GLOBAL HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY

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1 REGENTS EXAM IN GLOBAL HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY The University of the State of New York REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION GLOBAL HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY Wednesday, August 16, :30 to 3:30 p.m., only Student Name School Name The possession or use of any communications device is strictly prohibited when taking this examination. If you have or use any communications device, no matter how briefly, your examination will be invalidated and no score will be calculated for you. Print your name and the name of your school on the lines above. A separate answer sheet for Part I has been provided to you. Follow the instructions from the proctor for completing the student information on your answer sheet. Then fill in the heading of each page of your essay booklet. This examination has three parts. You are to answer all questions in all parts. Use black or dark-blue ink to write your answers to Parts II, III A, and III B. Part I contains 50 multiple-choice questions. Record your answers to these questions as directed on the answer sheet. Part II contains one thematic essay question. Write your answer to this question in the essay booklet, beginning on page 1. Part III is based on several documents: Part III A contains the documents. When you reach this part of the test, enter your name and the name of your school on the first page of this section. Each document is followed by one or more questions. Write your answer to each question in this examination booklet on the lines following that question. Part III B contains one essay question based on the documents. Write your answer to this question in the essay booklet, beginning on page 7. When you have completed the examination, you must sign the declaration printed at the end of the answer sheet, indicating that you had no unlawful knowledge of the questions or answers prior to the examination and that you have neither given nor received assistance in answering any of the questions during the examination. Your answer sheet cannot be accepted if you fail to sign this declaration. DO NOT OPEN THIS EXAMINATION BOOKLET UNTIL THE SIGNAL IS GIVEN. REGENTS EXAM IN GLOBAL HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY

2 Part I Answer all questions in this part. Directions (1 50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Base your answer to question 1 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies. AFRICA ATLANTIC OCEAN Homeland Congo R. Lake Tanganyika Lake Victoria W N S E Migration routes 3000 B.C. 500 B.C. Migration routes 500 B.C. A.D. 400 Migration routes A.D. 400 A.D Desert Tropical rainforest NAMIB DESERT KALAHARI DESERT Zambezi R. 0 0 Mozambique Channel INDIAN OCEAN 500 Miles 1,000 Kilometers Source: Roger B. Beck et al., World History: Patterns of Interaction, McDougal Littell (adapted) 1 Which group of people is represented by this migration pattern? (1) Phoenicians (3) Hebrews (2) Bantu (4) Persians 2 Which statement best describes the benefit of studying past events from multiple points of view? (1) Using primary sources allows historians access to official records. (2) Viewing history chronologically shows how eras overlap from one time period to the next. (3) Examining different perspectives gives a more complete picture of historical circumstances. (4) Evaluating the roles of specific individuals in history helps determine personal contributions. 3 The knowledge and skills of a geographer would best be suited for (1) identifying a set of bones discovered at an archaeological site (2) providing a cost analysis for production data received by a manufacturer (3) generating environmental impact reports for an energy company (4) developing a national party platform for an independent party Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [2]

3 4 What is the purpose of government? How is citizenship defined? Who holds power? Which area of study focuses on the way societies answer these questions? (1) cartography (2) political science (3) physical anthropology (4) economics 5 Both the Han and the Roman empires declined as a result of (1) undisciplined armies and limited access to trade (2) overexpansion and foreign invasions by nomadic peoples (3) inefficient theocratic rulers and few government regulations (4) harsh climates and high taxes 6 The Ten Commandments are to Judaism as the Five Pillars are to (1) Buddhism (3) Hinduism (2) Shinto (4) Islam 7 Construction of stupas, writings by Kalidasa, and the development of the concept of zero are most closely associated with the (1) Gupta Empire (3) Mongol Empire (2) Tang dynasty (4) Abbasid dynasty 8 From the perspective of many Arab Muslims at the time of the Crusades, the European Crusaders were considered (1) refugees (3) invaders (2) liberators (4) allies 9 The cities of Constantinople and Kiev grew primarily as a result of the development of (1) trade routes (2) urban planning (3) rigid social systems (4) religious pilgrimages 10 What was a primary motive behind the implementation of Sharia in Islamic empires beginning in the 8th century? (1) promoting a mechanism for technological change (2) uniting the people under common laws and practices (3) distributing wealth equally among citizens (4) guaranteeing a representative government Base your answer to question 11 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.... The town was a centre of attraction and diffusion, but above all it was a centre of production. The town was a crossroads and a terminus [last stop]: through contacts, meetings and exchanges it could play a major creative role.... Jacques Le Goff, in The Fontana Economic History of Europe: The Middle Ages 11 Which statement would this passage best support? (1) Towns were important in an emerging international economy. (2) Economic self-sufficiency was reinforced by the revival of towns. (3) Crossroad locations limit the functions of towns. (4) The culture of towns discouraged new ideas. 12 Which title best completes the partial outline below? I. A. Archipelago B. Limited arable land C. Rugged mountains D. Earthquakes (1) Physical Features of Korea (2) Geographic Factors of Japan (3) Natural Resources of Cambodia (4) Environmental Conditions in Russia Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [3] [OVER]

