International Migration Report 2009: A Global Assessment

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1 S o c i a l A f f a i r s E c o n o m i c & : A Global Assessment United Nations

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3 ST/ESA/SER.A/316 December 211 Department of Economic and Social Affairs Division : A Global Assessment United Nations

4 DESA The Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat is a vital interface between global policies in the economic, social and environmental spheres and national action. The Department works in three main interlinked areas: (i) it compiles, generates and analyses a wide range of economic, social and environmental data and information on which States Members of the United Nations draw to review common problems and take stock of policy options; (ii) it facilitates the negotiations of Member States in many intergovernmental bodies on joint courses of action to address ongoing or emerging global challenges; and (iii) it advises interested Governments on the ways and means of translating policy frameworks developed in United Nations conferences and summits into programmes at the country level and, through technical assistance, helps build national capacities. Note The designations employed in this report and the material presented in it do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures. This publication has been issued without formal editing. Suggested citation: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division (211). : A Global Assessment (United Nations, ST/ESA/SER.A/316). Copyright United Nations 211 All rights reserved Printed in the United Nations, New York

5 PREFACE The Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) of the United Nations Secretariat is responsible for providing the international community with up-to-date and objective information on population and development. The Division provides guidance to the United Nations General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and the Commission on and Development on population and development issues. The Division also undertakes regular studies on population levels, trends and dynamics, including trends of international migration, changes in population policies and the interrelationships between population and development. In the area of international migration, the Division estimates the global number of international migrants at regular intervals, monitors levels, trends and policies of international migration, and collects and analyses information on the relationship between international migration and development. The Migration Section also convenes the interagency coordination meeting on international migration and organizes expert group meetings. As part of its monitoring activities, the Migration Section within the Division maintains the United Nations Global Migration Database, which contains the most complete set of statistics on international migrants enumerated in the countries or areas of the world and classified by country of birth or citizenship, sex and age. On behalf of DESA, the Migration Section participates in the interagency Global Migration Group (GMG). The Section also services the intergovernmental process on international migration and development at the General Assembly and acts within the Secretariat as the focal point for the State-led Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD). This report presents information on international migration levels, trends and legal instruments for major areas, regions and countries of the world. The data for the international migrant stock are taken from the publication Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 28 Revision. The estimates on the total population, net migration and the projected population up to 25 are based on World Prospects: The 28 Revision. For the first time, data on international migration flows for a selected group of countries are included in the analysis. The data come from the dataset International Migration Flows to and from Selected Countries: The 28 Revision. The analysis of the ratification status of migration-related legal instruments for Member States of the United Nations and the International Labour Organization (ILO) is based on information from the United Nations Treaty Section which can be accessed at treaties.un.org. For more information on the data and methodology used for calculating the various indicators used in this report, please see the above-mentioned publications. Responsibility for this report rests with the Division. Preparation of this publication was facilitated by the ongoing work of the regional commissions, the specialized agencies and other relevant bodies of the United Nations, in particular the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The Division is also grateful to the Statistics Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs for its continuing cooperation. For further information about this publication, please contact the Division, United Nations, New York, NY 117, USA by telephone (+1 212) , fax (+1 212) or More information on the activities of the Division in the area of international migration can be found at iii

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7 CONTENTS Preface... Explanatory notes... Classification of countries or areas by major areas and region of the world... EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... Page iii xii xiv xvii PART ONE. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION LEVELS, TRENDS AND LEGAL INSTRUMENTS I. INTERNATIONAL MIGRANT STOCK... 1 II. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FLOWS SELECTED COUNTRIES... 7 III. NET INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IV. LEGAL INSTRUMENTS ON INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION PART TWO. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT AT THE UNITED NATIONS V. RESOLUTIONS OF THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY AND THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL A. 61/28 International migration and development B. 61/515 Summary of the High-level Dialogue on International Migration and Development: Note by the President of the General Assembly C. 62/27 Global Forum on Migration and Development D. 63/225 International migration and development E. Resolution 26/2 on International migration and development PART THREE. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION PROFILES VI. DEFINITIONS AND SOURCES VII. PROFILES BY MAJOR AREA, REGION AND SPECIAL GROUP World More developed regions Less developed regions... 6 Least developed countries Less developed regions, excluding least developed countries Sub-Saharan Africa Africa Eastern Africa Middle Africa Northern Africa Southern Africa Western Africa Asia... 7 Central Asia Eastern Asia v

