SMART TOURISM INVESTMENT: PLANNING PATHWAYS TO BREAK THE POVERTY CYCLE

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "SMART TOURISM INVESTMENT: PLANNING PATHWAYS TO BREAK THE POVERTY CYCLE"

Transcription

1 Tourism Review International, Vol. 18, pp /15 $ Printed in the USA. All rights reserved. DOI: Copyright 2015 Cognizant Comm. Corp. E-ISSN SMART TOURISM INVESTMENT: PLANNING PATHWAYS TO BREAK THE POVERTY CYCLE MOUSTAFA A. MEKAWY Department of Tourism Studies, Faculty of Tourism and Hotels, University of Sadat City, El-Sadat City, Egypt The aim of this article is to highlight how the smart tourism investment (STI) threshold can be used to break the poverty cycle in Egypt. Tourism investment is a major source of economic growth, especially in poor communities. How it can simultaneously be a force to break the poverty cycle is the theme of this study. The global emergence of destination slums poses questions for tourism-led poverty reduction (TLPR) studies and development planning initiatives. Employing exploratory and interpretative modes of enquiry and analyzing the al-darb el Ahmar destination slum illuminates how slums sources of production deterioration, traditional investing methods, and adverse planning approaches may prevent inhabitants from snatching economic opportunities offered by geographic proximity to tourism development zones, to eventually break the cycle of generational poverty. This study offers a valuable approach to STI-led growth and elucidates planning pathways through which poverty traps can be broken. Findings reveal that STI s role in poverty eradication, in close cooperation with other Egyptian social sectors, is crucial and depends on the ability of stakeholders to maintain the productivity of slum resources and capital. The article concludes that the planned STIs for poverty closure programs should have an effective, positive impact if appropriately intervened in, channeled, and monitored. Key words: Smart tourism investment (STI); Destination slum concept; Interpretivism; Poverty cycle; Penetration; Planning pathways Introduction Tourism-led poverty reduction (TLPR) studies show that as a people-oriented industry, tourism provides many jobs that help revitalize local economies. Tourism provides a key opportunity for impoverished areas to combat poverty, diversify their economies, and follow pro-poor, holistic growth strategies (Mekawy, 2012). The growing market trend of tourists seeking cultural and natural resources and attractions in poor areas gives slums a strong comparative advantage (Burgold, Frenzel, & Rolfes, 2013; Freire-Medeiros, 2009; Frenzel, 2013). This trend is particularly relevant Address correspondence to Dr. Moustafa Ahmed Mekawy, Faculty of Tourism and Hotels, Sadat City University, El Sadat City, 32897, Egypt. Tel: ; Fax: ; 253

2 254 MEKAWY to informal settlements, since around one third of the urban population in the developing world in 2012, or about 863 million people in extreme poverty, lived in slum communities (United Nations [UN], 2012). However, traditional tourism development is not a panacea. The sector is extremely competitive and sensitive to internal and external shocks ranging from social changes and economic downturns to natural disasters and political instability, although it does demonstrate strong resilience (Cooper, 2008). Therefore, the smart use and investment of slums resources for empowering poverty-stricken dwellers to survive and escape poverty is crucial for shaping a clear roadmap that may lead to overcoming the chronic poverty in these lives (Shehayeb, 2009). However, no previous TLPR study has introduced a complete picture of the role these tourism-based programs and initiatives play in breaking the poverty cycle in poor areas situated near tourism development zones. Earlier TLPR research drew attention to the causative developments between tourism investments and poverty relief, possible factors that lead poverty to persist in destination slums, and the innovative, smart planning thresholds of these courses and associated relationships over time (Mitchell & Ashley, 2007). However, unlike at the international level, Egyptian tourism researchers and planners have not particularly focused on research into smart tourism investment (STI) potentials or the tourism investment poverty nexus, approaches, and pathways, with the intention of ending poverty traps in slums. Hence, the significant question is whether or not STI in destination slum characteristics is beneficial to ending poverty traps in Egyptian slums. This article aims to address this gap in research and contribute to the proof of the latent adoption of STI penetration strategies in closing down the poverty cycle in destination slums, with a focus on capitalizing slum resources. Additionally, the linkages between the state of chronic poverty on the one hand and, on the other, the processes of traditional investment projects and/or adverse planning channels that trap slum dwellers in poverty are discussed and explained. In view of that, the purpose of this study is fourfold. Firstly, it looks into and discusses the conceptual vagueness of the destination slum term, an aspect often ignored in existing TLPR research. Secondly, it aims to inform and stimulate the debate on key STI penetration priorities for poverty abolition and dweller survival in light of the growing emergence of scaled-up slum tourism development responses elsewhere. Thirdly, it analyzes the extent to which smart investment activities focus on maximizing tourism sector gains in a manner that is competitive and sustainable and yields pro-poor benefits that lead to halting the poverty cycle in Egyptian slums. Fourthly, it proposes a planning pathways model to follow when utilizing STI inception in addressing the interests of tourists and the basic needs of poor communities. Destination Slum and Poverty Trap: Clearing the Conceptual Ground Destination Slum: Origins, Problematic Definition, and Theoretical Framework The notion of a destination slum is not new; its origins date back to the 19th century, when wealthy Londoners would sometimes go slumming in the poorer neighborhoods of London s East End, a popular destination for poorism (Diniejko, 2013; Koven, 2006). This idea spread to many places in the US, where slumming included tours to socalled ethnic and exotic neighborhoods such as Little Italy, Chinatown, and African-American districts (Steinbrink, 2012). Connecting socially and economically diverse spaces, these special tourism destinations created new forms of urban encounter (Dürr & Jaffe, 2012). Presently, destination slums exist around the world in cities such as Rio de Janeiro, Johannesburg, Cape Town, Mumbai, and Greater Cairo. This form of destination is known locally by different names. For example, in Brazil, where an organized, 1-day visit aims at providing wealthy tourists with a taste of the favela life, it is referred to as favela destination. In both South Africa and India, targeting foreign special interest visitors who are fond of cultural and heritage attractions as well as traditional arts and crafts of the poor, it is called township/shantytown destination. In Egypt, for organized half-day tours intending to show tourists how people live therein, it is known as ashwa iyyat destination (Mekawy, 2012; Saint-Upéry, 2010). Despite two decades of studying destination slum frameworks, rigorous research on this topic remains

3 PATHWAYS TO BREAK THE POVERTY CYCLE 255 in a nascent stage. Multiple definitions, contexts, and approaches preclude integrated research on destination slums. Several attempts to review the literature and to clarify the concept have recently been made (Freire-Medeiros, 2009). However, there is no clear general definition of a destination slum. The concept, subject to ongoing dispute, is elusive, fuzzy, and always relational, shaped by specific backgrounds and interests. In the new global pro-poor tourism trend, the development of slums into tourist destinations has become a central issue for a reality tours phenomenon and for the global circulation of the slums as a trademark (Gilbert, 2007). Following this line of thought, several recent authors have indicated that most of today s slums are destinations and focal points for many authentic reality tourist itineraries (Cejas, 2006). So far, however, there has been little discussion about providing a conceptual basis for understanding the notion of destination slum. In this vein, any attempt at defining a destination slum in theory and supplying alternatives to new concept formation elsewhere and in Egypt must be preceded by a proper appreciation of the necessary and sufficient structures that underlie the formation and application of this concept. One purpose of this study is to consider the account that an analytical philosophy, as an interpretivist paradigm, gives of a fundamental conceptual problem, namely, to explain why a grasp of the destination slum idea requires a grasp of its conceptual structure. Dummett (1993) pointed out that analytical philosophy, as an analysis method, is used to understand a subject matter (concept) by coming to understand its composition (structure). Following this line of thought, the article argues that in the traditional, purely linguistic view, a concept is given by a definition that specifies necessary and sufficient conditions for its application. Likewise, one might be able to provide definitions, such as that a certain poor area is a destination slum if and only if it possesses specific characteristics and content of attractions, or that another particular informal settlement is a destination slum if and only if it becomes a central endpoint for many itineraries, where particular interactions may take place among the stakeholders. Like other concepts, however, the concept of destination slum has not been submitted to this kind of linguistic analysis (Baggio & Marzano, 2007). Cognitive science has offered a dissimilar view of the nature of concepts, understanding them as mental representations, but the nature of conceptual depictions is still debated. Academics have variously proposed that concepts are prototypes, sets of exemplars, or distributed representations in neural networks. An increasing number of researchers have emphasized the role of causal connections in understanding the nature of concepts (Baggio & Marzano, 2007). This study explores the representation of the destination slum concept within a theoretical framework that stresses the importance of the internal structure of those representations (Tyler, Moss, Durrant- Peatfield, & Levy, 2000). Following the idea of conceptual structure, the concept of a destination is not just a set of prototypical features or typical examples but also involves causal relations that can be used to apply the concept in an explanatory fashion. Hermeneutically, if any endpoint is a place that people will make a special trip to visit, specifically where it is a certain geographical unit, one can say that it happened because it is a destination (Framke, 2002). Therefore, it is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the fact that destination concepts, including destination slum notions, are particularly interesting from this theoretical perspective, because they display a strong causal structure, as in Figure 1. The current review accentuates the causal nexus way presented in Figure 1, which reflects much of the investigation contained in this article. By the means of this causal nexus way, the destination slum concept will be approached by employing the interpretivist paradigm. It relies on an antipositivist philosophy (Guba & Lincoln, 1994), holding that the reality of concepts and definitions as we know it is constructed intersubjectively through the meanings and understandings developed socially and experientially. Similarly, Tyler et al. (2000) pointed out that the notion that concepts have an internal structure rests on the critical assumption that conceptual representations are componential in nature that is, that they are made up of smaller elements of meaning, variously referred to as properties, features, or attributes. Therefore, tourism researchers should consider the importance of conceptual representations to express and understand information about the destination slum conceptuality and so must capture a rich

