SHARING OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER RESPONSIBILITIES

More information

DECENTRALISED MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION IN INDIA

DECENTRALISED MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION IN INDIA 1 DECENTRALISED MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION IN INDIA Krishna Kant Tripathi Anjali Bajpai Management of education has to be decentralised in order to achieve the goal of Education for All, through devolving

More information

Andhra Pradesh: Vision 2020

Andhra Pradesh: Vision 2020 OVERVIEW Andhra Pradesh: Vision 2020 Andhra Pradesh has set itself an ambitious vision. By 2020, the State will have achieved a level of development that will provide its people tremendous opportunities

More information

Submission to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against W omen (CEDAW)

Submission to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against W omen (CEDAW) Armenian Association of Women with University Education Submission to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against W omen (CEDAW) Armenian Association of Women with University Education drew

More information

A Consultative Study on Synergy between Panchayati Raj Institutions and Self Help Groups

A Consultative Study on Synergy between Panchayati Raj Institutions and Self Help Groups A Consultative Study on Synergy between Panchayati Raj Institutions and Self Help Groups Kaushik Roy & Rajesh Datta AHEAD Initiatives Addressing Hunger Empowerment And Development Foreword The subject

More information

Adam Smith and Government Intervention in the Economy Sima Siami-Namini Graduate Research Assistant and Ph.D. Student Texas Tech University

Adam Smith and Government Intervention in the Economy Sima Siami-Namini Graduate Research Assistant and Ph.D. Student Texas Tech University Review of the Wealth of Nations Adam Smith and Government Intervention in the Economy Sima Siami-Namini Graduate Research Assistant and Ph.D. Student Texas Tech University May 14, 2015 Abstract The main

More information

The Power of. Sri Lankans. For Peace, Justice and Equality

The Power of. Sri Lankans. For Peace, Justice and Equality The Power of Sri Lankans For Peace, Justice and Equality OXFAM IN SRI LANKA STRATEGIC PLAN 2014 2019 The Power of Sri Lankans For Peace, Justice and Equality Contents OUR VISION: A PEACEFUL NATION FREE

More information

Social Science Class 9 th

Social Science Class 9 th Social Science Class 9 th Poverty as a Challenge Social exclusion Vulnerability Poverty Line Poverty Estimates Vulnerable Groups Inter-State Disparities Global Poverty Scenario Causes of Poverty Anti-Poverty

More information

The WTO AoA Impact on the World Rice Price and Poverty in Thailand

The WTO AoA Impact on the World Rice Price and Poverty in Thailand The WTO AoA Impact on the World Rice Price and Poverty in Thailand An Honors Thesis for the Department of Economics By Pongrat Aroonvatanaporn Tufts University, 2004 Table of Contents: Abstract...3 Introduction.4

More information

Informal debate of the General Assembly Promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women 6 8 March 2007

Informal debate of the General Assembly Promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women 6 8 March 2007 Informal debate of the General Assembly Promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women 6 8 March 2007 I. Introduction The President of the General Assembly invited Member States and observers

More information

WFP SAFE Project in Kenya

WFP SAFE Project in Kenya WFP SAFE Project in Kenya Project Summary Report June 2013 This report briefly summarises WFP s Safe Access to Firewood and alternative Energy (SAFE) project in Kenya. SAFE background In 2007, the Inter-Agency

More information

Title: Barbados and Eastern Caribbean Crisis Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA)

Title: Barbados and Eastern Caribbean Crisis Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) Title: Barbados and Eastern Caribbean Crisis Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) Summary prepared by: The Inclusive Development Cluster, Poverty Group February 2010 This is a summary of the report

More information

Extent and Causes of Gender and Poverty in India: A Case Study of Rural Hayana

Extent and Causes of Gender and Poverty in India: A Case Study of Rural Hayana Journal of International Women's Studies Volume 7 Issue 2 Article 12 Nov-2005 Extent and Causes of Gender and Poverty in India: A Case Study of Rural Hayana Santosh Nandal Follow this and additional works

More information

Support Materials. GCE Economics H061/H461: Exemplar Materials. AS/A Level Economics

Support Materials. GCE Economics H061/H461: Exemplar Materials. AS/A Level Economics Support Materials GCE Economics H061/H461: Exemplar Materials AS/A Level Economics Contents 1 Unit F581: Markets In Action 3 2 Unit F582: The National and International Economy 6 3 Unit F583: Economics