4 13 Which situation led to the other three? (1) Mongol skills and weapons diffusing into China (2) Confucian scholars losing status and government positions (3) Mongols conquering China and establishing the Yuan dynasty (4) Marco Polo writing about traveling to the palace of Kublai Khan Base your answer to question 18 on the illustration below and on your knowledge of social studies. 14 Which two major commodities were traded on the trans-saharan routes by West African kingdoms? (1) timber and wheat (2) silk and cotton (3) gold and salt (4) petroleum and spices 15 In the 1340s, the Black Death spread to Europe as a result of (1) trade with Asia (2) the expansion of Christianity (3) development of guilds in Italy (4) the explorations of Vasco da Gama 16 What is one reason the Ming emperors did not expand China s economic influence across the Indian Ocean after the voyages of Zheng He? (1) Resources were needed to combat Japanese invaders. (2) Developing trade networks with Russia was more profitable. (3) Conquering European territories drained China s treasury. (4) Foreign goods were considered inferior to those produced in China. 17 One way in which Akbar the Great and Suleiman the Magnificent are similar is that both leaders (1) centralized governmental power (2) imposed a polytheistic religion (3) implemented new systems of writing (4) provoked ethnic tensions Source: Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, Nueva Coronica Y Buen Gobierno, Biblioteca Ayacucho (adapted) 18 Based on this illustration, which statement about the Inca Empire is accurate? (1) Inca women sold the agricultural products of the empire. (2) Hunting and gathering was the main source of food for the Inca. (3) The Inca used hand-written documents to record each harvest. (4) The Inca developed technology to adapt their surroundings. Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [4]

5 Base your answer to question 19 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies. Routes of Hernán Cortés NORTH AMERICA Atlantic Ocean NEW SPAIN 1535 Gulf of Mexico 1519 Santiago de Cuba Tenochtitlán Veracruz Pacific Ocean Trujillo 1524 to 1526 Caribbean Sea Key Aztec Empire 250 km mi Route of Cortés Source: Ancient Middle America, University of Minnesota at Duluth online (adapted) 19 Based on this map, in which city did Hernán Cortés first encounter the Aztecs? (1) Santiago de Cuba (3) Trujillo (2) Tenochtitlán (4) Veracruz 20 The term divine right is best defined as a (1) revolution to gain political rights and freedoms (2) philosophy that encourages religious toleration (3) belief that a ruler s authority comes from God (4) system in which a monarch has limited power 21 The scientific theories developed by Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton resulted in (1) challenges to the traditional teachings of the Catholic Church (2) support for the Earth-centered theory of the universe (3) confirmation of Darwin s theory of evolution (4) a renewed interest in the writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau 22 The French Revolution was a reaction to the (1) defeat in and humiliation of the Franco-Prussian War (2) influence of and privileges granted to the First and Second Estates (3) increasing confrontations between Catholics and Protestants (4) conflict between competing branches of the French royal family 23 Toussaint L Ouverture, Simón Bolívar, and José de San Martín led independence movements in (1) the Middle East (3) South Asia (2) western Africa (4) Latin America Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [5] [OVER]

6 24 At the Congress of Vienna, one of the main goals was to (1) prevent the spread of socialism (2) reward Napoleon for his victories in Europe (3) divide lands in the Americas between Spain and Portugal (4) restore monarchs to pre-napoleonic status 25 During the late 19th century, Russia s settlement and development of Siberia was made possible by the invention of the (1) lateen sail (3) steam locomotive (2) rudder (4) airplane 26 Indian National Congress Young Italy Young Turks One way in which these organizations are similar is that they all (1) supported the creation of colonies (2) encouraged nationalist sentiments (3) battled against religious separatists (4) opposed the use of civil disobedience 27 Which 19th-century British group would most likely object to the government regulation of businesses? (1) clergy (2) socialists (3) labor unions (4) laissez-faire capitalists 28 Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, and Karl Marx are best known for their (1) religious reforms (2) economic theories (3) peacekeeping efforts (4) military leadership 29 Which goals are most closely associated with the Russian Revolution of 1917? (1) peace, land, and bread (2) liberty, equality, and fraternity (3) science, technology, and agriculture (4) nationalism, democracy, and livelihood 30 Which type of government is characterized by extreme nationalism, censorship, militarism, and dictatorship? (1) fascist state (2) direct democracy (3) constitutional confederation (4) parliamentary democracy 31 During both World War I and World War II, the economic policies of many governments were designed to (1) eliminate tariffs on imports (2) rebuild destroyed housing (3) collectivize agriculture (4) limit consumption by rationing goods 32 What was one major reason given by Adolf Hitler to justify his demand for additional territory between 1936 and 1939? (1) All ethnic Germans needed to be united into one German nation. (2) Germany needed to reestablish its overseas empire. (3) The German navy needed access to Mediterranean seaports. (4) Germany needed a buffer zone to protect it from foreign invasion. Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [6]