4 256 MEKAWY Figure 1. The causal structure of destination slum concept. variety of knowledge about objects, abstract ideas, mental states, and actions and about the relations among all of these (Tyler et al., 2000). The rationality of this paradigm lies in the refusal view of the notions of theory-neutral observations and the idea of universal laws, as in science. Theory, in this paradigm, takes on a different perspective. That is, multiple knowledges/realities can coexist when equally competent (or trusted) interpreters disagree (Guba & Lincoln, 1994, p. 113). Destination slum findings or knowledge claims, from this perspective, are created as an investigation proceeds. Findings emerge through dialogue in which conflicting interpretations are negotiated among members of a (destination slum theory) community. As noticed, the proposed conceptual framework presented in Figure 1 incorporates a range of analytical philosophy issues as well as planning thresholds. This structure offers a model to follow when involving the tourism research community in constructing destination slum concepts and theories to elaborate on the stakeholders slum tourism experience. In this view, slum tourism activities and practices are the noticeable indicators of tourist motivations, which can develop over time in particular ways that constitute the expected course of the distinctive slum tourism experience. Studies of the tourism poverty nexus show that the importance of a slum as a tourism destination arises from its key unique and productive characteristics (resources, capital, features, flavors, and core attractions) that shape TLPR activities and practices within a particular slum (Scheyvens, 2007). For example, Koven (2006) pointed out that early

5 PATHWAYS TO BREAK THE POVERTY CYCLE 257 slumming, which commenced in Victorian London s poor neighborhoods (destinations), had a set of typical indications and manifestations. These symptoms included curiosity to see the sights, the fashion of wearing common clothes, and going into the main roads and side streets along with a course that, before the 20th century, often included voyeuristic pastimes and disreputable amusements (Diniejko, 2013). Hence, today, investing in the destination slum features idea includes tourists well-understood charitable motivations and endeavors and dwellers needs, with a kind of remedial action that is influential, except for the emergence of poverty traps resistant to traditional tourism investments (Richardson & Langdon, 2000; Saint-Upéry, 2010). Therefore, this study makes a major contribution to research on constructing the destination slum idea by demonstrating that understanding a destination slum concept, as a causal structure like that shown in Figure 1, is coherent with aspects of pattern and exemplar theories of concepts. Moreover, as noted in many studies, destination slums may have unique prolific features that roughly tie a set of characteristics that typically arise in poor areas to particular tourism investments (Shehayeb, 2009). However, such concepts need not be formed directly by observation but can be formed as part of the generation of explanatory hypotheses. Slums as Poverty Traps: Tackling the Drivers This section discusses the main dimensions of destination slums poverty traps. According to the UN (2012), a slum is an area that to a certain extent combines the following characteristics: inadequate access to safe water, inadequate access to sanitation and other infrastructure, poor structural quality of housing, overcrowding, and insecure residential status. In the microbased literature, the underlying mechanisms associated with poverty are linked to informational and/or market failures and to indivisibilities in investment in human capital and other slums assets (Shehayeb, 2009). These inadequacies tend to affect the slum dwellers more severely due to their limited access to the closest tourism markets. Economically, a poverty trap arises in many destination slums when an economic system requires a significant amount of capital in order to earn enough to escape poverty. When individuals lack this capital, they may also find it difficult to acquire it, creating a self-reinforcing cycle of poverty (Kakwani, 2006). In searching for the main causes of poverty traps, the Chronic Poverty Research Centre (CPRC) (2008) points out that chronic poverty is distinguishable by its duration and multidimensionality. Chronically poor people always, or for during long periods of their lives, live below a poverty line, and their situations are usually defined by structural and social inequalities influenced by multiple discriminations. This is different from the transitorily poor, who move in and out of poverty or who only occasionally fall below the poverty line (CPRC, 2008). Slums poverty traps can be broken by planned and targeted investments in the economy and by providing dwellers the smart means to earn and be employed. Some argue that a series of poverty alleviation programs can be enforced to raise dwellers out of poverty by providing monetary aid for a period of time (Mitchell & Ashley, 2007). However, if the plan fails, people will become dependent on such traditional aid/charitable programs forever and may even sink deeper into the poverty spiral. Thus, poorer countries find this to be difficult, leading to the overexploitation of natural and cultural resources and land (Mekawy, 2014). Therefore, breaking this chronic cycle begins by investing in destination slums productive resources (Kakwani, 2006). This notion relies on the suggestion that breaking the cycle of poverty in destination slums is a slow and often aching process, requiring deep, targeted investment in slum dwellers and characteristics over time. This theory of change targets the promotion of slum-based antipoverty investments and voluntary or community activities that focus on making these investments effective and sustainable. In this vein, the articler argues that this task can be a priority of the growing number of Egyptian nonprofit organizations that focus on charitable activities, which cover the unmet needs and basic infrastructure services including health, education, sport and recreation, arts and culture and environment, throughout slums. The next section outlines

6 258 MEKAWY the main dimensions of STI as a proposed way to empower dwellers. STI: Potential Pathways Although there is little empirical evidence to support the notion that STI initiatives in poor areas perform any better than non-stis, many speculation methods take such tourism project inflows very seriously (World Bank, 2011). In attempting to invest tourism resources of destination slums, investors and national development bodies traditionally try to link these assets to tourists interests along with entrepreneurs objectives, while neglecting the underlying factors that shape the poverty trap of slums inhabitants (Grant, 2004). Therefore, the realization that the tendency of all stakeholders (including the government, industry, and activist groups) is to prioritize tourism investment projects that are aligned with their interests seems to lead to roundabout and incomplete solutions. The distinctions between slum-based antipoverty investments and business investments are often blurred (World Bank, 2009). Thus, a broader focus on STI-related poverty eradication is significant, because it emphasizes the multifaceted nature of slums resources, characteristics, and attractions and the relevance of looking at the broad range of effects that STIs may have on dwellers livelihoods and their poverty traps, discussed later in the article. Based upon previous discussion, the article asks the main question: By using the STI threshold, how can urban poverty traps be tackled in destination slums? At the forefront, targeted investments (e.g., in basic services and infrastructure to benefit slum dwellers) are suggested to make a considerable difference to the lives of people living in chronic poverty traps. In many of Cairo s historic neighborhoods, a lack of access to public infrastructure such as electrical power and water supply is a significant marker of chronic poverty status (Khalifa, 2010). Investment cutbacks are inevitable in countries experiencing economic difficulties, but they also often result from structural adjustment reforms and the privatization of public utilities. In Egyptian slums, urban infrastructure is in a general state of decay. Examples of basic needs are investments in water, sanitation, affordable transportation, health care, education, and energy, as well as law and order and jobs that reward productivity (Shehayeb, 2009; Sims, 2000, 2003). Therefore, this article argues the value of the way of thinking that penetrates root causes to empower slum dwellers to live their lives smartly. Investments in infrastructure can be of great importance in breaking economic isolation. However, this penetration pathway remains a substantially underresearched area. To some, such may include paved roads, power grids, and transportation networks that maintain the lives of slum inhabitants (Estache, 2004; Fay & Yepes, 2003; Foster, 2005; Henry & Carcas, 2005). Others argue that wider cellular coverage and even broadband Internet services obtained through fiber optic cables or satellite connections may act as the smarter solution (World Bank, 2011). Egyptian Slums: From Poverty Traps to Lucrative Tourist Destinations In the context of economics and planning, a poverty trap is any self-reinforcing mechanism that causes poverty to persist. If it continues from one generation to another, the trap begins to strengthen itself if substantial steps are not taken to break the cycle (Azariadis, 2005). Many researchers (e.g., Glaeser, 2011; Turner, 1969) argue that slums can trap people in poverty. This is not exactly new; the depiction of slums as poverty traps can be found in Charles Booth s studies of London in the 1880s (Azariadis, 2005). However, although slums may be poverty traps, there is a greater opportunity to turn them into lucrative tourism destinations and ultimately to break the poverty cycle. TLPR research to date has tended to focus on the symptoms of slum poverty rather than on the real causes. Furthermore, one can argue that despite the considerable number of tourism poverty nexus studies devoted to economic growth and development of poor areas, TLPR researchers have not yet discovered how to make slums attractive destinations for tourism investments. As a result, the tourism investment poverty nexus remains a controversial theory. If Egyptian slums possess the productive features and characteristics that seem to be appropriate for initiating slum-based enterprises, why are so many destination slums still trapped in poverty? Cairo s historical destination slum spatial poverty traps are evident in Egyptian contexts, and these exist