8 South-Eastern Asia Southern Asia Western Asia Europe Eastern Europe Northern Europe Southern Europe Western Europe... 8 Latin America and the Caribbean Caribbean Central America South America Northern America Oceania Australia and New Zealand Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia... 9 Page VIII. PROFILES BY COUNTRY OR AREA Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina... 1 Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana vi

9 Brazil British Virgin Islands Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Channel Islands Chile China China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region China, Macao Special Administrative Region Colombia Comoros Congo Cook Islands Costa Rica Côte d Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Democratic People s Republic of Korea Democratic Republic of the Congo Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Faeroe Islands Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia Gabon Page vii

10 Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Holy See Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati... 2 Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Page viii

11 Mali Malta Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia (Federated States of) Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Northern Mariana Islands Norway Occupied Palestinian Territory Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Republic of Korea Republic of Moldova Réunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Page ix

12 Saint Helena Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Pierre et Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Thailand The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia... 3 Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland United Republic of Tanzania United States of America United States Virgin Islands Uruguay Uzbekistan Page x

13 Vanuatu Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Viet Nam Wallis and Futuna Islands Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Page ANNEX I. STATE PARTIES TO LEGAL INSTRUMENTS RELEVANT TO INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION xi

14 EXPLANATORY NOTES The following symbols are used in the tables shown in this report: Two dots (..) indicate that data are not available or are not separately reported. Three dots ( ) indicate that the treaty was not ratified. An em dash ( ) indicates that the amount is nil or negligible. A hyphen (-) indicates that the item is not applicable. A minus sign (-) before a figure indicates a decrease. A full stop (.) is used to indicate decimals. Use of a hyphen (-) between years, for example, , signifies the full period involved, from 1 July of the first year to 1 July of the second year. Due to rounding, the numbers and percentages displayed in tables may not add up to the corresponding totals. The terms more developed and less developed regions are used for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgment as to the developmental stage of a particular country or area. Where appropriate, the term country may refer to a territory or area. More developed regions are comprised of all countries of Europe, Northern America, Australia/New Zealand and Japan. The term developed countries refers to countries in the more developed regions. Less developed regions are comprised of all countries of Africa, Asia (excluding Japan) and Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. The term developing countries is used to designate countries in the less developed regions. The group of least developed countries, as defined by the Committee for Development Policy (CDP), a subsidiary body of the United Nations Economic and Social Council, currently comprises 48 countries: Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kiribati, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sudan, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Yemen, Zambia. The designation sub-saharan Africa refers to countries in Africa except Algeria, Egypt, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Tunisia and Western Sahara. Countries and areas are grouped geographically into six major areas: Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Northern America and Oceania. These are further divided into 21geographical regions. Country names and the composition of geographical areas follow those of Standard country or area codes for statistical use (ST/ESA/STAT/SER.M/49/Rev.3), available at: xii

15 The following abbreviations have been used: DESA EEA EU GDP GFMD GMG ILO IMF IOM UNHCR UNRWA USSR Department of Economic and Social Affairs European Economic Area European Union gross domestic product Global Forum on Migration and Development Global Migration Group International Labour Organization International Monetary Fund International Organization for Migration United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East Union of Soviet Socialist Republics xiii