7 Base your answer to question 33 on the time line below and on your knowledge of social studies Quitting the League of Nations Occupation and Massacre at Nanjing 1940 Joining Axis Powers Incident at Mukden 1941 Conquering of S.E. Asia 1941 Attacking Pearl Harbor 33 Which title best completes this time line? (1) Communist Takeover of China (3) Chinese Cultural Revolution (2) Annexation of Korea (4) Japanese Militarism 34 Which areas were separated by the Iron Curtain? (1) Europe from Asia (2) Eastern Europe from Western Europe (3) Iberian Peninsula from Northern Europe (4) Europe from the Middle East 35 Which individual is correctly paired with the historical event he helped influence? (1) Kwame Nkrumah independence of Ghana (2) Ho Chi Minh destruction of Buddhist shrines in Afghanistan (3) Lech Walesa creation of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) (4) Anwar Sadat establishment of a secular republic in Turkey 36 A study of Rwanda and of Kashmir in the 1990s would lead to the conclusion that (1) industrialization results in democratic systems (2) economic cooperation evolves over time (3) natural disasters have had negative impacts (4) ethnic and religious tensions often lead to violence Base your answer to question 37 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.... There is no fundamental contradiction between socialism and a market economy. The problem is how to develop the productive forces more effectively. We used to have a planned economy, but our experience over the years has proved that having a totally planned economy hampers the development of the productive forces to a certain extent. If we combine a planned economy with a market economy, we shall be in a better position to liberate the productive forces and speed up economic growth.... Deng Xiaoping 37 According to Deng Xiaoping, what should be done to improve China s economy? (1) restrict imports from competitive market economies (2) incorporate economic principles of a market economy into a command economy (3) become a Marxist socialist state (4) implement the economic reforms of Mao Zedong Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [7] [OVER]

8 Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies. [ONWARD] Source: C. R. Hazard, Baltimore Sun (adapted) 38 Which statement best expresses the point of view shown in this cartoon? (1) Cuba has made steady industrial progress in recent years. (2) The leader of Cuba favors violence to obtain results. (3) The revolution in Cuba has failed to help the economy. (4) The Cuban government is encouraging an increase in automobile sales. 39 Who is the leader shown in this cartoon? (1) Augusto Pinochet (3) Juan Perón (2) Ché Guevara (4) Fidel Castro 40 Which region of the world has been influenced by political leaders Pol Pot and Aung San Suu Kyi? (1) Southeast Asia (3) Central Asia (2) Southwest Asia (4) East Asia 41 The introduction of the Green Revolution in India was intended to (1) increase crop yields (2) preserve the rain forest (3) stop desertification (4) protect endangered species Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [8]

9 42 Turkish Plan to Build Hydroelectric Dam on Euphrates Fuels Tensions With Syria Hunger Persists as African Drought Deepens India s Population Growth Strains Water Supply Which conclusion can best be drawn from this set of headlines? (1) Hydroelectric dams provide a solution to growing power demands. (2) Unchecked population growth strains worldwide food resources. (3) Famine-related deaths require further study. (4) Water scarcity is a major problem that needs to be solved. 43 Since 1990, many countries have expressed grave concerns about North Korea and Pakistan because these two countries have (1) developed nuclear programs (2) withdrawn from the United Nations (3) experienced large increases in the number of AIDS-related deaths (4) adopted a communist system of government 44 To increase the supply of food, some Neolithic communities living in arid regions of the world developed (1) three-field systems (2) petrochemical fertilizers (3) irrigation systems (4) slash-and-burn methods 45 Colonies are required to provide raw materials. Development of manufacturing in the colonies is discouraged. Which European policy is being described by these statements? (1) appeasement (3) regionalism (2) mercantilism (4) neutrality 46 The rule of Kemal Atatürk and the rule of Shah Reza Pahlavi are similar because both leaders (1) promoted westernization and modernization (2) increased the power of the clergy (3) established communist policies (4) banned foreign investors 47 Bataan Death March Kills Thousands of Allied Prisoners Red Army Drives Germans out of Stalingrad Dresden Is Fire-Bombed Which conflict in history is directly associated with these headlines? (1) Russo-Japanese War (3) World War II (2) World War I (4) Cold War Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [9] [OVER]