More information

Executive Secretary s Seminar Series. Empowerment, Governance and Poverty Eradication in South Asia: An agenda for action

Executive Secretary s Seminar Series. Empowerment, Governance and Poverty Eradication in South Asia: An agenda for action Executive Secretary s Seminar Series Empowerment, Governance and Poverty Eradication in South Asia: An agenda for action Presentation by Professor Rehman Sobhan Chairman, Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD)

More information

SSRG International Journal of Economics and Management Studies (SSRG-IJEMS) volume 4 Issue 8 August 2017

SSRG International Journal of Economics and Management Studies (SSRG-IJEMS) volume 4 Issue 8 August 2017 Women Empowerment through Programmes with special reference to MavoorGramaPanchayat in Kerala BijuJoseph MA, MSc, MBA. Assistant Professor Post Graduate and Research Department of Economics St Joseph s

More information

FUNDING BUDGET FUNDING AND BUDGET

FUNDING BUDGET FUNDING AND BUDGET FUNDING BUDGET FUNDING AND BUDGET OVERVIEW UNHCR relies almost exclusively on voluntary contributions to cover the costs of its operations. Although a limited subsidy from the Regular Budget of the United

More information

Migration and Informality

Migration and Informality Migration and Informality Alakh N. Sharma Dhruv Sood Institute for Human Development NIDM Building, 3 rd Floor, IP Estate Mahatma Gandhi Marg New Delhi-110002 Why People Migrate? Labour migration is an

More information

Chinese NGOs: Malfunction and Third-party Governance

Chinese NGOs: Malfunction and Third-party Governance Chinese NGOs: Malfunction and Third-party Governance Huiling Zhang 1 & Shoujie Wang 2 1 Social Science Department, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai, China 2 School of Humanity and Law,

More information

THE WOMEN FARMERS' ENTITLEMENTS BILL, 2011

THE WOMEN FARMERS' ENTITLEMENTS BILL, 2011 AS INTRODUCED IN THE RAJYA SABHA ON THE 11TH MAY, 2012 Bill No. LV of 2011 THE WOMEN FARMERS' ENTITLEMENTS BILL, 2011 ARRANGEMENT OF CLAUSES CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY CLAUSES 1. Short title, extent and commencement.

More information

Labour market crisis: changes and responses

Labour market crisis: changes and responses Labour market crisis: changes and responses Ágnes Hárs Kopint-Tárki Budapest, 22-23 November 2012 Outline The main economic and labour market trends Causes, reasons, escape routes Increasing difficulties

More information

Why Cooperatives are often coaxed for Poor Performance?

Why Cooperatives are often coaxed for Poor Performance? Why Cooperatives are often coaxed for Poor Performance? Introduction Cooperatives are often targets of unexpected coaxing in the hands of people, who perhaps in all fairness may not be aware of its role

More information

CALL FOR PROPOSALS. Strengthen capacity of youth led and youth-focused organizations on peacebuilding including mapping of activities in peacebuilding

CALL FOR PROPOSALS. Strengthen capacity of youth led and youth-focused organizations on peacebuilding including mapping of activities in peacebuilding CALL FOR PROPOSALS Strengthen capacity of youth led and youth-focused organizations on peacebuilding including mapping of activities in peacebuilding 1. BACKGROUND The UN system in Liberia, primarily the

More information

What Is the Farm Bill?

What Is the Farm Bill? Renée Johnson Specialist in Agricultural Policy Jim Monke Specialist in Agricultural Policy June 21, 2013 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Congressional Research

More information

Outcomes of Democracy NCERT

Outcomes of Democracy NCERT Outcomes of Democracy Overview As we begin to wind up our tour of democracy, it is time to move beyond our discussion of specific themes and ask a general set of questions: What does democracy do? Or,

More information

Decentralization has remained in the Nepalese

Decentralization has remained in the Nepalese Decentralization in Nepal: Two Decades of One mission and its Progress Sagar Raj Prasai Architect, urban and municipal planning Decentralization has remained in the Nepalese national agenda for the last

