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1 1 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Where immigrant succeed A comparative review of performance and engagement in PISA 2003 End of embargo: 15 May :00 Paris time OECD Directorate for Education

2 2 Different histories New Zealand Foreign-born population Foreign-nationality population Where immigrant succeed A comparative review of performance and engagement in PISA 2003: Figure 1.1.

3 3 European countries with post-war labour recruitment:,,,,, and Mass immigration after World War II as a result of active recruitment Expectation of temporary residency Nordic countries placing stronger emphasis on humanitarian immigration since 1970s The traditional settlement countries:,, New Zealand, Founded on the basis of immigration and continuing to admit significant numbers of newcomers for permanent residence Extensive experience with immigration and its social consequences European countries with colonial histories:,, the, the United Kingdom Similar patterns as in other European countries but less linguistic diversity

4 4 Key Issues Policy attention is shifting from managing and containing migration inflows to addressing challenges of integration Schools can play a central role in integration processes Preparation for school-work transitions Overcoming language barriers Transmission of norms and values PISA provides first-time comparative data on cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes of immigrant Comparison with native peers Comparison with immigrant student populations across countries and thus provides an opportunities to review policies and practices in this area

5 5 This report The report compares three student populations Native are who were born in the country of assessment or who had at least one parent born in that country Second-generation immigrant are who were born in the country of assessment, but whose parents were born in another country, i.e. who have followed their entire school career in the country of assessment First-generation immigrant are who were not born in the country of assessment and whose parents were also born in another country also taking into account their socio-economic composition

6 6 PISA country participation and Key features of PISA 2003 countries included in the report Information collected Volume of the tests 3½ hours of mathematics assessment 1 hour for each of reading, science and problem solving Each student 2 hours on paper-and-pencil tasks (subset of all questions) ½ hour for questionnaire on background, learning habits, learning environment, engagement and motivation, computer use School principals questionnaire (school demography, learning environment quality) Coverage PISA covers roughly nine tens of the world economy Representative OECD countries samples of between Partner 3,500 and countries 50,000 In the report NOT in the report In the report NOT in the report

7 7 Key findings Hong Kong-China Mathematics performance Native Second-generation First-generation On average across the 17 countries, 15-year-old first-generation immigrants score in mathematics more than one school year Native behind their OECD average native = 500 counterparts New Zealand Macao-China Second-generation 550 The performance disadvantage varies First-generation widely across countries from negligible amounts to more than 90 score points in and for first-generation more than 90 score points in and for second-generation The performance of immigrant also varies in absolute terms with second-generation immigrants in outperforming their German counterparts by 111 score points, almost equivalent to three school years Russian Federation Where immigrant succeed A comparative review of performance and engagement in PISA 2003: Figure 2.2a.

8 8 Unemployment rates by immigration background % 20 Native-born (2003) Foreign-born (2003) Where immigrant succeed A comparative review of performance and engagement in PISA 2003: Table 1.4.

9 Mathematics performance Larger immigrant populations do not imply lower overall performance Hong Kong-China New Zealand Macao-China Russian Federation r = 0.30, p= Percentage of immigrant in the country

10 12 12 Mathematics performance by proficiency levels In PISA Level 2 demonstrates an essential foundation of mathematics skills Russian Federation Russian Federation Percentage of native New Zealand New Zealand Macao-China Macao-China Hong Kong-China Percentage of second-generation immigrant Hong Kong-China Where immigrant succeed A comparative review of performance and engagement in PISA 2003: Figure 2.4a. PISA Proficiency Levels Levels5 and 6 Level 4 Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 Below 1

11 13 13 Students interest in and enjoyment of mathematics (OECD average) I enjoy reading about mathematics. I look forward to my mathematics lessons. I do mathematics because I enjoy it. I am interested in the things I learn in mathematics. Native Secondgeneration immigrant First-generation immigrant Stronger in 9 countries Effect size 0.16 Stronger in 14 countries Effect size 0.32 Where immigrant succeed A comparative review of performance and engagement in PISA 2003: Figures 4.2 and 4.9.

12 14 14 Students instrumental motivation in learning mathematics (OECD average) Making an effort in mathematics is worth it because it will help me in work I want to do later. Learning mathematics is worthwhile because it will improve my career prospects. Mathematics is an important subject because I need it for what I want to study later on. I will learn many things in mathematics that will help me get a job. Native Secondgeneration immigrant First-generation immigrant Stronger in 10 countries Effect size 0.14 (not significant) Stronger in 12 countries Effect size 0.25 Where immigrant succeed A comparative review of performance and engagement in PISA 2003: Figures 4.3a and 4.9.