7 PATHWAYS TO BREAK THE POVERTY CYCLE 259 alongside rapid slumming and rising slum tourism activities (Mekawy, 2012). By their nature, all dwellers in those destination slum areas are physically much closer than those who live in the urban lagging areas that have grown out from Cairo s boundaries to local tourism development zones, markets, and services as well as to related productive activities (Bianca & Siravo, 2005), yet they are trapped in poverty (Sabry, 2009). Examples include al-darb el Ahmar and al-gamalia historical destination slums, especially the eastern sections along the Fatimid walls, as well as parts of Masr el Qadima, Boulaq abou Aala, el-khalifa, etc. Also included are remarkable old villages such as Qait Bey and el Tonsi, which serve informal squatters of the vast historical cemetery (Bianca & Siravo, 2005). Within the context of proposed STI and community-centered, productive planning approaches, this review disagrees with the claim that a slum s physical proximity to tourism areas alone is enough. On the contrary, it is the absence of innovative planning and collaborative pathways that causes this continued poverty. It also appears that the problem is both a lack of responsible inclusion in slum-based tourism investments on the part of government plans for dwellers and a failure in empowering them to smartly invest their historical assets (e.g., Islamic Fatimid monuments and endowments) (Collins & Herman, 2008). One possible explanation for this is that most Egyptian governmental development plans and investment pathways depend on rooting out these slums rather than converting them into lucrative tourist destinations (World Bank, 2011). Therefore, as a smart, innovative investment track, it is necessary to see beyond physical vicinity and focus on the underlying dimensions of dwellers inclusion/ exclusion and on empowering charitable relationships that facilitate access to responsible investment opportunities, volunteer tourism markets, and philanthropic services (Richardson & Langdon, 2000). Drawing on Figure 1 s representation of the idea of productive characteristics of such destination slums, the main investment opportunities of Cairo s destination slums can be smartly connected to their unique capital and resources. In this context, the article argues that although there is growing appeal of destination slum, there is much criticism and argument of this concept. It seems reasonable to assume that the attractiveness of slums as tourist destinations is directly connected with the productive resources and unique features, and characteristics of the slums have to be smartly invested to attract tourists to these slums. This leads us to the significant inquiry: What destination slum characteristics can hinder the dwellers from gaining from tourism? When Mekawy (2012) posed this question to respondents in his study, a majority of them indicated that slums remoteness hampers the dwellers from benefiting from tourism activities and investments. Hence, the study argues that at the forefront of destination slums debate is the issue of geographical proximity accessibility nexus. A destination is in many respects defined by its ability to provide appropriate tourist access into a destination and diffusion throughout the destination (World Bank, 2011). The dispersal of tourists throughout a slum can provide economic and social benefits, including improved services to the poor community (Freire- Medeiros, 2009). Consequently, the development of appropriate access for tourists to and within a destination slum includes consideration of a number of key accessibility planning questions. However, destination slum concept has predominantly been challenged by geographical proximity and accessibility issues demonstrating that remote and/or incoherent location to the most visited tourism core attractions and sites degrade the overall accessibility feature of this kind of destination, and eventually degrade the overall economic and investment benefits of destination slums characteristics. Importantly, few writers have been able to draw on any structured research into the appropriate investment methods and forms of utilizing destination slums characteristics as productive resources to illuminate any possible economic threats such as destination leakage. One example is Mekawy (2012), who managed to draw the attention to the benefits associated with the smart use of the holistic, collaborative and responsible participatory approaches of slum dwellers in small-scale cooperatives, which ensure that tourism revenue remains in local poor hands. Thus, this study provides an exciting opportunity to advance our knowledge of the STI of slum features to initiate new era of slum-based enterprises, which are saturated with inimitable slum flavors such as traditional building methods, life patterns, distinctive urban landscape,

8 260 MEKAWY foods, and habits that are incorporated into the investment projects, which developed as profitable public private STIs (Mekawy 2012). Hence, in order to prevent another generation of slum dwellers from growing up with the same barriers as their parents, stakeholders, particular charitable organizations, should be committed to investing early. For those who are able to work but who are not employed, lucrative strategies adopted by notfor-profit private sector should concentrate on providing early penetration support to improve life chances. The aim is to break the cycle of deprivation too often passed from one generation to another. Planning pathways, therefore, have to be driven by stakeholders commitment to STI projects, which secure outcomes and not just income transfers. Accordingly, the following section introduces a successful case study that promotes this discussion. Lucrative Destination Slum Case Study: Evidence From al-darb al-ahmar District The Area in Context. Al-Darb al-ahmar (the red road) in Cairo may not be as famous or as visited as Khan el-khalili Bazaar, but nonetheless it retains much of its past riches and historical atmosphere. The Darb al-ahmar area and its backstreets were initially linked as they all formed part of the Qasaba, the main road running from the Northern Gates (Bab al-nasr and Baba al-futuh) down towards the Citadel, meeting the Darb al- Ahmar road at the Southern Gate, Bab Zuweila. Unchanged over the centuries, the neighborhood of al-darb al-ahmar is a maze of narrow, twisting alleyways lined with splendid mosques and medieval facades. This quarter became a fashionable residential area in the 14th Century, as Al-Nasir Mohammed developed the Citadel area. It contains several interesting mosques and monuments, of which are Al-Mu ayyed Mosque and Mosque of Inal el-yusufi, both in the surrounding area of Bab Zuweila (Siravo, 2001). The Darb al-ahmar area hosts several interesting markets, trades, and crafts. Facing Bab Zuweila and going further up north in Suq al-silah Street one will come across the saddle makers market called Suq al-surugiyyiah, which produces all kinds of leather ware. Further along the street is full of shops where you find stands of drums, belly dancer costumes, wooden tables and chairs, embroidered cloth, and many other simple products such as old oriental teapots and cups (Bianca & Siravo, 2005). Another main attraction is the Attarin area, spices shops, which are spread all over old streets. There visitors will find endless sorts of colorful spices, herbs, and strange mixes used for a wide range of things: cooking, hair dyes, and healing herbs. Seen along the streets are other interesting trades where owners have products such as perfumes, carpets, brass and copperware, glass, and ceramics piled up on show outside their workshops, almost crowding the whole street and turning it into a pedestrian alley. This is particularly the case during holidays and feast days when the whole neighborhood comes alive to its utmost, with its central market surrounded by the ancient Islamic buildings (Shehayeb, 2009). Like similar historical and architectural slum districts elsewhere, al-darb al-ahmar s physical and social status has declined over the years, and it now suffers from urban decay, poor infrastructure, environmental pollution, and a range of social and economic problems (Bianca & Siravo, 2005). These problems have arisen for a variety of reasons, prominent among which are fragmented and at times unclear property rights. In the case of al-darb al-ahmar, the situation is worsened by a conflict of interest between residents and the governmental bodies responsible for the preservation of the many historic monuments found in the area. The authorities have placed a moratorium on building within the domains of monuments (Siravo, 2001). This is an example of the adverse effect of unsympathetic and inflexible planning approaches. The challenge, therefore, is to reveal a pathway forward that takes into account the anxieties of the various stakeholders so that all concerned can perceive benefits in the proposed tourism investment plans. The overall objective must be to reverse the slow decline of al-darb al-ahmar s resources and integrate them fully into the STI schemes and initiatives. Reasons for Choosing the Area. The decision on how to select the case to study is a very important one that merits some reflection. In an essential case study, the case is selected on its own merits. Moreover, the case is selected not because it is representative of other cases, but because of its uniqueness,