16 CLASSIFICATION OF COUNTRIES OR AREAS BY MAJOR AREA AND REGION OF THE WORLD Africa Eastern Africa Middle Africa Northern Africa Western Africa Burundi Angola Algeria Benin Comoros Cameroon Egypt Burkina Faso Djibouti Central African Republic Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Cape Verde Eritrea Chad Morocco Côte d'ivoire Ethiopia Congo Sudan Gambia Kenya Madagascar Democratic Republic of the Congo Tunisia Western Sahara Ghana Guinea Malawi Equatorial Guinea Guinea-Bissau Mauritius 1 Gabon Liberia Mayotte Sao Tome and Principe Mali Mozambique Southern Africa Mauritania Réunion Botswana Niger Rwanda Lesotho Nigeria Seychelles Namibia Saint Helena 2 Somalia South Africa Senegal Uganda Swaziland Sierra Leone United Republic of Tanzania Togo Zambia Zimbabwe Central Asia South-Eastern Asia Southern Asia Western Asia Kazakhstan Brunei Darussalam Afghanistan Armenia Kyrgyzstan Cambodia Bangladesh Azerbaijan Tajikistan Indonesia Bhutan Bahrain Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Eastern Asia China 3 China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 4 China, Macao Special Administrative Region 5 Democratic People's Republic of Korea Japan Mongolia Republic of Korea Asia Lao People's Democratic Republic India Iran (Islamic Republic of) Cyprus Georgia Malaysia Maldives Iraq Myanmar Nepal Israel Philippines Pakistan Jordan Singapore Sri Lanka Kuwait Thailand Timor-Leste Viet Nam Lebanon Occupied Palestinian Territory Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Syrian Arab Republic Turkey United Arab Emirates Yemen 1 Including Agalega, Rodrigues and Saint Brandon. 2 Including Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. 3 For statistical purposes, the data for China do not include Hong Kong and Macao, Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of China. 4 As of 1 July 1997, Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China. 5 As of 2 December 1999, Macao became a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China. xiv

17 CLASSIFICATION OF COUNTRIES (continued) Europe Eastern Europe Northern Europe Southern Europe Western Europe Belarus Channel Islands 6 Albania Austria Bulgaria Denmark Andorra Belgium Czech Republic Estonia Bosnia and Herzegovina France Hungary Faeroe Islands Croatia Germany Poland Finland 7 Gibraltar Liechtenstein Republic of Moldova Iceland Greece Luxembourg Romania Ireland Holy See 8 Monaco Russian Federation Isle of Man Italy Netherlands Slovakia Latvia Malta Switzerland Ukraine Lithuania Montenegro Norway 9 Portugal Sweden United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1 San Marino Serbia Slovenia Spain The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 11 Latin America and the Caribbean Caribbean Central America South America Anguilla Belize Argentina Antigua and Barbuda Costa Rica Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Aruba El Salvador Brazil Bahamas Guatemala Chile Barbados Honduras Colombia British Virgin Islands Mexico Ecuador Cayman Islands Nicaragua Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Cuba Panama French Guiana Dominica Guyana Dominican Republic Paraguay Grenada Peru Guadeloupe Suriname Haiti Jamaica Martinique Montserrat Netherlands Antilles Puerto Rico Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands United States Virgin Islands Uruguay Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 6 Refers to Guernsey and Jersey. 7 Including Åland Islands. 8 Refers to Vatican City State. 9 Including Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands. 1 Also referred to as United Kingdom. 11 Also referred to as TFYR Macedonia. xv

18 CLASSIFICATION OF COUNTRIES (continued) Bermuda Canada Greenland Saint Pierre et Miquelon United States of America Northern America Oceania Australia/New Zealand Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia Australia 12 Fiji Guam American Samoa New Zealand New Caledonia Kiribati Cook Islands Papua New Guinea Marshall Islands French Polynesia Solomon Islands Micronesia (Federated States of) Niue Vanuatu Nauru Pitcairn Northern Mariana Islands Palau Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu Wallis and Futuna Islands 12 Including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Norfolk Islands. xvi