10 Base your answers to questions 48 through 50 on the interviews below and on your knowledge of social studies English Coal Mines 2002 Pakistani Carpet Weaving Have you [Thomas Gibson and George Bryan] worked from a boy in a coal mine? (Both) Yes.... For how many hours a day did you work? Nearly nine hours regularly; sometimes twelve; I have worked above thirteen.... You said that your labour sometimes continued nine hours without intermission? Yes, and more than that with nothing except a sup of cold water. Was your work in the dark? By candle-light. Were there many children in the same way? Yes, about 100 in our mine.... Mr. Tuffnell, Inquiry, June 1833 in Leonard Horner, On The Employment of Children in Factories and Other Works in the United Kingdom and in Some Foreign Countries Question: When did you start working today? Answers: About 5AM, one says. About 7AM, replies another. Question: When will you finish? Answers: 8PM, the first says. When it gets dark, the other says. Question: How long have you been doing this work? Answers: Three years, a ten-year-old replies. I started three months ago, since the war in Afghanistan. I m 13, another says. Since she was four, a mother says of her weaving daughter. She is now Fending for Themselves: Afghan Refugee Children and Adolescents Working in Urban Pakistan, Women s Commission for Refugee Women and Children, Mission to Pakistan, January These interviews provide evidence of how (1) theories of history have changed over time (2) concepts of justice and values differed in different eras (3) human experience has been similar across time and place (4) global partnerships have had an impact on past and present employment practices 49 What is the most likely motive for gathering and publishing the evidence contained in these interviews? (1) defending existing policies (3) expanding interdependence (2) gaining public sympathy (4) promoting industrial development 50 Which action is often taken by reformers reacting to situations like those presented in these interviews? (1) demanding young workers receive schooling (2) campaigning to eliminate labor unions (3) seeking universal suffrage for those sixteen and older (4) rejecting claims about working conditions Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [10]

11 Answers to the essay questions are to be written in the separate essay booklet. In developing your answer to Part II, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind: (a) explain means to make plain or understandable; to give reasons for or causes of; to show the logical development or relationships of (b) describe means to illustrate something in words or tell about it (c) discuss means to make observations about something using facts, reasoning, and argument; to present in some detail Part II THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task below, and a conclusion. Theme: Intellectual life Individuals Often in history, individuals, who were not leaders of government, had ideas that influenced change in their society or in other societies and regions. Task: Select two individuals, who were not government leaders, and for each Explain an idea the individual had that influenced change Describe the historical circumstances surrounding the idea of this individual Discuss how this idea influenced change in a society or region You may use any individual, who was not the leader of a government, from your study of global history and geography. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include Confucius, Buddha, Plato, Jesus, Muhammad, Martin Luther, Galileo Galilei, John Locke, Mary Wollstonecraft, Karl Marx, Charles Darwin, Mohandas Gandhi, and Mother Teresa. Guidelines: You are not limited to these suggestions. Do not make the United States the focus of your answer. In your essay, be sure to Develop all aspects of the task Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that are beyond a restatement of the theme Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [11] [OVER]

12 NAME SCHOOL Part III DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the language used in a document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written. Historical Context: Throughout history, people have migrated for a variety of reasons. Some examples include the forced migration of Africans ( ), the forced migration of Spanish Jews ( ), and the emigration of the Irish ( ). Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history and geography, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to Select two migrations mentioned in the historical context and for each Describe the historical circumstances that led to the migration Discuss how the migration has affected regions and/or societies In developing your answers to Part III, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind: (a) describe means to illustrate something in words or tell about it (b) discuss means to make observations about something using facts, reasoning, and argument; to present in some detail Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [12]

13 Part A Short-Answer Questions Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the space provided. Document 1 The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on the New World Whatever the effect of slavery on Africa, there can be no doubt that black slaves [enslaved Africans] played a crucial part in the economic development of the New World, above all by making up for shortages of labour. The arrival of Europeans in the Americas had brought diseases that decimated [destroyed] local populations, which reduced the potential for securing labour from that source; and often too few Europeans chose to migrate to the Americas to meet the demand for labour. This was particularly true in Brazil and the Caribbean, where people of African origin became by far the largest section of the population; it was also the case in parts of North America, although here white people outnumbered black people. Black slaves were especially important as a labour supply for the plantation agriculture that developed in the New World, first in Brazil, and later in the Caribbean and the southern parts of North America. The plantation system had begun in medieval times on Mediterranean islands such as Crete and Cyprus it was an unusually sophisticated form of agricultural operation for its day, producing sugar for the international market at a time when most of European agriculture concentrated on the basics of local subsistence. But from its inception [beginning], it used slaves; and when plantations were set up in the Americas, black slaves became the backbone of the workforce.... Source: Will Hardy, The Slavery Business, BBC 1 According to Will Hardy, what was one reason enslaved Africans were forcibly brought to the Americas? [1] Score Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [13] [OVER]