More information

THE AFFORDANCES OF BIG DATA FOR POVERTY REDUCTION: EVIDENCE FROM INDIA

THE AFFORDANCES OF BIG DATA FOR POVERTY REDUCTION: EVIDENCE FROM INDIA THE AFFORDANCES OF BIG DATA FOR POVERTY REDUCTION: EVIDENCE FROM INDIA Silvia Masiero Lecturer in International Development School of Business and Economics, Loughborough University s.masiero@lboro.ac.uk

More information

Social fairness and justice in the perspective of modernization

Social fairness and justice in the perspective of modernization 2nd International Conference on Economics, Management Engineering and Education Technology (ICEMEET 2016) Social fairness and justice in the perspective of modernization Guo Xian Xi'an International University,

More information

THE KARNATAKA TRANSPARENCY IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENTS ACT, 1999

THE KARNATAKA TRANSPARENCY IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENTS ACT, 1999 THE KARNATAKA TRANSPARENCY IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENTS ACT, 1999 Statements of Objects and Reasons Sections : ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS CHAPTER I 1. Short title and commencement. 2. Definitions. 3. Provisions

More information

2017 The Institute for Social Accountability (TISA)

2017 The Institute for Social Accountability (TISA) 2017 The Institute for Social Accountability (TISA) This document is prepared for public use and dissemination. However any reproduction should acknowledge the source. Design, Layout & Printing Endless

More information

What Is the Farm Bill?

What Is the Farm Bill? Renée Johnson Specialist in Agricultural Policy Jim Monke Specialist in Agricultural Policy June 21, 2013 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Congressional Research

More information

Third Evaluation Round

Third Evaluation Round Adoption: 18 October 2017 Publication: 4 December 2017 Public GrecoEval3Rep(2017)1 Third Evaluation Round Summary of the Evaluation Report on Belarus Incriminations (ETS 173 and 191, GPC 2) (Theme I) Transparency

More information

Mali context analysis for accountability interventions to support the delivery of FP2020 commitments

Mali context analysis for accountability interventions to support the delivery of FP2020 commitments Mali context analysis for accountability interventions to support the delivery of FP2020 commitments This country brief is part of a series of briefs produced by Action2020, a consortium led by Christian

More information

SOCIAL PROTECTION IN AFRICA: A WAY FORWARD 1

SOCIAL PROTECTION IN AFRICA: A WAY FORWARD 1 SOCIAL PROTECTION IN AFRICA: A WAY FORWARD 1 Introduction This paper explores options for those engaged with social protection as donors, consultants, researchers and NGO workers, with the objective of

More information

October 2006 APB Globalization: Benefits and Costs

October 2006 APB Globalization: Benefits and Costs October 2006 APB 06-04 Globalization: Benefits and Costs Put simply, globalization involves increasing integration of economies around the world from the national to the most local levels, involving trade

More information

The business case for gender equality: Key findings from evidence for action paper

The business case for gender equality: Key findings from evidence for action paper The business case for gender equality: Key findings from evidence for action paper Paris 18th June 2010 This research finds critical evidence linking improving gender equality to many key factors for economic

More information

Lessons of China s Economic Growth: Comment. These are three very fine papers. I say that not as an academic

Lessons of China s Economic Growth: Comment. These are three very fine papers. I say that not as an academic Lessons of China s Economic Growth: Comment Martin Feldstein These are three very fine papers. I say that not as an academic specialist on the Chinese economy but as someone who first visited China in

More information

Education and Employment: A Change Agent for Andh Community

Education and Employment: A Change Agent for Andh Community Education and Employment: A Change Agent for Andh Community SHEIKH NAZIR JABBAR Manavloks College of Social Sciences, Ring Road Ambajogai District Beed 431517, Maharashtra E-mail: nazirsheikh1972@gmail.com

More information

WFP Somalia SPECIAL OPERATION SO

WFP Somalia SPECIAL OPERATION SO WFP Somalia SPECIAL OPERATION SO 201051 Country: Somalia Type of project: Special Operation Title: Emergency Rehabilitation Work and Capacity strengthening at the Port of Kismayo Total Cost: US$1,579,112

More information

19 ECONOMIC INEQUALITY. Chapt er. Key Concepts. Economic Inequality in the United States

19 ECONOMIC INEQUALITY. Chapt er. Key Concepts. Economic Inequality in the United States Chapt er 19 ECONOMIC INEQUALITY Key Concepts Economic Inequality in the United States Money income equals market income plus cash payments to households by the government. Market income equals wages, interest,