19 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The : A Global Assessment, prepared by the Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, is the third in a series which presents information on international migration levels and trends and the status of ratification of international legal instruments relevant to international migration as well as related indicators for major areas, regions and countries of the world. International migration has moved to the forefront of the national and international agenda. The United Nations system is addressing the various dimensions of this topic. The United Nations Secretariat has focused on the collection, analysis and dissemination of information on the levels and trends of international migration. Other parts of the United Nations system have been concerned with issues such as migrant rights, human trafficking and the social and economic integration of migrants. In addition, specialized agencies have focused on topics related to their expertise and mandates, such as labour migration, refugee protection and remittance flows. Since 26, several initiatives have been launched at the global level to enhance the benefits and to address the challenges posed by international migration. In 26, the General Assembly convened the High-level Dialogue on International Migration and Development, the first high-level event in the United Nations exclusively devoted to international migration. Participants recognized that international migration, development and human rights were intrinsically interconnected. They also affirmed that, provided that international migration was supported by appropriate policies, it could be a positive force for development in both countries of origin and destination. Following a proposal by the Secretary-General at that meeting, the Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD) was subsequently created. By 21, Belgium, the Philippines, Greece and Mexico had hosted the Global Forum on Migration and Development. This informal, non-binding, voluntary and State-led process fosters practical cooperation between Governments in order to maximize the developmental benefits of international migration and to reduce its negative impacts. It does not produce normative decisions or negotiated outcomes. The Special Representative of the Secretary-General on International Migration and Development, appointed in early 26, is the main link between the United Nations and the Global Forum process. In response to the 25 report of the Global Commission on International Migration (GCIM), the Secretary-General established the Global Migration Group (GMG) in early 26. This inter-agency group brings together heads of agencies to promote the wider application of all relevant international and regional instruments and norms in relation to migration. The group promotes the adoption of more coherent, comprehensive and better coordinated approaches to international migration. As of 211, the Group consisted of 16 members which has organized joint meetings, produced joint publications and provided support to the Global Forum. Since 1994, international migration and development is addressed in the General Assembly s Second Committee every two years. Human rights of migrants are a recurrent item on the agenda of the Assembly s Third Committee. In its resolution 61/28 of 2 December 26, reproduced in the back of this publication, the General Assembly took note of the summary of the High-level Dialogue on International Migration and Development by the President of the General Assembly, welcomed the heightened awareness achieved by the High-level Dialogue on the topic and decided to consider, at its sixty-third session, possible options for appropriate follow-up. It also took note with interest of the establishment of the Global Migration Group in 26. Two years later, the General Assembly decided in its resolution 63/225 of 19 December 28 to hold another High-level Dialogue during its sixty-eighth session in 213 and decided that the focus and modalities of this High-level Dialogue would be decided during its sixty-seventh session. xvii

20 In 26, during its thirty-ninth session, the Commission on and Development also addressed international migration and development. Among many other points raised, the Commission acknowledged the important contribution made by migrants and migration to development in countries of origin and destination. It also recognized the need for Member States to consider the multidimensional aspects of international migration and development in order to identify appropriate ways and means of maximizing the development benefits and minimizing the negative impacts. The Commission also requested the Secretary-General to continue his substantive work on international migration and development. This report is a direct response to Member States request to provide information and analysis on international migration levels and trends for countries, regions and for the world as a whole. The many questions arising from growing concerns about international migration, however, have few clear answers largely because of the lack of accurate and up-to-date information on international migration. The Division is also working with its counter parts at the international level and countries to raise awareness in this regard and encourages the collection, tabulation and dissemination of international migration data that is accessible, comparable, timely and reliable. The number of indicators in this report is larger in comparison with the previous issue (United Nations, ESA/P/WP.29), and includes data by sex when possible. For many countries, there is sufficient information to provide a reasonable basis for the estimation of migrants stocks. For some countries, however, information is limited or unavailable, and in such cases, imputations were made. Furthermore, data on citizenship, if available, are used for estimating the numbers of international migrants in the absence of data on place of birth. In addition to estimates on the migrant stock, numbers of refugees and workers remittances, population data by sex, are listed. In the Annex, a separate table shows whether a country is party to international instruments such as the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol, both relating to the status of refugees, the Convention concerning Migration for Employment (Revised 1949) (No. 97), the Convention concerning Migrations in Abusive Conditions and the Promotion of Equality of Opportunity and Treatment of Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) (No. 143) and the 199 International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrants and Members of Their Families. The table also lists the ratification status of the 2 Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children and the 2 Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air. Key findings: 1. By 21, the estimated number of international migrants was 214 million, an increase of 58 million since 199. represented 3.1 per cent of the total world population in 21 (table 1). 2. In 21, more developed regions hosted 6 per cent of the total migrant stock. The growth in the international migrant stock in more developed regions has been slowing recently and the growth rate of the migrant stock for less developed regions surpassed the growth rate for more developed regions for the first time in xviii