14 Document 2a... Sugarcane was introduced into Hispaniola and then Brazil in the sixteenth century, thereby jumping the Atlantic as part of an exchange of food crops and commodities that increased demand for tropical goods and therefore the need for labor. In all these activities, enslaved Africans were used as a principal source of labor, and sometimes for military employment, too. The transfer of sugarcane was the most important development and would lead to the enslavement of millions of Africans, but many other crops, including indigo, rice, tobacco, coffee, cocoa, and cotton, were introduced, with varying degrees of success but always with the input of enslaved African labor. However, before the middle of the seventeenth century, the total number of enslaved Africans that were taken away from western Africa was relatively small, especially in comparison with the great expansion in slavery thereafter. Even in this early period, however, the number of enslaved Africans being forced to cross the Atlantic was greater by far than the number of Europeans voluntarily doing so.... Source: Paul E. Lovejoy, International Slave Trade: Causes and Consequences, York University 2a According to Paul E. Lovejoy, what was one development that led to the increased demand for labor and the expansion of slavery in Hispaniola and Brazil? [1] Score Document 2b Cultures Survive... Despite attempts to suppress or even eradicate African culture, slaves and their descendants carried skills and traditions to their destination countries. African literary traditions particularly oral storytelling featuring the tortoise, hare, and spider spread throughout the Caribbean, Latin America, the United States and Europe.... Source: Tom Housden, Focus on the Slave Trade, BBC News Online, September 3, 2001 (adapted) 2b According to Tom Housden of BBC News Online, what was one aspect of African culture that spread to the Americas and Europe? [1] Score Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [14]

15 Document 3... consequences of the trade for Africa can therefore be arrived at. These are, that the slave trade: i) undermined African economic potential and derailed development; ii) destroyed and distorted systems of government; iii) generated high levels of fear, warfare and distrust, and undermined moral and civic practices in community life and culture; iv) constituted a massive drain of accumulated skills and abilities, and depleted the pool of human resources needed for sustainable development;... Source: Hilary McDonald Beckles, Slave Voyages: The Transatlantic Trade in Enslaved Africans, UNESCO (adapted) 3 According to Hilary McDonald Beckles, what was one economic effect the trans-atlantic slave trade had on Africa? [1] Score Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [15] [OVER]

16 Document 4 In the spring of 1492, shortly after the Moors were driven out of Granada, Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain expelled all the Jews from their lands and thus, by a stroke of the pen, put an end to the largest and most distinguished Jewish settlement in Europe. The expulsion of this intelligent, cultured, and industrious [hardworking] class was prompted only in part by the greed of the king and the intensified nationalism of the people who had just brought the crusade [campaign] against the Moslem Moors to a glorious close. The real motive was the religious zeal of the Church, the Queen, and the masses. The official reason given for driving out the Jews was that they [Jews] encouraged the Marranos [Jews who converted to Christianity to escape persecution] to persist in their Jewishness and thus would not allow them to become good Christians.... Source: Jacob R. Marcus, The Jew in the Medieval World: A Source Book, , The Sinai Press 4 According to Jacob R. Marcus, what were two reasons Ferdinand and Isabella expelled the Jews from Spain in 1492? [2] (1) (2) Score Score Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [16]

17 Document 5 Queen Isabella issued this edict after the order expelling the Jews.... That when according to my edict the Jews who lived in my kingdoms departed, I ordered that those Jews might not sell the synagogues and cemeteries that they owned, and that these were to serve the needs of the [Spanish Christian] cities, the towns, and the localities where they [Jews] lived, in order to make them into [Christian] churches or hospitals and other institutions for the service of God and the benefit and honour of the cities, towns, and localities.... Source: Haim Beinart, The Expulsion of the Jews From Spain, The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization (adapted) 5 What was one reason Queen Isabella ordered the Jews not to sell their synagogues and cemeteries? [1] Score Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [17] [OVER]

18 Document 6 This excerpt is from an article explaining why many Spanish emigrants settled in the New World.... Another factor explaining why this region [Spain] should send over more emigrants than any other area might be summed up under the heading, Economic Distress. It is a wellknown fact that Spain gradually declined economically during the sixteenth century. One reason for this was the expulsion of the stable and industrious [hardworking] Jews. Industry became more decadent [declined], consequently, and thousands were thrown out of work. The methods used in agriculture by the Jews and the Moslems were also soon forgotten, a factor which left many at the mercy of a dry climate and a poor soil, especially in the south. Escape to the [West] Indies seemed to be the only alternative.... Source: V. Aubrey Neasham, Spain s Emigrants to the New World , The Hispanic American Historical Review 6 According to V. Aubrey Neasham, what was one way the economy of Spain was affected by the expulsion of the Jews? [1] Score Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [18]

