Communism Spreads in East Asia. China Korea Vietnam

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1 Communism Spreads in East Asia China Korea Vietnam

2 China s Communist Revolution After WWII, Mao (communist) resumed civil war against the Chiang Kai-shek aka Jiang Jieshi (nationalists) due to his weak and corrupt leadership Mao wins People s Republic of China Communist Supported by Soviet Union Nationalists fled to Taiwan Supported by USA Considered breakaway province by mainland China

3 Why Mao Won? Support of peasants Redistributed land to peasants Ended oppression by landlords Nationalists brought economic hardships, government corruption, reliance on West Won railroads and captured city by city with help from peasants

4 Mao s Totalitarian State One party No religion: discouraged practice of Buddhism & Confucianism Government control of landlords and businesses Labor camps Killed opposition With Soviet help, build infrastructure Collectivization: forced agricultural land and labor to increase productivity Allied with the SU in 1950s

5 Great Leap Forward People to make superhuman effort to increase farm and industrial output Communes: several villages for agriculture and industry Epic Fail: low quality, useless goods, food shortages Famine: 2 years= 55 million died Mao reduces size of communes

6 China s Cultural Revolution Goal: Free China of bourgeois (elite/upperclass) tendencies Red Guards (Mao s Gestapo ) beat and killed bourgeois Skilled workers and managers were forced to leave their jobs and do manual labor, some in labor camps Schools and factories closed Economy slowed and civil war loomed Mao backed off the revolution and restored order A propaganda report emphasizes the effect of brainwashing and the cult of personality of Mao Zedong in communist China.

7 China: The Wild Card Despite sending economic aid, China & Soviet Union weren t allies due to border and ideological disputes Soviets end up withdrawing aid & advisors in 1960 USA support Kai-shek & nationalist movement to Taiwan Refused to acknowledge China for fear of threat of communism spreading throughout all of Asia BUT, strategic to improve relations with China against the Soviet Union 1971, USA allowed People s Republic of China (communist China) to replace Taiwan in the UN 1972: President Nixon visits Beijing to open trade relations with China 1979: US set up formal diplomatic relationship

8 Korean War

9 Korea: WWII & Cold War Prior to WWII, Korea was occupied by Japan After WWII, Soviet Union and USA split Korea into North & South along the 38 th Parallel north North Korea=communist, supported by Soviets; ruled by Kim Il Sung South Korea=democratic, supported by USA; ruled by Syngman Rhee

10 North Korea begins war North wants control of whole peninsula & attacks the South United Nations, headed by USA & General MacArthur, sent troops to help South NOTE: MacArthur is eventually fired for wanted to invade China (allies with Soviets) North takes most of peninsula, but stopped at Pusan

11 Inch on: UN troops landed behind enemy lines, captured railroads, cutting North s troops off from North and supply lines Led to North surrender in South UN moved North to Yalu River (border of Korea & China) Mao, worried about USA/UN, sent Chinese troops to border With help from Chinese, North pushes South back to 38 th Parallel

12 Stalemate An Armistice will be signed due to stalemate Troops will dig in and still today occupy the DMZ-demilitarized zone: area with no military forces Along 38 th Parallel NO peace treaty has ever been reached 2013: North Korea claims it is breaking armistice with nuclear buildup and testing

13 Two Koreas North: communist Economic decline Inefficient collective farms Build up of nukes Chinese give economic aid Isolated Poor-no electricity Cult of personality around dictator

14 South: democratic Capitalist Economic boom Economic & military aid from USA prosperous

15 Vietnam

16 French Lose Indochina French Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia) Wanted independence after WWII Communist Guerrillas: small groups of communist soldiers making raids on French colonists Ho Chi Minh: Communist who fought Japanese during WWII then turned on French national hero Uses USA Declaration of Independence to gain USA support to declare independence from French

17 USA backs France due to Ho s ties to communism Economic aid, no military aid Dien Bien Phu: French lose final battle in 1954 and leave Vietnam Geneva Conference: USA, Britain, France vs SU, China, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam French Indochina becomes 3 independent countries: Laos and Cambodia become communist Divide Vietnam at 17 th Parallel

18 Vietnam Divided North Vietnam Led by Ho Chi Minh Communist Support of Soviet Union & China Send economic aid, but no troops South Vietnam Led by Ngo Dinh Diem Democratic Corrupt and brutal Support of USA USA s Domino Theory: -view that one communist victory would lead to rest of governments in region to fall to communism -USA wanted to prevent this

19 Ho Wants Unified Vietnam Ho uses his Vietcong to attack the South President JFK sends military advisors to train South s army (Vietminh) Kennedy s thoughts on Vietnam It is their war. They are the ones who have to win it or lose it Did not like the growing USA involvement South s Diem and USA s JFK both assassinated Wonder if outcome in Vietnam would have been different? USA President LBJ increases USA military presence in Vietnam

20 Gulf of Tonkin South raiding North on islands in Gulf of Tonkin North attacks USS Maddox thinking it assisted in raids President LBJ tells Congress about attack, but not raids Believing attack on Maddox was unprovoked, Congress passes Tonkin Resolution President can take all necessary measures to prevent further aggression in Southeast Asia USA begins bombing targets in North (Operation Rolling Thunder) > 2 million USA troops sent to Vietnam

21 Ground War North Guerrillas: knew country better than USA Villages became military targets Couldn t trust anyone Aid USA during day, Vietcong by night Ho Chi Minh Trail Supply line running from north to south through Cambodia & Laos Forced war to expand into Cambodia & Laos (by President Nixon)

22

23 TET Offensive 1968: North led massive attack in South on TET-Vietnamese New Year Failed with massive casualties BUT infiltrated South Turning Point-positive for North because no part of South was secure from attack

24 Issues for USA Highly televised war that divided the nation Civilian casualties, American casualties = extremely high Large numbers of POWs and MIAs USA morale was low Due to tv and no explanation of civilian deaths (traitors), soldiers not heroes to many people Tired of body bags for a war that didn t involve us

25 Paris Peace Accord: 1973 USA involvement in Vietnam-longer than 10 years Nixon signs cease-fire USA withdraws with no victory Separated North and South Vietnam at 17 th Parallel and created a demilitarized zone (DMZ) North promised not to invade South South left to determine own future 1975: North conquered South & became communist USA applies embargo

26 Khmer Rouge During Vietnam War, Khmer Rouge (communist guerrillas) overthrew Cambodian government Khmer Rouge led by dictator Pol Pot 1/3 of population (1 million) was slaughtered, starved, or worked to death to rid country of western influence After Vietnam unified, took over Cambodia and ended genocide

27 Did the dominoes fall? After the USA withdraws from Vietnam, some dominoes did fall-former French Indochina Vietnam Laos Cambodia Stopped there; other parts of Southeast Asia remained capitalist and democratic

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