9 PATHWAYS TO BREAK THE POVERTY CYCLE 261 which is of genuine interest to the researchers (Tyler et al., 2000). For example, the case in the current study, which explains that the issue of investing decayed resources in historic poor areas, like in al-darb al-ahmar, is a smart one of physical and economic revival in keeping with the preservation and upkeep of historical buildings in a profitable public private manner that targets the poor (Bianca & Siravo, 2005). Having said this, there is scope for considering different investment pathways for the level of intervention allowed to existing resources and there are tourism characteristics and assets within this poverty-stricken area, for which different TLPR development options can be considered to help eradicate the poverty cycle. Likewise, despite the fact the area of al-darb al-ahmar was poor, it featured one of the richest concentrations of Islamic art and architecture in the world. The challenge was to revitalize and invest these heritage capitals in innovative ways that turned traditional notions about the possibility of lucrative use of cultural monuments in stakeholders minds that rather than being a drain on resources, they could be an incentive for social and economic development that aims the poor directly. Al-Darb al-ahmar was therefore intended to be a case study for a variety of investment challenges, ranging from slum surroundings rehabilitation to cultural restoration. The objective was to create models of smart investment guided by the not-forprofit and charitable organizations participatory approach that could be replicated in many other settings, and in particular in the poor historic cities of the Islamic world. Almost one third of historic cities on UNESCO s list of world heritage sites are in the Islamic World. Many face pressures of chronic poverty similar to those of al-darb al-ahmar (Bianca & Siravo, 2005). Therefore, the article argues that the area provides a possible case study to explore actions that might be taken to encourage responsible stakeholders partnerships, particularly as they relate to the redevelopment of blighted areas and changes in the way of investing the existing slum-based resources. The Study Area: Featuring the Productive Characteristics. Al-Darb al-ahmar destination slum is an example of a long-established declining, lagging area inhabited predominantly by the urban poor. It is part of the historic city of Cairo, located to the east of the city center between al-azhar Street in the north and the Salah-Eddin Citadel in the south. The heart of the study area is the Batineya neighborhood (Siravo, 2001). Despite its proximity to the Central Business District, the historic Al-Azhar mosque, and the tourist bazaars of Khan el Khalili, Suq as-sagha, and Suq an-nahhaseen, Batineya is an isolated and neglected area. It is considered by outsiders to be a center of drug trafficking and was avoided by the police until the mid-1980s. Despite this, it contains many historic buildings and is the center of two important craft communities, Aslan and Shughlan, the first known for its shoemakers and the second for its many carpentry shops. Muiz ed Deen Street, marking the southern portion of the western boundary, was the old city s main spine and is still lined with artisans and tradesmen s shops. Bab-el Wazir also has a commercial role and is the location of numerous wood, marble, and canvas workshops (Siravo, 2001). Away from commercial areas, narrow streets lined by three- and four-story houses and occasional neighborhood stores and workshops characterize the al-darb al-ahmar area (Bianca & Siravo, 2005). Along the same line, this article argues that while the al-darb al-ahmar destination slum possesses the main productive tourism resources, the way they are penetrated, invested in, and approached by government authorities has been inefficient. Further, the deterioration of the al-darb al-ahmar slum s sources of production, traditional investing methods, and adverse planning approaches has contributed most to preventing inhabitants from snatching economic opportunities offered by the rich geographic proximity of the neighborhood to tourism development zones. Thus, the dwellers have long failed to escape from chronic poverty. As a result, it is imperative to draw up an intelligible governmental action plan for investing in the productive characteristics that will have an effective, positive, profitable impact (Bianca & Siravo, 2005; CPRC, 2008). STI Example: Aga Khan s Investment Program in Al-Darb al-ahmar Slum The Aga Khan s private investment initiative, as a smart solution by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture

10 262 MEKAWY (AKTC) program, involved not only vast quarry and construction projects at the dumpsite and at the 13th century Ayyubid City wall itself, but it engaged the local poor community in the al Darb al-ahmar slum to participate in and support reconstruction by reviving the ancient neighborhood while protecting its heritage tourism value (Siravo, 2001). To vigorously complete the project, the Aga Khan s consortium opened a new lime quarry and kiln to provide traditional materials to reconstruct the wall and the old city. It trained building tradesmen on the techniques necessary to do preservationquality construction and trained apprentices in masonry, carpentry, and other trades in order to expand the corps of local workers qualified to conduct restoration work. The investment program empowered people to work and not depend on the money aid paid by the program. In doing so, microcredit from the Aga Khan Trust financed a total of 400 tradesmen, small manufacturing businesses, and businesses in shoemaking, furniture, and tourist goods by 2005, a program being expanded with the expectation of reaching $1.0 million per year in total microcredit loans (Bianca & Siravo, 2005). Moreover, the entire project was conducted within the Egyptian political structure, which seeks to control every aspect of heritage investment management, and it continued despite interference from the national antiquities authorities, who would have preferred to evict residents of the Darb al-ahmar in order to preserve the buildings (Siravo, 2004). The Aga Khan Trust s capacity to fend off government control, as well as its commitment to engage with, educate, incentivize, and support the dwellers to participate in and benefit from the preservation effort, has resulted in the project s apparent early success (Siravo, 2001). While dwellers were provided no-cost loans by the AKTC to initiate slum-based antipoverty investments, opportunities for meaningful, productive, self-supporting work must be expanded. What can be taken from this useful example is that the track of the abolition of poverty will require money to empower poverty-trapped dwellers. However, money must be accompanied by holistic, beneficial, and penetrating approaches and by intrepid and coordinated public and private investment programs that provide interrelated and targeted opportunities for the poor. For those who are able to work, greater emphasis must be placed on jobs, education, and training as innovative planning pathways. For those who cannot or should not be expected to work, improvements must be made in the social security program, which, combined with private benefit plans, constitutes the most effective institution for income maintenance. These cannot, of course, do the whole job. The present involvement system must be thoroughly repaired to adequately serve those dwellers whose financial and humanitarian needs are not met by other programs. Connected with improvements in existing profitable, empowering STI programs, the search must continue for new and imaginative programs that will meet the demands of the decade ahead (Bianca & Siravo, 2005, Mekawy, 2014). One of the greatest challenges to achieving lucrative forms of tourism investment in lagging areas is gaining support for this from the private sector, although this also offers the greatest potential for delivering benefits to the poor. While characterized by a drive for profits, the motivations of contemporary private sector tourism businesses (i.e., AKTC programs) are often more diverse, and many are keen to demonstrate corporate social responsibility (World Bank, 2011). For some, this simply leads to unsustainable donations to slum development initiatives, but in other cases, the benefits are more wide ranging and sustainable. For example, the rehabilitation process of al-darb al-ahmar monuments envisions a lucrative future for the district, in which a stable residential core is invigorated and sustained by a profitable pathway system of small workshops and retail activities, supported by essential infrastructure and community facilities and made a more attractive destination by wellmaintained open spaces and monuments (Grant, 2004; Shehayeb, 2009). Hence, the claim is that to realize this vision, conditions must be established to sustain and encourage stable, self-sufficient slum inhabitants. In this vein, the Egyptian government could provide more incentives to encourage private sector businesses to work in such pathways. Breaking Cairo s Slum Poverty Trap: Planning Implications and Innovative Pathways Despite the considerable amount of research devoted to modeling pathways and the development

11 PATHWAYS TO BREAK THE POVERTY CYCLE 263 of slums, economists and tourism planners have not yet discovered how to select appropriate pathways that might lead to poverty abolition in destination slums. As a result, poverty remains the common experience of slum inhabitants (Du Cross, 2008; Mitchell & Ashley, 2007). If pathways for innovative development planning are essentially free to adopt, why are so many destination slums still trapped in poverty? Surveyed literature contains the beginnings of an answer to this question. It is true that the early penetration pathways model is the key to a destination slum s upgrading. However, the most innovative pathways will not always be adopted appropriately. One possible clarification in this debate is that there are self-strengthening mechanisms, or traps, that act as barriers to adoption. Slum traps arise from both marketing failure and from institution failure, that is, from traps within the sets of stakeholders that govern the slums economic interactions. According to the literature, these include the state, private charitable entities, legal systems, social norms, settlements, inhabitants, and so on, and they are endogenous to the system, leading to a continuation of the current situation (Cooper, 2008; Richardson & Langdon, 2000). In an attempt to address this dilemma, with the adoption of the facilitator rather than steerer approach of the World Bank (2009), the main planning thresholds, in which poverty traps can be broken in Cairo s historical destination slums, can be summarized by four pathways: people, linking geography, economic clusters, and targeted investments, as illustrated in Figure 2. Given the significant role of the choice of an optimal investment decision, it is clear that a key first step toward confirming the role of STI in ending chronic poverty is the development of an appropriate investment planning pathway and strategy-making environment. An early directed practical penetration of support to the destination slum conditions is the form of choice in urban poverty planning and also in slum upgrading strategies because of its easy, fruitful access and the possibility of bypassing the self-reinforcing cycle of poverty that can facilitate unwelcome side effects. There are four penetration pathways for planned reliable and sufficient investment support through the destination slum poverty cycle and its related root causes, as shown in Figure 2. According to the UN (2012), poverty is a human condition characterized by sustained or chronic deprivation of the resources, capabilities, choices, security, and power necessary to enjoy an adequate standard of living and other civil, cultural, Figure 2. Schematic illustration showing the destination slum poverty cycle interrupted by early directed practical permeation of support and demonstrating the four possible penetration pathways for positive lucrative impacts through the core causes of poverty cycle.