19 Document 7a This passage describes circumstances in Ireland in the mid-1840s.... The population s over-reliance on the potato compounded the crisis. A New World crop, potatoes were introduced to Ireland during the late 16th and early 17th centuries by English colonists. At first, they were considered an upper-class delicacy. By 1800, a fleshy, knobby variety known as the lumper potato ideally suited to Ireland s cool, wet climate had replaced oatmeal as a dietary staple among the poor and working class. Cheap, high-yielding and nutritious, lumper potatoes, when mixed with a little milk or buttermilk, provided enough carbohydrates, protein and minerals to sustain life, presuming enough were eaten. Thus, the average Irish male ate 45 potatoes a day; an average woman, about 36; and an average child, 15. Deeply entrenched in Ireland s economy and lifestyle, the potato was, in the words of a traditional Gaelic folk song, adoringly praised as Grá mo chroí ( Love of my heart ). Despite the loss of this beloved and critical resource, Ireland was by no means bereft of [lacking] food. Indeed, its farms and pastures abounded with pigs, cattle and sheep, as well as wheat, barley, oats and vegetables; its streams, rivers, lakes and coastline teemed with fish. The cruel irony was that most of this bounty was off-limits to the starving populace.... Source: Tom Verde, An Irish Tale of Hunger and the Sultan, AramcoWorld 7a Based on this excerpt from the article An Irish Tale of Hunger and the Sultan, what was one reason the potato was an important food resource for the Irish? [1] Document 7b Score Year Predisposing factors Contemporary description Distribution 1842 Very wet summer Partial failure of potato crop and inundation [flooding] of fields Chiefly in the south Dull moist summer Destruction more or less complete of crop in 1845 and 1846 Blight General and throughout Western Europe Source: Redcliffe N. Salaman, The History and Social Influence of the Potato, Cambridge University Press 7b Based on this document, what was one environmental factor that led to the destruction of the potato crop? [1] Score Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [19] [OVER]

20 Document 8 WHEREAS ALL SUCH MEETING I LLEGAL CAUTIO N MEETING ALL VAGRANTS CHARTER LECTURE SOCIALISM [Ireland] HERE AND OR, EMIGRATION A REMEDY. THERE; [United States, Canada, Australia] Source: Punch, 1848 (adapted) 8 What does this cartoonist suggest starving Irish families do to improve their lives? [1] Score Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [20]

21 Document 9a... The new wave of emigration affected nearly every village and town, as large tracts of land were deserted. Without customers, shopkeepers and merchants closed their doors. City shops were shuttered up and broken windows stuffed with paper. Public houses closed. Notices and handbills were pasted over doors and walls. All over Ireland, the butter, bacon, and cattle trades foundered [failed]. Once-busy warehouses stood idle and empty on the quays [docks].... Source: Susan Campbell Bartoletti, Black Potatoes: The Story of the Great Irish Famine, , Houghton Mifflin Company 9a According to Susan Campbell Bartoletti, what was one effect of the migration on Ireland? [1] Score Document 9b... In spite of discrimination, the hard work and bravery of Irish Americans shaped the United States in the 1800s. Between 1861 and 1865, for example, many thousands of Irish Americans fought in the Civil War. The construction of the Transcontinental Railroad, completed in 1869, would not have been possible without thousands of Irish Americans. They and other immigrants blasted tunnels through mountains, built bridges over gorges and rivers, and laid track across barren lands. The completion of the railroad had a huge impact on the growth of the country as settlers began to travel west in ever increasing numbers.... Source: Michael V. Uschan, Irish Americans, World Almanac Library 9b According to Michael V. Uschan, what was one effect of Irish migration on the United States? [1] Score Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [21] [OVER]

22 Part B Essay Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion. Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts, examples, and details. Include additional outside information. Historical Context: Throughout history, people have migrated for a variety of reasons. Some examples include the forced migration of Africans ( ), the forced migration of Spanish Jews ( ), and the emigration of the Irish ( ). Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history and geography, write an essay in which you Select two migrations mentioned in the historical context and for each Describe the historical circumstances that led to the migration Discuss how the migration has affected regions and/or societies Guidelines: In your essay, be sure to Develop all aspects of the task Incorporate information from at least four documents Incorporate relevant outside information Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that are beyond a restatement of the theme Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [22]

23 Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [23] [OVER]

24 REGENTS EXAM IN GLOBAL HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY Printed on Recycled Paper Global Hist. & Geo. Aug. 17 [24] REGENTS EXAM IN GLOBAL HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY

25 FOR TEACHERS ONLY The University of the State of New York REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION VOLUME 1 OF 2 MC & THEMATIC GLOBAL HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY Wednesday, August 16, :30 to 3:30 p.m., only SCORING KEY FOR PART I AND RATING GUIDE FOR PART II (THEMATIC ESSAY) Updated information regarding the rating of this examination may be posted on the New York State Education Department s web site during the rating period. Visit the site at: and select the link Scoring Information for any recently posted information regarding this examination. This site should be checked before the rating process for this examination begins and several times throughout the Regents Examination period. Scoring the Part I Multiple-Choice Questions Follow the procedures set up by the Regional Information Center, the Large City Scanning Center, and/or the school district for scoring the multiple-choice questions. If the student s responses for the multiple-choice questions are being hand scored prior to being scanned, the scorer must be careful not to make any marks on the answer sheet except to record the scores in the designated score boxes. Any other marks on the answer sheet will interfere with the accuracy of scanning. Multiple Choice for Part I Allow 1 credit for each correct response. Part I Copyright 2017 The University of the State of New York THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT Albany, New York 12234