21 TABLE 1. ESTIMATED NUMBER OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRANTS AND THEIR PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION BY DEVELOPMET GROUP AND MAJOR AREA, Number of international migrants (millions) distribution of international migrants s percentage of the population Development group and major area World More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries Africa Asia Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Northern America Oceania Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division (29). Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 28 Revision (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.28). 3. In 21, the largest number of international migrants lived in Europe (7 million), followed by Asia (61 million) and Northern America (5 million). There were 19 million international migrants living in Africa, seven in Latin America and the Caribbean and six in Oceania. Oceania had the highest percentage of international migrants relative to the total population (16.8 per cent), followed by Northern America (14.2 per cent) and Europe (9.5 per cent). In Africa, Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean, international migrants accounted for less than 2 per cent of the total population. 4. A relatively small number of countries hosted most of the world s international migrants in 21. Ten countries with the largest number of international migrants accounted for 52 per cent of the global migrant stock. Twenty per cent of all international migrants were residing in the United States alone (42.8 million) (table 2). TABLE 2. TEN COUNTRIES WITH THE HIGHEST NUMBER OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRANTS IN 21 s Rank Country or area Migrant stock (thousands) a percentage of country s population a percentage of world s migrants Cumulative percentage 1. United States of America Russian Federation Germany Saudi Arabia Canada France United Kingdom Spain India Ukraine Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division (29). Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 28 Revision (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.28). xix

22 5. In 21, the number of refugees was estimated at 16.3 million representing 8 per cent of the total migrant stock in the world. Eighty-six per cent of all refugees in the world, or 14 million, were residing in less developed regions. Asia hosted by far the largest number of refugees (1.9 million), followed by Africa (2.6 million), Europe (1.6 million), Northern America (.7 million), Latin America and the Caribbean (.5 million) and Oceania (.1 million). 6. The increase in the global refugee population was concentrated in less developed regions between 2 and 21. Asia experienced a 23 per cent increase, whereas Europe s refugee population declined by 36 per cent and Africa s by 28 per cent. The large increase in refugees in Latin America and the Caribbean was due to the recent inclusion of persons in refugee-like situations in several countries in the regions, which the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) had previously not reported as refugees. 7. Female migrants represented almost half of the total international migrant stock in 21. This situation has changed very little over the last 2 years. In developed countries, women and girls accounted for 51.5 per cent of all international migrants in 21, as were 45.3 per cent in developing countries. 8. In 21, female migrants outnumbered male migrants in Europe, followed by Oceania, Northern America and Latin America and the Caribbean. Men continued to outnumber women in Africa and Asia. 9. International migration flows to traditional countries of immigration, such as Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States, increased between 198 and 28.The United States admitted the largest number of immigrants in the world, with an average of about 1.1 million permanent residence permits issued per year between 25 and 28. This was followed by Canada with 25, foreigners and 145, foreigners and citizens admitted to Australia over the same period. For New Zealand, the annual inflow of foreigners stood at 6, between 25 and 28. Over the last 3 years, immigrants from less developed countries accounted for a growing share of immigrants to Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. 1. Since the 198, most countries in Europe have experienced increasing immigration. In addition to countries in Europe that have attracted immigrants for some time, such as France, Germany and the United Kingdom, former countries of emigration, such as Italy and Spain, have become preferred destinations for immigrants from other parts of Europe as well as from developing countries. 11. Inflows to Europe increased in the late 198s and 199s in part due to the fall of the Berlin wall and the collapse of communism in Eastern and Central Europe which resulted in travel restrictions being lifted for these countries. Germany was the country most affected by emigration from Eastern Europe with ethnic Germans moving to Germany in the early 199s. By 2, the inflow from that region had declined. The dissolution of the former USSR also led to significant movement of populations between successor states. The civil war in the former Yugoslavia generated large outflows of refugees and asylum seekers between 199 and xx