More information

Institutional Labour Market Segmentation in China

Institutional Labour Market Segmentation in China Shi Li, School of Economics and Management, Beijing Normal University, China Haiyuan Wan, Research Institute of Social Development, National Development & Reform Committee, China Abstract As the excessive

More information

Promoting equality, including social equity, gender equality and women s empowerment. Statement on behalf of France, Germany and Switzerland

Promoting equality, including social equity, gender equality and women s empowerment. Statement on behalf of France, Germany and Switzerland 8 th session of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals, New York, 3.-7.2.2014 Promoting equality, including social equity, gender equality and women s empowerment Statement on behalf of

More information

Executive Board of the United Nations Development Programme and of the United Nations Population Fund

Executive Board of the United Nations Development Programme and of the United Nations Population Fund UNITED NATIONS DP Executive Board of the United Nations Development Programme and of the United Nations Population Fund Distr. GENERAL DP/CCF/ZIM/2 22 February 2000 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH Second regular session

More information

ACHIEVING INCLUSIVE AND RESILIENT GROWTH IN ARMENIA: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES ARMENIA SYSTEMATIC COUNTRY DIAGNOSTIC CONCEPT STAGE

ACHIEVING INCLUSIVE AND RESILIENT GROWTH IN ARMENIA: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES ARMENIA SYSTEMATIC COUNTRY DIAGNOSTIC CONCEPT STAGE ACHIEVING INCLUSIVE AND RESILIENT GROWTH IN ARMENIA: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES ARMENIA SYSTEMATIC COUNTRY DIAGNOSTIC CONCEPT STAGE March 2017 What is a Systematic Country Diagnostic? Identify key challenges

More information

Economic and Social Council

Economic and Social Council United Nations Economic and Social Council E/ECA/ARFSD/2/4 Distr.: General 12 May 2016 Original: English Economic Commission for Africa Africa Regional Forum on Sustainable Development Second session Cairo,

More information

ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE MIGRANT WORKERS IN KERALA: A STUDY IN THE TRIVANDRUM DISTRICT

ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE MIGRANT WORKERS IN KERALA: A STUDY IN THE TRIVANDRUM DISTRICT (ISSN: 2321-4155), 33-46 Economics ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE MIGRANT WORKERS IN KERALA: A STUDY IN THE TRIVANDRUM DISTRICT Dilip Saikia* ABSTRACT In recent years, Kerala has been experiencing a large

More information

THE DISCLOSURE OF LOBBYING ACTIVITIES BILL, 2013

THE DISCLOSURE OF LOBBYING ACTIVITIES BILL, 2013 1 TO BE INTRODUCED IN LOK SABHA Bill No. 14 of 2013 5 THE DISCLOSURE OF LOBBYING ACTIVITIES BILL, 2013 By SHRI KALIKESH NARAYAN SINGH DEO, M.P. A BILL to set up an Authority for registration of lobbyists;

More information

University of Groningen. Income distribution across ethnic groups in Malaysia Saari, Mohd

University of Groningen. Income distribution across ethnic groups in Malaysia Saari, Mohd University of Groningen Income distribution across ethnic groups in Malaysia Saari, Mohd IMPORTANT NOTE: You are advised to consult the publisher's version (publisher's PDF) if you wish to cite from it.

More information

Social institutions, social policy and redistributive poverty reduction

Social institutions, social policy and redistributive poverty reduction UNITED NATIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT COMBATING POVERTY AND INEQUALITY Structural Change, Social Policy and Politics Social institutions, social policy and redistributive poverty reduction

More information

PATHWAYS TO RESILIENCE: TRANSFORMING SYRIAN REFUGEE CAMPS INTO SELF-SUSTAINING SETTLEMENTS

PATHWAYS TO RESILIENCE: TRANSFORMING SYRIAN REFUGEE CAMPS INTO SELF-SUSTAINING SETTLEMENTS PATHWAYS TO RESILIENCE: TRANSFORMING SYRIAN REFUGEE CAMPS INTO SELF-SUSTAINING SETTLEMENTS FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR RESILIENCE-BUILDING IN SYRIAN REFUGEE CAMPS AND THEIR NEIGHBOURING HOST COMMUNITIES IN THE