26 Contents of the Rating Guide For Part I (Multiple-Choice Questions): Scoring Key For Part II (thematic) essay: A content-specific rubric Prescored answer papers. Score levels 5 and 1 have two papers each, and score levels 4, 3, and 2 have three papers each. They are ordered by score level from high to low. Commentary explaining the specific score awarded to each paper Five prescored practice papers General: Test Specifications Web addresses for the test-specific conversion chart and teacher evaluation forms Mechanics of Rating The following procedures are to be used in rating essay papers for this examination. More detailed directions for the organization of the rating process and procedures for rating the examination are included in the Information Booklet for Scoring the Regents Examination in Global History and Geography and United States History and Government. Rating the Essay Question (1) Follow your school s procedures for training raters. This process should include: Introduction to the task Raters read the task Raters identify the answers to the task Raters discuss possible answers and summarize expectations for student responses Introduction to the rubric and anchor papers Trainer leads review of specific rubric with reference to the task Trainer reviews procedures for assigning holistic scores, i.e., by matching evidence from the response to the rubric Trainer leads review of each anchor paper and commentary Practice scoring individually Raters score a set of five papers independently without looking at the scores and commentaries provided Trainer records scores and leads discussion until the raters feel confident enough to move on to actual rating (2) When actual rating begins, each rater should record his or her individual rating for a student s essay on the rating sheet provided, not directly on the student s essay or answer sheet. The rater should not correct the student s work by making insertions or changes of any kind. (3) Each essay must be rated by at least two raters; a third rater will be necessary to resolve scores that differ by more than one point. Schools are not permitted to rescore any of the open-ended questions (scaffold questions, thematic essay, DBQ essay) on this exam after each question has been rated the required number of times as specified in the rating guides, regardless of the final exam score. Schools are required to ensure that the raw scores have been added correctly and that the resulting scale score has been determined accurately. Teachers may not score their own students answer papers. Global Hist. & Geo. Rating Guide Aug. 17 [2] Vol. 1

27 Global History and Geography Content-Specific Rubric Thematic Essay August 2017 Theme: Task: Intellectual life Individuals Often in history, individuals, who were not leaders of government, had ideas that influenced change in their society or in other societies and regions. Select two individuals, who were not government leaders, and for each Explain an idea the individual had that influenced change Describe the historical circumstances surrounding the idea of this individual Discuss how this idea influenced change in a society or region You may use any individual, who was not the leader of a government, from your study of global history and geography. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include Confucius, Buddha, Plato, Jesus, Muhammad, Martin Luther, Galileo Galilei, John Locke, Mary Wollstonecraft, Karl Marx, Charles Darwin, Mohandas Gandhi, and Mother Teresa. Scoring Notes: You are not limited to these suggestions. Do not make the United States the focus of your answer. 1. This thematic essay has a minimum of six components (discussing an idea each of two individuals had that influenced change, the historical circumstances surrounding the idea of each individual, and how each idea influenced change in a society or region). 2. The individual could have held political office; however, the discussion must focus on either the time period before the person gained political office or the time period after the individual left political office, e.g., Nelson Mandela or Aung San Suu Kyi. 3. The change may be an immediate change or a long-term change. 4. The change may be discussed from any perspective as long as the position taken is supported by accurate facts and examples. 5. The same idea may be used for both individuals, e.g., monotheism may be discussed for both Jesus and Muhammad, but the details should be specific to each individual. 6. The influence on the United States may be included as part of the discussion for how an idea significantly changed a specific society or region, e.g., the effect of John Locke s ideas on the American Revolution. 7. The same society or region may be used to discuss how the ideas of two individuals led to a significant change, but the details should be specific to each individual, e.g., Europe in the 1600s was changed by the ideas of both Galileo Galilei and John Locke. 8. The society or region need not be specifically identified as long as it is implied in the discussion. 9. If more than two individuals are discussed, only the first two individuals discussed may be scored. Global Hist. & Geo. Rating Guide Aug. 17 [3] Vol. 1

