Workers' Mobility: a fundamental right in the EU. Is it a threat or an opportunity? Johan Ten Geuzendam, European Commission Wrocław, 22 June 2007

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1 Workers' Mobility: a fundamental right in the EU. Is it a threat or an opportunity? Johan Ten Geuzendam, European Commission Wrocław, 22 June 2007

2 Workers' Mobility: a fundamental right in the EU. Is it a threat or an opportunity? Foreign working age population (WAP) resident in the EU, 2006* EU 27: total of 327 million person aged 15 to 64 of which almost 20 million foreign citizens (EU and non-eu) of which again 12.9 million non-eu citizens 4.7 million EU-15 citizens 1.1 million EU-10 citizens 1.1 million new MS-2 citizens ( 220 BG, 850 RO)

3 Workers' Mobility: a fundamental right in the EU. Is it a threat or an opportunity? Share of foreign WAP in the EU by broad group of citizenship, 2006* (% of total WAP) EU-27 EU-15 EU-10 Other NMS EU EU Source: LFS Country of residence * 2005 data from IE, LU and RO

4 Workers' Mobility: a fundamental right in the EU. Is it a threat or an opportunity? Share of other EU citizens in receiving MS by broad group of citizenship, 2006* (in % of total WAP) LU CY BE IE AT DE ES UK SE FR NL EL IT MT DK FI PT CZ HU NMS EU EU Country of residence Source: LFS * 2005 data from IE and LU Note: EU-10 data for LU and CY of limited reliability. Numbers for missing EU countries too small to be reliable.

5 Mobility flows between old MS 0.1% or 180,000 of active EU-15 WAP per year move to another EU- 15 country (LFS based estimate) Likely to be an underestimate: coverage problems, does not include seasonal mobility and short term mobility/postings Indication for relatively low cross-border mobility between EU-15

6 Flows from EU-10 to EU-15 Work permit/registration data In most MS inflow of EU-10 foreigners around 0.1% of total WAP Inflow for some higher, but still relatively moderate relative to WAP: DE: 0.9 (2004 Sept. 2005) AT: 1.2 (2004), 0.6 (Jan June 2005) UK: 0.3 (2004), 0.5 (2005), 0.6 (2006) IE: 1.9 (2004), 3.9 (2005) (PPS numbers)

7 Characteristics of movers EU-15 Mobile : young (but rising share of mobile above 34), single without kids, highly educated and working in skilled and high-skilled occupations EU-10 Mobile : younger than EU-15 mobile, without kids (but more likely to be married), medium education, but many work in low-skill jobs Romanians and Bulgarians resident in EU-15: roughly similar age profile as EU-10 mobile, medium education, but lower overall skill level than EU- 10 mobile, even more likely to be in low-skill jobs

8 Workers' Mobility: a fundamental right in the EU. Is it a threat or an opportunity? Even after enlargement, geographic mobility is a relatively limited phenomenon in Europe Positive effects on the economies of the receiving countries No evidence of significant replacement of national workers (complementarity) and no visible signs of welfare tourism Sending countries: Brain drain a concern for some countries but how permanent? Let s not forget: free movement of workers a basic right of European citizens.

9 Why geographical or job to job Mobility? Above 3 million jobs are vacant in the EU while the rate of unemployment is at around 7,3 % (16,6 % for the youth). Mobility is essential for the development of European labour markets - Treaty: freedom of movement of workers - Lisbon agenda: contributes to growth and jobs - Employment guideline #20 Improve matching of labour market needs through.removing obstacles to mobility for workers across Europe within the framework of the treaties

10 Why geographical or job to job Mobility? Eurobarometer those who move have a better chance to find a job European Central Bank greater mobility increases economic efficiency, helping match job skills with vacancies. European Foundation for Living and Working Conditions Report Mobility in Europe 2006

11 Workers' Mobility: a fundamental right in the EU. Is it a threat or an opportunity? Need for enforcing respect of labour standards & individuals rights Know before you go: use EURES

12 What is EURES? A network of organisations working in the field of employment Which supports the mobility of workers at transnational & Crossborder levels In the EEA (+ Switzerland)

13 EURES in practice is: More than 700 EURES advisers 145 work in cross-border regions On average more than individual contacts with jobseekers, workers and employers per month EURES advisers are trained specialists Information, guidance and placement services Jobseekers and employers

14 The EURES portal

15 EURES portal In 25 languages Separate entry points for employers and jobseekers Easy navigation (color codes) "My EURES" allows to personalize the actions Compatible with Europass CV Cedefop (planned the full integration) and On average over 1 million job vacancies on-line!

16 EURES Portal EURES portal Job-search (vacancy exchange system) CV database Living & Working Conditions Learning (Ploteus)

17 Job searches

18 Living and Working

19 Free movement of workers to and from the new Member States Major information challenge EURES plays an important role Inform and advise Provide information EURES job mobility portal serves as important information source both for jobseekers and inside the network

20 The "Free movement" database During a transitional period of up to 7 years after the accession certain restrictions may be applied that limit the free movement of workers from, to and between the new member states. The "Free movement" database provides up to date information on how these transitional rules are applied in the different Member States.

21 Free Movement

22 Free Movement - example

23 Structure - "free movement" information General overview Answers to 6 practical questions References to relevant national legal acts

24 6 Answers 0. General Description 1. What kind of permission does a citizen of Poland need in order to have access to the labour market in UK? 2. What are the criteria for issuing a work permit? 3. What is the procedure for a job seeker to obtain a work permit?

25 6 Answers 4. Where can job seekers get more information? 5. What is the procedure for an employer to recruit citizens of Poland? 6. Where can an employer obtain more information? + References to relevant national legal acts

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