13 15 15 The likelihood of immigrant expecting to complete a university-level programme (ISCED 5a, 6) compared to native Second-generation immigrant Observed odds ratio First-generation immigrant New Zealand Odds ratio accounting for differences in mathematics performance and ESCS New Zealand Hong Kong-China Hong Kong-China Macao-China Macao-China Russian Federation Russian Federation Table Odds ratios

14 17 17 Students attitudes towards school (OECD average) School has done little to prepare me for adult life when I leave school. School has been a waste of time. School helped give me confidence to make decisions. School has taught me things which could be useful in a job. Native Secondgeneration immigrant First-generation immigrant Stronger in 8 countries Effect size 0.17 Stronger in 11 countries Effect size 0.23 Where immigrant succeed A comparative review of performance and engagement in PISA 2003: Figures 4.7 and 4.9.

15 18 18 Performance differences in mathematics Native versus first-generation immigrant PISA score point difference Mathematics performance difference Parents' occupational status Native perform better than immigrant Parental education (in years of schooling) Foreign language spoken at home Immigrant perform better than native New Zealand Macao-China Russian Federation Hong Kong-China OECD average Where immigrant succeed A comparative review of performance and engagement in PISA 2003: Table 3.5.

16 19 19 Performance differences in mathematics Native versus second-generation immigrant PISA score point difference Mathematics performance difference Parents' occupational status Native perform better than immigrant Parental education (in years of schooling) Foreign language spoken at home Immigrant perform better than native Hong Kong-China Macao-China Russian Federation OECD average New Zealand Where immigrant succeed A comparative review of performance and engagement in PISA 2003: Table 3.5.

17 20 20 Performance of immigrant whose families came from Turkey or the former Yugoslavia 550 Native Turkey Former Yugoslavia Performance on the PISA mathematics scale Where immigrant succeed A comparative review of performance and engagement in PISA 2003: Figure 2.8 and Table 2.9.

18 21 21 Percentage of native in schools with different proportions of immigrant 0% to <10% 10% to <20% 20% to <30% 30% to <40% 40% to <50% 50% to <60% 60% to <70% 70% or higher 100% 80% 60% Schools with an immigrant population of 50% or more 40% 20% 0% -20% -40% -60% -80% -100% Schools with an immigrant population of less than 50% Macao-China Hong Kong-China New Zealand OECD average Russian Federation Where immigrant succeed A comparative review of performance and engagement in PISA 2003: Table 3.7c.

19 22 22 Percentage of second-generation immigrant in schools with different proportions of immigrant 100% 0% to <10% 10% to <20% 20% to <30% 30% to <40% 40% to <50% 50% to <60% 60% to <70% 70% or higher 80% 60% Schools with an immigrant population of 50% or more 40% 20% 0% -20% -40% -60% -80% -100% Schools with an immigrant population of less than 50% Macao-China New Zealand Hong Kong-China OECD average Russian Federation Where immigrant succeed A comparative review of performance and engagement in PISA 2003: Table 3.7a.

20 26 26 Characteristics of schools attended by immigrant compared to schools attended by native School ESCS Studentrelated factors Teacherrelated factors Disciplin ary climate Teacher morale and commit ment School's physical infrastru cture Teacher shortag e Student/ teacher ratio School's educatio nal resourc es w w - w w w w w New Zealand Teacher support Table 3.9. Hong Kong-China Macao-China Russian Federation

21 Estimated percentage of immigrant Language of instruction support in primary education Immersion with systematic language support in the language of instruction >80,, - Canton Geneva, Hong Kong-China, Macao-China Ontario Finland, Victoria, - British Columbia 20-34, - Canton Zurich Negligible Submersion/ Immersion - French Community, Spain >80 - French Community, Spain Canton Zurich New South Wales and Queensland, <5 - New South Wales and Queensland, - Vienna,, England, Immigrant attend regular classes to learn all standard academic programmes, but also receive targeted instruction to develop their skills in the language of instruction. This is also the most common approach in lower secondary education. Immersion with a preparatory phase in the language of instruction Immigrant attend Victoria programmes to develop their language skills before they Finland make the transition to regular <5 - Queensland, - French Community,,, classes., This is more common, - Canton Zurich and Canton Berne, Hong Kong-China, in lower secondary Macao-China education than in primary education.

22 28 28 Further information All national and international publications The complete micro-level database and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion

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