23 12. Countries in Northern Europe that used to have low levels of immigration in the past experienced an increase since the mid-2s, especially due to the arrival of asylum seekers and refugees. 13. Between 198 and 28, the majority of immigrants to Europe came from developed countries, especially other European countries. In absolute numbers, the inflow of immigrants from less developed countries was high in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The numbers increased for France and the United Kingdom between 199 and mid-2, but not for Germany. The number of immigrants to Italy and Spain from less developed regions also increased. However, immigration from less developed regions began to stall or decline in mid Between 195 and 21, the more developed regions have been gaining population due to positive net migration, whereas the less developed regions have been losing population due to negative net migration. Northern America (1.3 million annually for 2-21) and Europe (1.5 million annually) are the major areas currently gaining the most from net immigration, whereas Asia (1.3 million annually) and Latin America and the Caribbean (1.1 million annually) are losing the most (table 3). Development group or major area TABLE 3. ANNUAL NET MIGRATION BY DEVELOPMENT GROUP AND MAJOR AREA, ESTIMATES AND MEDIUM VARIANT PROJECTION, Annual net migration (thousands) More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries Africa Asia Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Northern America Oceania Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division (29). World Prospects: The 28 Revision. Extended Dataset: Disk 1. (United Nations publication, Sales No. 9.XII.6) For 2-21, the United States followed by Spain and Italy were the top net immigration countries, whereas Mexico, China and Pakistan were the top net emigration countries. For the future, the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom are projected to be leading the group of net immigration countries and Mexico, China and India the group of net emigration countries. 16. During 21-25, the net number of international migrants to more developed regions is projected to be 96 million or an average of 2.4 million annually. For the developed world, such a level of net migration largely offsets the expected excess of deaths over births. Despite continued positive net migration, however, the surplus in deaths is projected to dominate population change starting by leading to overall population decline. For developing countries, the 96 million net emigrants projected for 21-25, or 2.4 million annually, represent scarcely 4 per cent of the expected population growth. Thus, net migration will have little effect on overall population change in less developed countries. 17. Assuming no migration in the future, the population of developed countries is projected to be 1 per cent smaller in 25 than for the medium variant projection which assumes that current (2-21) net migration levels remain constant. Given the little effect net migration has on xxi

24 developing countries, their population is projected to be only 2 per cent higher under a zeromigration scenario. 18. The dependency ratio, or the ratio of the young and old population to the working-age population, will increase under the zero migration-scenario for more developed regions. For every 1 working adults, there were 4.8 dependent persons in 21 rising to 7.1 dependent persons in 25 assuming that current migration trends will continue. Under the zero-migration scenario, the dependency ratio will increase to 7.6 dependent persons per 1 working adults. There will hardly be any change in dependency ratios for the less developed regions under the zero-migration scenario. 19. The status of ratification for international instruments related to international migration, such as those focusing on human rights and those addressing migrant worker rights, varies by Member States. Instruments designed to protect refugees and to prevent and prosecute migrant smuggling and human trafficking have been ratified by more than two-thirds of Member States by 29, whereas instruments protecting the rights of migrant workers have been ratified by less than onethird of Member States, none of which are high-immigration countries. 2. By July 29, 144 countries or 75 per cent of United Nations Member States had signed the 1951 Refugee Convention and the 1967 Refugee Protocol. The 2 protocol relating to human trafficking and the 2 protocol relating to migrant smuggling, although close to ten years old, had been ratified by 131 countries (68 per cent) and 119 countries (6 per cent) respectively. While the trend for the 2 Human Trafficking Protocol continued to rise, the 2 Migrant Smuggling Protocol was falling behind. Lastly, the 199 Migration Workers Convention, close to 2 years old, had only been ratified by 41 countries or 22 per cent of United Nations Member States. 21. The countries having ratified the 199 International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrants and Members of Their Families collectively hosted 15.3 million international migrants in 21, about seven per cent of the global migrant population. None of the States Parties to the 199 Convention were major migrant receiving countries, and only five of them hosted more than one million international migrants. REFERENCE United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division (29). International Migration Report 26: A Global Assessment. (United Nations database, ESA/P/WP.29). xxii