12 264 MEKAWY economic, political, and social rights (Kakwani, 2006). Hence, looking at it through the lens of dayto-day life, poverty is about not being able to make ends meet, and it goes further than a lack of food, shelter, and clothing. It is accompanied by a loss of inhabitants self-esteem, identity, dignity, privilege, and power (Kakwani, 2006). Therefore, a new international poverty line is needed to escape all features of inequalities. Many researchers such as the World Health Organization (2008) and Collins and Herman (2008) have argued that people living in poverty are more likely to require greater medical services due to chronic health concerns. They are more likely to have lower levels of education and literacy, resulting in fewer opportunities and dependency. These challenges can lead to desperation and, in the most difficult of situations, lead to criminal activity and risky behaviors, which adds further pressure and costs to destination slums justice and social service systems. Consequently, the proposed penetration pathways model illustrated in Figure 2 suggests that to eliminate the real causes of the poverty cycle in its cradle, the first proposed approach should be the well-known investing in people pathway. This trail directs smart financial aid, investments, and infrastructure to benefit the slum s human capital. As a second stream, targeted infrastructure investments that meet dwellers basic and shared needs (i.e., specific investments directed to education and health infrastructure) represent an efficient penetration pathway for planned and sustainable investment support (Estache, 2004; Henry & Carcas, 2005). Insufficient, inadequate economic infrastructure is one of the most pressing obstacles to achieving pro-poor growth. The need for increased investments in infrastructure and for making infrastructure management and maintenance more efficient is widely recognized (Foster, 2005). Infrastructure is now a priority on the international development agenda; it was a major issue at the September 2005 UN Millennium +5 Summit as well as a central theme of the March 2005 report by the Commission for Africa (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD], 2006). The main implication is that slums stakeholders who are reevaluating the priority infrastructure should have infrastructure in their programs and planning agendas (Fay & Yepes, 2003). The government s logical strategy response has, therefore, been to emphasize bottom-up, public private participatory planning of social infrastructure, with financial allocations targeting the dwellers social and economic needs (Ashley & Haysom, 2008; World Bank, 2011). Plans should also reflect the cost of basic human needs (Kakwani, 2006). Although most private providers are efficient and effective in providing services to the poor, affordability and social equity are often compromised. Public private partnerships can balance the need to increase access and affordability with the need to improve cost recovery and provide more appropriate payment procedures for poor dwellers. To date, however, there has been little experience with public private partnerships for informal provision of infrastructure services into destination slums. So the existence of this penetration pathway has yet to be proven (OECD, 2006). As a third pathway, economic/businesses clusters are beneficial in increasing resource productivity, saving new job opportunities, and access to capital (Ashley & Haysom, 2008; Narayan, 2002; World Bank, 2011). Unlike the monoeconomic theory, the economic clusters approach tends to empower local poor economies. In this vein, Narayan (2002) pointed out that the formation of small business clusters is one of the important areas for building local organizational capacity. Further, Abdel Azim (2011) argued that when small businesses are unable to access new markets and are unable to improve their products, competition could lead to reduced prices and sometimes to selfexploitation strategies. In this context, the economic clusters approach to the development of destination slum-based tourism business services can be a viable option to achieve collective efficiency and eventually break the cycle of chronic poverty. In a destination slum context, slum-based clusters arise because they increase the productivity with which small businesses within their sphere can compete, and they typically include firms in the tourism industry or commercial area that share infrastructure, suppliers, and distribution networks (Narayan, 2002). A key step to overcoming barriers of small size and isolation for microproducers in Egyptian destination slums is the public private support of sustainable penetration of business clusters ( Mitchell & Ashley, 2007).

13 PATHWAYS TO BREAK THE POVERTY CYCLE 265 Finally, at the forefront of the destination slums debate is the issue of the geographical proximity accessibility nexus. A destination is in many respects defined by its ability to provide appropriate tourist access into a destination and diffusion throughout the destination (World Bank, 2011). The dispersal of tourists throughout a slum can provide economic and social benefits, including improved services to the poor community (Freire-Medeiros, 2009). Consequently, the development of appropriate access for tourists to and within a destination slum includes consideration of a number of key accessibility planning questions. However, the destination slum concept has been challenged by geographical proximity and accessibility issues. These demonstrate that remote and/or incoherent locations of the most visited tourism core attractions and sites degrade the overall accessibility feature of this kind of destination and eventually degrade the overall economic and investment benefits of destination slums characteristics. Therefore, the implication is that there is also a wide open field of opportunity for telecommunications to bring so-called electronic geographic linking to destination slums. This means that the destination slums smart linking geography penetration into regional and world tourism markets enables poor dwellers to earn much more income through sales of handicrafts, home-based commodities, processed goods, and services (Fay & Yepes, 2003; Henry & Carcas, 2005). In sum, many countries, including Egypt, have spent huge sums on subsidies to entice investors into lagging areas, usually without any sustainable impact. The penetration pathways model recommends that the Egyptian government turn its efforts toward the new electronic approach to local economic development, which is gaining ground around the world and which is based on e-economic clusters, local competitive advantage, private initiative, and public private dialogue. Figure 2 shows how smart investments and planning pathways into slums productive characteristics can connect Egyptian slums to the dynamic tourism economies of their rich neighbors (Scheyvens, 2007). There are often strong spatial dimensions to these underlying factors in Egyptian poverty-blighted historical destinations, but much of this argument remains unacknowledged in tourism investment and destination slum planning discourse, because local and national data are limited and aggregated, which misrepresents actors and the factors of poverty cycle analysis. Therefore, Egypt s current strategy of targeting social investments toward low-income slums in low-income governorates may indeed be appropriate. As a result, this article advocates for stronger poverty trap analysis of destination slum development, investments, and poverty contexts in order to support appropriate planning responses. Conclusions This article provides a proposed conceptual and planning framework to advance a causal structure understanding of the destination slum concept and its dominant factors, given that further understanding of the destination slum concept depends heavily upon the interpretivist paradigm. Equally important, this article sees interpretivism as gaining ground at that point against a predominantly positivist research tradition in destination slum analysis. The study also produces new planning insights into the significance and scope of holistic and collaborative approaches to building penetration pathways in which poverty traps can be broken. Therefore, this study concludes that addressing poverty is not something that one organization or order of government can take on alone; it takes a truly collaborative effort, with government, the not-for-profit sector, corporate partners, and community members aligned together (Collins & Herman, 2008; World Bank, 2009, 2011). For the same reason, governments should increasingly leverage the resources of civil society in terms of innovative ideas. STI theory suggests that while the goal of most businesses is the bottom line (revenue, profits, and growth), responsible slum-based tourism enterprises also confront the challenge of contributing to job creation and economic and cultural diversity in a sustainable manner. The power of sustainable STI as a development tool lies in the fact that its philanthropic investments improve slum tourism products and dwellers living conditions, differentiate and add value in the eyes of tourists, and strengthen the slum-based enterprise itself (Richardson & Langdon, 2000). In this vein, evidence from the rigorous analysis of the al-darb al-ahmar case study suggests that targeted STI in slum characteristics, as one of

Perceived effects of Volunteer Tourism in Rio de Janeiro s favela Community of Rocinha: Working towards Best Practice in Sustainable Tourism

Perceived effects of Volunteer Tourism in Rio de Janeiro s favela Community of Rocinha: Working towards Best Practice in Sustainable Tourism University of Massachusetts Amherst ScholarWorks@UMass Amherst Tourism Travel and Research Association: Advancing Tourism Research Globally 2011 ttra International Conference Perceived effects of Volunteer

More information

TST Issue Brief: Global Governance 1. a) The role of the UN and its entities in global governance for sustainable development

TST Issue Brief: Global Governance 1. a) The role of the UN and its entities in global governance for sustainable development TST Issue Brief: Global Governance 1 International arrangements for collective decision making have not kept pace with the magnitude and depth of global change. The increasing interdependence of the global

More information

2011 HIGH LEVEL MEETING ON YOUTH General Assembly United Nations New York July 2011

2011 HIGH LEVEL MEETING ON YOUTH General Assembly United Nations New York July 2011 2011 HIGH LEVEL MEETING ON YOUTH General Assembly United Nations New York 25-26 July 2011 Thematic panel 2: Challenges to youth development and opportunities for poverty eradication, employment and sustainable

More information

Title: Barbados and Eastern Caribbean Crisis Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA)

Title: Barbados and Eastern Caribbean Crisis Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) Title: Barbados and Eastern Caribbean Crisis Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) Summary prepared by: The Inclusive Development Cluster, Poverty Group February 2010 This is a summary of the report

More information

1.1. Global status of Diaspora participation 1.2. Review of the Ethiopian Diaspora Definition 3.2. General Objective of the Policy

1.1. Global status of Diaspora participation 1.2. Review of the Ethiopian Diaspora Definition 3.2. General Objective of the Policy Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2013, Addis Ababa 0 Table of contents Title Introduction Part one............................................................ 3 1. Review of Diaspora participation....................................