More information

EU-EGYPT PARTNERSHIP PRIORITIES

EU-EGYPT PARTNERSHIP PRIORITIES EU-EGYPT PARTNERSHIP PRIORITIES 2017-2020 I. Introduction The general framework of the cooperation between the EU and Egypt is set by the Association Agreement which was signed in 2001 and entered into

More information

Income Inequality in the United States Through the Lens of Other Advanced Economies

Income Inequality in the United States Through the Lens of Other Advanced Economies Mia DeSanzo Wealth & Power Major Writing Assignment 3/3/16 Income Inequality in the United States Through the Lens of Other Advanced Economies Income inequality in the United States has become a political

More information

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS] POLITICAL PARTIES SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS] 1. How do political parties shape public opinion? Explain with three examples. Political parties shape public opinion in the following ways. They

More information

DATA NEEDS FOR INCLUSIVE DEVELOPMENT Sociological perspectives from Malaysian experiences

DATA NEEDS FOR INCLUSIVE DEVELOPMENT Sociological perspectives from Malaysian experiences DATA NEEDS FOR INCLUSIVE DEVELOPMENT Sociological perspectives from Malaysian experiences By Datuk Dr Denison Jayasooria Institute of Ethnic Studies (KITA), National University of Malaysia (UKM) Introduction

More information

Guidelines to Food Aid Standards

Guidelines to Food Aid Standards Guidelines to Food Aid Standards These standards are to act as a reference source for any organization involved in the handling of food aid. Specifically, they are to serve as a compass, in order to encourage

More information

A Human Rights Based Approach to Development: Strategies and Challenges

A Human Rights Based Approach to Development: Strategies and Challenges UNITED NATIONS A Human Rights Based Approach to Development: Strategies and Challenges By Orest Nowosad National Institutions Team Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights A Human Rights Based

More information

The Informal Economy of Township Spaza Shops

The Informal Economy of Township Spaza Shops The Informal Economy of Township Spaza Shops The informal economy of township spaza shops Introduction > The Sustainable Livelihoods Foundation s Formalising Informal Micro- Enterprises (FIME) project

More information

Urbanization and Economic Development in India

Urbanization and Economic Development in India Urbanization and Economic Development in India Dr. Kamble P.S a, Mr. Babar Pravin Gulabrao a a Dept. Economics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India. Introduction In developing countries of

More information

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK SOMALIA

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK SOMALIA AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized SOMALIA PROPOSAL FOR A GRANT OF US$ 1 MILLION FOR EMERGENCY HUMANITARIAN RELIEF ASSISTANCE TO THE VICTIMS OF THE DROUGHT

More information

Fact Sheet WOMEN S PARTICIPATION IN THE PALESTINIAN LABOUR FORCE: males

Fact Sheet WOMEN S PARTICIPATION IN THE PALESTINIAN LABOUR FORCE: males Fact Sheet WOMEN S PARTICIPATION IN THE PALESTINIAN LABOUR FORCE: -11 This fact sheet (1) presents an overview of women s employment status in terms of labour force participation, unemployment and terms

More information

Strategy for Sweden s development cooperation with Zimbabwe

Strategy for Sweden s development cooperation with Zimbabwe Strategy for Sweden s development cooperation with Zimbabwe 2017 2021 Strategy for Sweden s development cooperation with Zimbabwe 1 1. Focus The objective of Sweden s international development cooperation

More information

Green Economy and Sustainable Development: Bringing Back the Social. UNRISD submission to the UNCSD, 1 November 2011 KEY MESSAGES

Green Economy and Sustainable Development: Bringing Back the Social. UNRISD submission to the UNCSD, 1 November 2011 KEY MESSAGES Green Economy and Sustainable Development: Bringing Back the Social UNRISD submission to the UNCSD, 1 November 2011 Social dimensions have consistently received least attention in the triad of issues that

More information

Empowerment of Women through SHG and Role of Education : An Analysis

Empowerment of Women through SHG and Role of Education : An Analysis Pedagogy of Learning, Vol.-3, Issue-2, pp.96-104, Oct. 2015 (International Refereed Journal of Education) P-ISSN : 2320-9526, E-ISSN: 2395-7344 Indexed and Impact Factor : 0.787 (GIF) Recommended Citation

More information