25 PART ONE: INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION LEVELS, TRENDS AND LEGAL INSTRUMENTS

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27 I. INTERNATIONAL MIGRANT STOCK A. DATA CONSIDERATIONS The international migrant stock is a mid-year estimate of the number of people living in a country or area other than the one in which they were born. Most of the statistics used to estimate the international migrant stock were obtained from population censuses. Additionally, population registers and nationally representative surveys provided information on the number and composition of international migrants. The estimates have been published in Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 28 Revision (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.28). B. GLOBAL TRENDS In 21, the number of international migrants in the world was estimated at 214 million, an increase of 35 million since 2 and 58 million since 199. represented 3.1 per cent of the total world population, 1.3 per cent of the population in the more developed regions and 1.5 per cent of the population in the less developed regions (table 4). The more developed regions experienced the largest increase in migrant stock between 199 and 21 (45 million or 55 per cent). In 21, almost 6 per cent of all international migrants were living in the more developed regions compared to 53 per cent in 199. In the less developed regions, the migrant stock increased by 13 million (18 per cent) from 199 to 21. TABLE 4. ESTIMATED NUMBER OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRANTS AND THEIR PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION AND SHARE IN THE TOTAL POPULATION, Number of international migrants (millions) distribution of international migrants s percentage of the population Development group and major area World More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries Africa Asia Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Northern America Oceania Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division (29). Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 28 Revision (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.28). Europe hosted the largest number of international migrants in the world (7 million) in 21, representing one-third of the global total. The second largest number of international migrants were in Asia (61 million), followed by Northern America (5 million), Africa (19 million), Latin America and the Caribbean (7 million) and Oceania (6 million). Oceania had the highest percentage of international migrants relative to the total population (16.8 per cent), followed by Northern America (14.2 per cent) and Europe (9.5 per cent). In Africa, Asia and United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/ Division 1

28 Latin America and the Caribbean international migrants accounted for less than 2 per cent of the total population. A relatively small number of countries hosted most of the world s international migrants (table 5). In 21, the ten countries with the largest number of international migrants accounted for 52 per cent of the total international migrant stock; 2 countries hosted two-thirds of all international migrants. In 21, 2 per cent of all international migrants were residing in the United States of America alone (42.8 million), followed by the Russian Federation (12.3 million) and Germany (1.8 million). Overall, 64 countries hosted more than half a million international migrants in 21, compared to 57 in 199. TABLE 5. TWENTY COUNTRIES OR AREAS WITH THE HIGHEST NUMBERS OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRANTS IN 21 s Rank Country or area Migrant stock (thousands) a percentage of country s population a percentage of world s migrants Cumulative percentage 1. United States of America Russian Federation Germany Saudi Arabia Canada France United Kingdom Spain India Ukraine Australia Italy Pakistan United Arab Emirates Kazakhstan Jordan Israel China, Hong Kong SAR Côte d'ivoire Malaysia Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division (29). Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 28 Revision (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.28). Between 2 and 21, nine countries gained over one million international migrants, accounting for 67 per cent of the overall increase in the migrant stock over the last 1 years: United States (8. million), Spain (4.6 million), Italy (2.3 million), Saudi Arabia (2.2 million), the United Kingdom (1.7 million), Canada (1.6 million), the Syrian Arab Republic (1.3 million) and Jordan and the United Arab Emirates with one million each (table 6). 2 United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/ Division