More information

Living Together in a Sustainable Europe. Museums Working for Social Cohesion

Living Together in a Sustainable Europe. Museums Working for Social Cohesion NEMO 22 nd Annual Conference Living Together in a Sustainable Europe. Museums Working for Social Cohesion The Political Dimension Panel Introduction The aim of this panel is to discuss how the cohesive,

More information

BEYOND SYNERGY: CHARITIES BUILDING THE FUTURE CANADIANS WANT. Discussion Paper. February 2018

BEYOND SYNERGY: CHARITIES BUILDING THE FUTURE CANADIANS WANT. Discussion Paper. February 2018 February 2018 BEYOND SYNERGY: CHARITIES BUILDING THE FUTURE CANADIANS WANT Discussion Paper Brian Emmett Chief Economist for Canada s Charitable and Nonprofit Beyond Synergy: Charities Building the Future

More information

Siem Reap, June 26, 2006

Siem Reap, June 26, 2006 Kingdom of Cambodia Nation - Religion - King Keynote Address by Samdech Hun Sen Prime Minister of the Royal Government of Cambodia At the Seminar on Accelerating Development in the Mekong Region The Role

More information

THEME CONCEPT PAPER. Partnerships for migration and human development: shared prosperity shared responsibility

THEME CONCEPT PAPER. Partnerships for migration and human development: shared prosperity shared responsibility Fourth Meeting of the Global Forum on Migration and Development Mexico 2010 THEME CONCEPT PAPER Partnerships for migration and human development: shared prosperity shared responsibility I. Introduction

More information

Gender, Remittances and Development. Remittances. Working Paper 4

Gender, Remittances and Development. Remittances. Working Paper 4 Remittances 2007 Working Paper 4 Remittances 1 - Remittances and Development Remittances represent the most visible factor linking migration and development, and thus play the leading role in both research

More information

Importance of Tourism in Community Development

Importance of Tourism in Community Development Importance of Tourism in Community Development Irida Nikolla David Miko Research fellow University "Marin Barleti" Rr. "Sami Frashëri", No. 41, Tiranë Albania Doi:10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n9p205 Abstract Tourism

More information

MECHELEN DECLARATION ON CITIES AND MIGRATION

MECHELEN DECLARATION ON CITIES AND MIGRATION MECHELEN DECLARATION ON CITIES AND MIGRATION 1. We, Mayors and leaders of Local and Regional Governments, recalling the relevant provisions of the Sustainable Development Goals, the New Urban Agenda and

More information

Lao Vision Statement: Recommendations for Actions

Lao Vision Statement: Recommendations for Actions Lao Vision Statement: Recommendations for Actions Preamble The National Growth & Poverty Eradication Strategy (NGPES) states: Rural development is central to the Government s poverty eradication efforts

More information

The Egyptian Cabinet Information and Decision Support Center

The Egyptian Cabinet Information and Decision Support Center 1 Fourth Think Tanks Forum of the OIC Countries Economic Integration within the OIC Countries: Prospects and Challenges Concept Note 26-26 March, 2013 Cairo - Egypt 2 1. About the Forum of Think Tanks

More information

Conflict, Violence, and Instability in the Post-2015 Development Agenda

Conflict, Violence, and Instability in the Post-2015 Development Agenda Conflict, Violence, and Instability in the Post-2015 Development Agenda OCTOBER 2013 On April 26, 2013, the UN Foundation (UNF), Quaker United Nations Office (QUNO), the Inter - national Peace Institute

More information

Questionnaire to Governments

Questionnaire to Governments Questionnaire to Governments The report of the 13 th Session of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues provides a number of recommendations within its mandated areas, some of which are addressed to

More information

Introduction. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Policy on Migration

Introduction. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Policy on Migration In 2007, the 16 th General Assembly of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies requested the Governing Board to establish a Reference Group on Migration to provide leadership

More information

2017 INTEGRATION SEGMENT Making eradication of poverty an integral objective of all policies: what will it take? 8 10 May 2017 SUMMARY

2017 INTEGRATION SEGMENT Making eradication of poverty an integral objective of all policies: what will it take? 8 10 May 2017 SUMMARY 2017 INTEGRATION SEGMENT Making eradication of poverty an integral objective of all policies: what will it take? 8 10 May 2017 Introduction SUMMARY The 2017 Integration Segment of the Economic and Social

More information

FOR THE PROTECTION OF CULTURE AND THE PROMOTION OF CULTURAL PLURALISM IN THE EVENT OF ARMED CONFLICT OUTLINE

FOR THE PROTECTION OF CULTURE AND THE PROMOTION OF CULTURAL PLURALISM IN THE EVENT OF ARMED CONFLICT OUTLINE 39th session, Paris, 2017 39 C 39 C/57 24 October 2017 Original: English Item 4.12 of the provisional agenda STRATEGY FOR THE REINFORCEMENT OF UNESCO s ACTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF CULTURE AND THE PROMOTION

More information

«Youth Volunteering and Dialogue» International Conference

«Youth Volunteering and Dialogue» International Conference «Youth Volunteering and Dialogue» International Conference Background Paper Bureau of Strategic Planning, UNESCO Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 3 5December 2013 «Youth Volunteering and Dialogue» Never

More information

PROPOSAL FOR A NON-BINDING STANDARD-SETTING INSTRUMENT ON THE PROTECTION AND PROMOTION OF VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE ROLE OF MUSEUMS AND COLLECTIONS

PROPOSAL FOR A NON-BINDING STANDARD-SETTING INSTRUMENT ON THE PROTECTION AND PROMOTION OF VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE ROLE OF MUSEUMS AND COLLECTIONS 38th Session, Paris, 2015 38 C 38 C/25 27 July 2015 Original: English Item 6.2 of the provisional agenda PROPOSAL FOR A NON-BINDING STANDARD-SETTING INSTRUMENT ON THE PROTECTION AND PROMOTION OF VARIOUS

More information

Third International Conference on Health Promotion, Sundsvall, Sweden, 9-15 June 1991

Third International Conference on Health Promotion, Sundsvall, Sweden, 9-15 June 1991 Third International Conference on Health Promotion, Sundsvall, Sweden, 9-15 June 1991 Sundsvall Statement on Supportive Environments for Health (WHO/HPR/HEP/95.3) The Third International Conference on

More information

THE WAGES OF WAR: How donors and NGOs can build upon the adaptations Syrians have made in the midst of war

THE WAGES OF WAR: How donors and NGOs can build upon the adaptations Syrians have made in the midst of war THE WAGES OF WAR: How donors and NGOs can build upon the adaptations Syrians have made in the midst of war FEBRUARY 2018 The scale of death and suffering in Syria is monumental. What began as a series

More information

The Power of. Sri Lankans. For Peace, Justice and Equality

The Power of. Sri Lankans. For Peace, Justice and Equality The Power of Sri Lankans For Peace, Justice and Equality OXFAM IN SRI LANKA STRATEGIC PLAN 2014 2019 The Power of Sri Lankans For Peace, Justice and Equality Contents OUR VISION: A PEACEFUL NATION FREE

More information

Synthesis of the Regional Review of Youth Policies in 5 Arab countries

Synthesis of the Regional Review of Youth Policies in 5 Arab countries Synthesis of the Regional Review of Youth Policies in 5 Arab countries 1 The Regional review of youth policies and strategies in the Arab region offers an interesting radioscopy of national policies on

More information

Economic and Social Council

Economic and Social Council United Nations Economic and Social Council E/ECA/ARFSD/2/4 Distr.: General 12 May 2016 Original: English Economic Commission for Africa Africa Regional Forum on Sustainable Development Second session Cairo,

More information

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND CRIME REDUCTION AND PREVENTION. Conference in. Szczecin, Poland October 2000

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL URBAN ENVIRONMENT AND CRIME REDUCTION AND PREVENTION. Conference in. Szczecin, Poland October 2000 CONGRES DES POUVOIRS LOCAUX ET REGIONAUX DE L EUROPE Chambre des Pouvoirs Locaux CONGRESS OF LOCAL AND REGIONAL AUTHORITIES OF EUROPE Chamber of Local Authorities Strasbourg 23 October 2000 CG/CONF/POLAND