28 Score of 5: Thoroughly develops all aspects of the task evenly and in depth by discussing an idea each of two individuals had that influenced change, the historical circumstances surrounding the idea of each individual, and how each idea influenced change in a society or region Is more analytical than descriptive (analyzes, evaluates, and/or creates* information), e.g., John Locke: connects Locke s idea of a social contract theory, the theory of natural rights, and the consent of the governed to the growing discontent with absolutism, specifically under the rule of Charles II and James II, the creation of a constitutional monarchy in England, and the application of Locke s ideas to the American Revolution and the French Revolution; Karl Marx: connects Marx s emphasis on the exploitation of the proletariat by the bourgeoisie, the conditions created by the Industrial Revolution, and the inevitability that class struggle would cause communist revolutions to the economic and political conditions in Russia in 1917 and Lenin s efforts to apply Marx s ideas during the Bolshevik Revolution Richly supports the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details, e.g., John Locke: divine right; Enlightenment; Second Treatise on Government; life, liberty, and property ; Glorious Revolution; English Bill of Rights; Declaration of Independence; Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen; Karl Marx: materialism; Das Kapital; Communist Manifesto; World War I; peace, land, and bread ; Red Army; 1917 Revolutions Demonstrates a logical and clear plan of organization; includes an introduction and a conclusion that are beyond a restatement of the theme Score of 4: Develops all aspects of the task but may do so somewhat unevenly by discussing all aspects of the task for one individual more thoroughly than for the second individual or by discussing one aspect of the task less thoroughly than the other aspects of the task Is both descriptive and analytical (applies, analyzes, evaluates, and/or creates* information), e.g., John Locke: discusses Locke s idea that the purpose of government was to protect people s natural rights and if the government refused to do this, the people had the right to overthrow the government, relating how these ideas led to Locke s rejection of absolute monarchy prevalent in western Europe and to the French Revolution and its effects; Karl Marx: discusses Marx s prediction of violent revolution as a result of the poor working conditions caused by the Industrial Revolution, relating this to the political situation and increasing labor unrest in Russia that led to the rise of Lenin and revolutions in 1917 Supports the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details Demonstrates a logical and clear plan of organization; includes an introduction and a conclusion that are beyond a restatement of the theme Score of 3: Develops all aspects of the task with little depth or develops at least four aspects of the task in some depth Is more descriptive than analytical (applies, may analyze and/or evaluate information) Includes some relevant facts, examples, and details; may include some minor inaccuracies Demonstrates a satisfactory plan of organization; includes an introduction and a conclusion that may be a restatement of the theme Note: If all aspects of the task are thoroughly developed evenly and in depth for one individual and if the response meets most of the other Level 5 criteria, the overall response may be a Level 3 paper. Global Hist. & Geo. Rating Guide Aug. 17 [4] Vol. 1

29 Score of 2: Minimally develops all aspects of the task or develops at least three aspects of the task in some depth Is primarily descriptive; may include faulty, weak, or isolated application or analysis Includes few relevant facts, examples, and details; may include some inaccuracies Demonstrates a general plan of organization; may lack focus; may contain digressions; may not clearly identify which aspect of the task is being addressed; may lack an introduction and/or a conclusion Score of 1: Minimally develops some aspects of the task Is descriptive; may lack understanding, application, or analysis Includes few relevant facts, examples, or details; may include inaccuracies May demonstrate a weakness in organization; may lack focus; may contain digressions; may not clearly identify which aspect of the task is being addressed; may lack an introduction and/or a conclusion Score of 0: Fails to develop the task or may only refer to the theme in a general way; OR includes no relevant facts, examples, or details; OR includes only the theme, task, or suggestions as copied from the test booklet; OR is illegible; OR is a blank paper *The term create as used by Anderson/Krathwohl, et al. in their 2001 revision of Bloom s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives refers to the highest level of the cognitive domain. This usage of create is similar to Bloom s use of the term synthesis. Creating implies an insightful reorganization of information into a new pattern or whole. While a Level 5 paper will contain analysis and/or evaluation of information, a very strong paper may also include examples of creating information as defined by Anderson and Krathwohl. All sample student essays in this rating guide are presented in the same cursive font while preserving actual student work, including errors. This will ensure that the sample essays are easier for raters to read and use as scoring aids. Raters should continue to disregard the quality of a student s handwriting in scoring examination papers and focus on how well the student has accomplished the task. The content-specific rubric should be applied holistically in determining the level of a student s response. Global Hist. & Geo. Rating Guide Aug. 17 [5] Vol. 1

30 Anchor Paper Thematic Essay Level 5 A Throughout history, people who are not government leaders have been able to make a significant impact on a society. They did not need political power to influence a region, but rather were able to use their intellect, ardent beliefs and writing to change the way people think. Two people who perfectly examplify this are Martin Luther and Galileo Galilei. Despite a humble start to life, Martin Luther was able to become one of the most influencial individuals in history. At the time, the Catholic Church was very powerful, and considered by some, quite corrupt. Martin Luther was a monk and was apalled by the coruption, in particular, the selling of indulgences by the church. The church had told people that buying an indulgence would lead to a reduction of time in purgatory and was using the money to build St. Peters Basilica. Outraged, Luther wrote his 95 theses, which listed his complaints about the church. The theses were quickly made into pamphlets using the recently developed printing press and circulated around Europe quickly, gaining Luther fame and followers. Luther officially broke off from the church after refusing to recant his criticisms, leading to the beginning of Protestantism, and a theology that would affect Europe and the world. Luther s ideas stressed an individual relationship with God and simplicity in the ceremonies of Luther s reformed church. Luther rejected the authority of the Pope and the role of the priest and stressed that salvation came by faith alone. While hiding from the authorities, he translated the Bible into German which went along with the notion that people should be able to read the Bible on their own. Martin Luther went against the church and survived. He laid the foundation for Lutheranism and this led to Global Hist. & Geo. Rating Guide Aug. 17 [6] Vol. 1

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