29 TABLE 6. COUNTRIES ACCOUNTING FOR 75 PER CENT OF THE GROWTH IN INTERNATIONAL MIGRANT STOCK IN THE WORLD, 2-21 Increase in migrant stock (2-21) Rank Country of area Absolute (thousands) As percentage of the increase in total migrant stock Cumulative percentage 1. United States of America Spain Italy Saudi Arabia United Kingdom Canada Syrian Arab Republic Jordan United Arab Emirates South Africa Qatar Malaysia Germany Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division (29). Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 28 Revision (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.28). The number of countries with more than one million inhabitants where international migrants constituted more than 1 per cent of the population rose from 29 in 199 to 38 in 21. Countries with the highest proportion of international migrants in 21 were mostly located in Western Asia with Qatar (87 per cent), the United Arab Emirates (7 per cent) and Kuwait (69 per cent) leading this group of countries due to the high level of international labour migration relative to total population (figure 1). Figure 1. Countries or areas with the highest proportion of international migrants in 21 among those with at least one million inhabitants Qatar 87 United Arab Emirates Kuwait 7 69 Jordan Occupied Palestinian Territory Singapore Israel China, Hong Kong SAR Oman Saudi Arabia Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division (29). Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 28 Revision (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.28). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/ Division 3

30 In 21, the number of refugees was estimated at 16.3 million, up from 15.6 million in 2 but down from 18.5 million in 199 (table 7). The proportion of refugees among all international migrants had declined from 12 per cent in 199 to 9 per cent in 2 and 8 per cent in 21. Asia hosted the largest number of refugees 1.9 million or 66 per cent of all refugees in the world in 21. This was followed by Africa with 2.6 million refugees or 16 per cent, Europe with 1.6 million or 1 per cent, Northern America with 73, refugees, Latin America and the Caribbean with 53, refugees and Oceania with 59, refugees. TABLE 7. ESTIMATED REFUGEE STOCK AT MID-YEAR AND THEIR SHARE IN THE INTERNATIONAL MIGRANT STOCK, 199, 2 AND 21 Development group and major area Estimated number of refugees (millions) Refugees as a percentage of the international migrant stock distribution of refugees World More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries Africa Asia Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Northern America Oceania Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division (29). Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 28 Revision (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.28). Eighty-five per cent of all refugees were living in less developed regions in 21 (table 7). Growth in the global refugee population between 2 and 21 was also concentrated in the less developed regions. Asia experienced a 23 per cent increase, whereas Europe s refugee population declined by 36 per cent and Africa s by 28 per cent. The large increase in refugees in Latin America and the Caribbean, from 5, in 25 to over half a million in 21, was due to the recent inclusion of persons in refugee-like situations in several countries in the region, which were previously not reported as refugees by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Although over the last 2 years the more developed regions gained the most international migrants, the annual growth rate of the international migrant stock in more developed regions had been declining, whereas the growth rate of the less developed regions had been steadily increasing (figure 2). In 21, the growth rate for the less developed regions surpassed the rate for the more developed regions for the first time. 4 United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/ Division

31 Average annual rate of change (percentage) Figure 2: International migrant stock - average annual rate of change by development group, to More developed regions Less developed regions Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division (29). Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 28 Revision (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.28). Globally, female migrants constituted almost half of the total international migrant stock in 21 (table 8). This situation has changed little over the last 2 years. About 51.5 per cent of all international migrants in the more developed regions were women in 21, as were 45.3 per cent in less developed regions. Since 2, both the more and less developed regions showed a declining trend in the proportion of women. TABLE 8. FEMALE MIGRANTS AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE INTERNATIONAL MIGRANT STOCK BY DEVELOPMENT GROUP, female Development group World More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division (29). Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 28 Revision (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.28). There is more variation in the sex distribution of the migrant stock at the level of major areas. For some time, most migrants in Europe have been female, whereas male migrants have outnumbered female migrants in Asia and Africa (figure 3). In Latin America and the Caribbean and Oceania, women have accounted for a growing share of the migrant stock recently, and have represented 5 per cent or more of the total migrant stock since 2. In Northern America, the proportion of female migrants declined from 51.2 per cent in 199 to 5.1 per cent in 21. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/ Division 5

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