More information

Governing for Growth and the Resilience of the Chinese Communist Party

Governing for Growth and the Resilience of the Chinese Communist Party Governing for Growth and the Resilience of the Chinese Communist Party David J. Bulman China Public Policy Postdoctoral Fellow, Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation, Harvard Kennedy School

More information

Social Dimension S o ci al D im en si o n 141

Social Dimension S o ci al D im en si o n 141 Social Dimension Social Dimension 141 142 5 th Pillar: Social Justice Fifth Pillar: Social Justice Overview of Current Situation In the framework of the Sustainable Development Strategy: Egypt 2030, social

More information

TURKEY Check Against Delivery. Statement by H.E. Sebahattin ÖZTÜRK Minister of Interior / Republic of Turkey

TURKEY Check Against Delivery. Statement by H.E. Sebahattin ÖZTÜRK Minister of Interior / Republic of Turkey TURKEY Check Against Delivery Statement by H.E. Sebahattin ÖZTÜRK Minister of Interior / Republic of Turkey Thirteenth United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Doha (Qatar) 12-19

More information

2. Money Metric Poverty & Expenditure Inequality

2. Money Metric Poverty & Expenditure Inequality Arab Development Challenges 2. Money Metric Poverty & Expenditure Inequality 1 Chapter Overview Kinds of poverty lines Low money metric poverty but high exposure to economic shock The enigma of inequality

More information

Social and Solidarity Finance: Tensions, Opportunities and Transformative Potential

Social and Solidarity Finance: Tensions, Opportunities and Transformative Potential Concept Note Social and Solidarity Finance: Tensions, Opportunities and Transformative Potential An UNRISD Workshop in collaboration with the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung and the International Labour Office

More information

Oxfam position on the Review of the European Consensus on Development

Oxfam position on the Review of the European Consensus on Development Oxfam position on the Review of the European Consensus on Development 1. Introduction Why is a revision of the European Consensus on Development needed? The policies that set the European framework on

More information

LAW OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA NUMBER 11 OF 2010 CONCERNING CULTURAL CONSERVATION BY THE MERCY OF THE ONE SUPREME GOD

LAW OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA NUMBER 11 OF 2010 CONCERNING CULTURAL CONSERVATION BY THE MERCY OF THE ONE SUPREME GOD LAW OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA NUMBER 11 OF 2010 CONCERNING CULTURAL CONSERVATION BY THE MERCY OF THE ONE SUPREME GOD THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA, Considering : a. that the cultural conservation

More information

Informal debate of the General Assembly Promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women 6 8 March 2007

Informal debate of the General Assembly Promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women 6 8 March 2007 Informal debate of the General Assembly Promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women 6 8 March 2007 I. Introduction The President of the General Assembly invited Member States and observers

More information

The American University in Cairo. School of Global Affairs and Public Policy

The American University in Cairo. School of Global Affairs and Public Policy The American University in Cairo School of Global Affairs and Public Policy DEALING WITH SLUMS IN EGYPT: LEARNING FROM THE SUCCESS FACTORS OF INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCES A Thesis Submitted to the Public

More information

4. Lebanese Immigration: Opportunities & Losses

4. Lebanese Immigration: Opportunities & Losses 4. Lebanese Immigration: Opportunities & Losses Instructor: Laurent Aoun Lebanese Roots / Maronite Academy Migration: Opportunities and Losses Session 1: Migration and globalization 1-1 : Introduction

More information

Union of BC Municipalities Reconciliation Canada Partnership Agreement

Union of BC Municipalities Reconciliation Canada Partnership Agreement Union of BC Municipalities Reconciliation Canada Partnership Agreement Purpose This Partnership Outline is made on September 2, 2014 between: The Union of British Columbia Municipalities ( UBCM ) and Reconciliation

More information

ORDINANCE NO

ORDINANCE NO ORDINANCE NO. 175891 A proposed ordinance amending Section 12.20.3 of the Los Angeles Municipal Code to modify procedures within the Historic Preservation Overlay Zones. THE PEOPLE OF THE CITY OF LOS ANGELES

More information

Study on the gender. dimension of trafficking in human beings Executive summary. Migration and. Directorate-General for Development and

Study on the gender. dimension of trafficking in human beings Executive summary. Migration and. Directorate-General for Development and Study on the gender dimension of trafficking in human beings Executive summary Migration and Directorate-General for Development and Cooperation Home Affairs EuropeAid Authors Authorship: Sylvia Walby,

More information

Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 8 December [without reference to a Main Committee (A/71/L.33 and Add.1)]

Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 8 December [without reference to a Main Committee (A/71/L.33 and Add.1)] United Nations A/RES/71/128 General Assembly Distr.: General 25 January 2017 Seventy-first session Agenda item 69 (a) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 8 December 2016 [without reference to

More information

Pluralism and Peace Processes in a Fragmenting World

Pluralism and Peace Processes in a Fragmenting World Pluralism and Peace Processes in a Fragmenting World SUMMARY ROUNDTABLE REPORT AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CANADIAN POLICYMAKERS This report provides an overview of key ideas and recommendations that emerged

More information

Closer to people, closer to our mission

Closer to people, closer to our mission MOUSHIRA KHATTAB FOR UNESCO Closer to people, closer to our mission UNESCO was founded at a defining moment in history with one aspiring mission; to contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration

More information

This document relates to item 4.5 of the provisional agenda

This document relates to item 4.5 of the provisional agenda This document relates to item 4.5 of the provisional agenda Sixth Session of the Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, 13-18 October 2014, Moscow FCA Policy Briefing

More information

Promoting equality, including social equity, gender equality and women s empowerment. Statement on behalf of France, Germany and Switzerland

Promoting equality, including social equity, gender equality and women s empowerment. Statement on behalf of France, Germany and Switzerland 8 th session of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals, New York, 3.-7.2.2014 Promoting equality, including social equity, gender equality and women s empowerment Statement on behalf of

More information

An Equity Profile of the Southeast Florida Region. Summary. Foreword

An Equity Profile of the Southeast Florida Region. Summary. Foreword An Equity Profile of the Southeast Florida Region PolicyLink and PERE An Equity Profile of the Southeast Florida Region Summary Communities of color are driving Southeast Florida s population growth, and

More information

Conference on What Africa Can Do Now To Accelerate Youth Employment. Organized by

Conference on What Africa Can Do Now To Accelerate Youth Employment. Organized by Conference on What Africa Can Do Now To Accelerate Youth Employment Organized by The Olusegun Obasanjo Foundation (OOF) and The African Union Commission (AUC) (Addis Ababa, 29 January 2014) Presentation

More information

Report on 56th session of the United Nations General Assembly Second Committee

Report on 56th session of the United Nations General Assembly Second Committee Report on 56th session of the United Nations General Assembly Second Committee Panel on High-Level Panel on Globalization and the State 2 November 2001 A panel discussion on Globalization and the State

More information

Facilitating Cross-Border Mobile Banking in Southern Africa

Facilitating Cross-Border Mobile Banking in Southern Africa Africa Trade Policy Notes Facilitating Cross-Border Mobile Banking in Southern Africa Samuel Maimbo, Nicholas Strychacz, and Tania Saranga 1 Introduction May, 2010 The use of mobile banking in Southern

More information

GLOBAL GRASSROOTS STRATEGIES FOR WOMEN S COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP

GLOBAL GRASSROOTS STRATEGIES FOR WOMEN S COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP Volume 1 Issue 1 May 2005 1 BUILDING GENDER EQUALITY IN URBAN LIFE GLOBAL GRASSROOTS STRATEGIES FOR WOMEN S COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP Monika Jaeckel Background The Grassroots Women s International Academies

More information

Conclusions on Kosovo *

Conclusions on Kosovo * Conclusions on Kosovo * (extract from the Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament "Enlargement Strategy and Main Challenges 2010-2011", COM(2010)660 final) Kosovo has

More information

TST Issues Brief: POPULATION DYNAMICS 1

TST Issues Brief: POPULATION DYNAMICS 1 TST Issues Brief: POPULATION DYNAMICS 1 I. Stocktaking Population trends are characterized by an increasing divergence between countries. Whereas the least developed countries continue to see high population

More information

An Economy Moving Forward Again

An Economy Moving Forward Again An Economy Moving Forward Again The Flynn Plan to Increase Jobs and Wages in Wisconsin By now, the slow growth of jobs and wages during the seven years of the Walker Administration has wreaked enough hardship

More information

EU-EGYPT PARTNERSHIP PRIORITIES

EU-EGYPT PARTNERSHIP PRIORITIES EU-EGYPT PARTNERSHIP PRIORITIES 2017-2020 I. Introduction The general framework of the cooperation between the EU and Egypt is set by the Association Agreement which was signed in 2001 and entered into

More information

A HUMAN RIGHTS-BASED GLOBAL COMPACT FOR SAFE, ORDERLY AND REGULAR MIGRATION

A HUMAN RIGHTS-BASED GLOBAL COMPACT FOR SAFE, ORDERLY AND REGULAR MIGRATION A HUMAN RIGHTS-BASED GLOBAL COMPACT FOR SAFE, ORDERLY AND REGULAR MIGRATION 1. INTRODUCTION From the perspective of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), all global

More information

JOINT DEBATE ON NEW PARTNERSHIP FOR AFRICA S DEVELOPMENT STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR INIGO LAMBERTINI CHARGE D AFFAIRES A.I.

JOINT DEBATE ON NEW PARTNERSHIP FOR AFRICA S DEVELOPMENT STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR INIGO LAMBERTINI CHARGE D AFFAIRES A.I. JOINT DEBATE ON NEW PARTNERSHIP FOR AFRICA S DEVELOPMENT STATEMENT BY AMBASSADOR INIGO LAMBERTINI CHARGE D AFFAIRES A.I. PERMANENT MISSION OF ITALY TO THE UNITED NATIONS (NEW YORK, 16 October 2015) CHECK

More information

RE-SHORING IN EUROPE: TRENDS AND POLICY ISSUES

RE-SHORING IN EUROPE: TRENDS AND POLICY ISSUES 23/09/2015 RE-SHORING IN EUROPE: TRENDS AND POLICY ISSUES ILO, Research Department Briefing Re-shoring is currently a highly debated issue in many European economies, (e.g. Germany and the United Kingdom).

More information

THE MODERN SLAVERY ACT

THE MODERN SLAVERY ACT THE MODERN SLAVERY ACT Introduction At the British Red Cross, our vision is of a world where everyone gets the help they need in a crisis. Our mission is to mobilise the power of humanity so that individuals

More information

MIGRATION TRENDS AND HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

MIGRATION TRENDS AND HUMAN SETTLEMENTS MIGRATION TRENDS AND HUMAN SETTLEMENTS SOME IMPLICATIONS FOR SERVICE CENTRES CATHERINE CROSS, CPEG 27 OCTOBER 2009 ECONOMY AND MIGRATION The economic downturn is now the key driver for migration The world

More information

UNITED NATIONS. The Global Crisis and its Impact on Poverty in the ESCWA Region. By Mahmoud Abdel-Fadil

UNITED NATIONS. The Global Crisis and its Impact on Poverty in the ESCWA Region. By Mahmoud Abdel-Fadil UNITED NATIONS ESCWA Distr. LIMITED E/ESCWA/SDD/2009/ December 2009 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH E Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) Expert Group Meeting on the Global Financial & Economic Crisis:

More information

Programme Specification

Programme Specification Programme Specification Non-Governmental Public Action Contents 1. Executive Summary 2. Programme Objectives 3. Rationale for the Programme - Why a programme and why now? 3.1 Scientific context 3.2 Practical

More information

Statement prepared for the. Informal Hearings for High-level Dialogue on International Migration and Development. (New York, July 15, 2013)

Statement prepared for the. Informal Hearings for High-level Dialogue on International Migration and Development. (New York, July 15, 2013) international union for the scientific study of population IUSSP union internationale pour l étude scientifique de la population UIESP Statement prepared for the Informal Hearings for High-level Dialogue

More information

Community Cohesion and Integration Strategy 2017

Community Cohesion and Integration Strategy 2017 Everyone Different, Everyone Matters Community Cohesion and Integration Strategy 2017 www.calderdale.gov.uk Everyone Different, Everyone Matters Building strong, cohesive and integrated communities Cohesion:

More information

Seminar on global health diplomacy

Seminar on global health diplomacy Summary report on the Seminar on global health diplomacy WHO-EM/HHR/001/E Cairo, Egypt 6 7 May 2012 Summary report on the Seminar on global health diplomacy Cairo, Egypt 6 7 May 2012 World Health Organization

More information

Community-Based Poverty Monitoring of Tsunami-Affected Areas in Sri-Lanka

Community-Based Poverty Monitoring of Tsunami-Affected Areas in Sri-Lanka CBMS Network Session Paper Community-Based Poverty Monitoring of Tsunami-Affected Areas in Sri-Lanka Siripala Hettige A paper presented during the 5th PEP Research Network General Meeting, June 18-22,

More information

Service Provision Mapping Tool: Urban Refugee Response

Service Provision Mapping Tool: Urban Refugee Response WOMEN S REFUGEE COMMISSION Service Provision Mapping Tool: Urban Refugee Response Mapping humanitarian and host community organizations relevant to GBV prevention and GBV risk mitigation Introduction Today,

More information

Final Report. For the European Commission, Directorate General Justice, Freedom and Security

Final Report. For the European Commission, Directorate General Justice, Freedom and Security Research Project Executive Summary A Survey on the Economics of Security with Particular Focus on the Possibility to Create a Network of Experts on the Economic Analysis of Terrorism and Anti-Terror Policies

More information

UN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND MIGRATION. Burcin Colak

UN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND MIGRATION. Burcin Colak UN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND MIGRATION Burcin Colak 14020006001 WHAT IS 2030 AGENDA FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT? In September 2015, during the Post-2015 Summit, the UN General Assembly adopted

More information

Alleviating Poverty via Tourism Development: Mega Development Projects in Malaysia Towards Vision 2020

Alleviating Poverty via Tourism Development: Mega Development Projects in Malaysia Towards Vision 2020 Alleviating Poverty via Tourism Development: Mega Development Projects in Malaysia Towards Vision 2020 Vikneswaran Nair Ph.D. Head, Centre for Research & Development Taylor s University College Email:

More information

Competitiveness and Value Creation of Tourism Sector: In the Case of 10 ASEAN Economies

Competitiveness and Value Creation of Tourism Sector: In the Case of 10 ASEAN Economies Competitiveness and Value Creation of Tourism Sector: In the Case of 10 ASEAN Economies Apirada Chinprateep International Science Index, Economics and Management Engineering waset.org/publication/10003096

More information

Cooperatives, Economic Democracy and Human Security: Perspectives from Nepal

Cooperatives, Economic Democracy and Human Security: Perspectives from Nepal 1 st National Cooperative Congress March 27, 2014, Kathmandu Cooperatives, Economic Democracy and Human Security: Perspectives from Nepal Yuba Raj Khatiwada, Ph. D. Governor, Nepal Rastra Bank 1 Introduction

More information

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 9

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 9 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The tourism sector in Myanmar is currently experiencing significant growth and has been identified as a priority sector in the government s Export Strategy. Given the variety of unique

More information

Tourism impact on the social development in Algeria

Tourism impact on the social development in Algeria Abstract Tourism impact on the social development in Algeria SOUAD DOULI*, ILYES SLIMANI Laboratory of Study Economics & Development Local In South west of Algeria Department of Management University of

More information

Framework for Action. One World, One Future. Ireland s Policy for International Development. for

Framework for Action. One World, One Future. Ireland s Policy for International Development. for Our vision A sustainable and just world, where people are empowered to overcome poverty and hunger and fully realise their rights and potential Reduced hunger, stronger resilience Sustainable Development,

More information

Diversity of Cultural Expressions

Diversity of Cultural Expressions Diversity of Cultural Expressions 2 CP Distribution: limited CE/09/2 CP/210/7 Paris, 30 March 2009 Original: French CONFERENCE OF PARTIES TO THE CONVENTION ON THE PROTECTION AND PROMOTION OF THE DIVERSITY

More information

THE PENSION OF THE RETIRED RETURN MIGRANT IN THE MAGHREB: A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FACTOR? Sofiane BOUHDIBA University of Tunis

THE PENSION OF THE RETIRED RETURN MIGRANT IN THE MAGHREB: A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FACTOR? Sofiane BOUHDIBA University of Tunis THE PENSION OF THE RETIRED RETURN MIGRANT IN THE MAGHREB: A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FACTOR? Sofiane BOUHDIBA University of Tunis Migration from Maghreb to Europe started in the 60 s, during the post-independence

More information

Fair Trade for an Equitable Economic Order. Anne-Françoise Taisne

Fair Trade for an Equitable Economic Order. Anne-Françoise Taisne Fair Trade for an Equitable Economic Order Anne-Françoise Taisne France, Activist 1 FAIR TRADE FOR AN EQUITABLE ECONOMIC ORDER Fair trade organisations have been working for more than 40 years for more

More information

A view from the Americas

A view from the Americas Human Rights and Sustainable Development A view from the Americas By Jorge Daniel Taillant* Center for Human Rights and Environment, 2003 daniel@cedha.org.ar www.cedha.org.ar From the time of the drafting

More information

The business case for gender equality: Key findings from evidence for action paper

The business case for gender equality: Key findings from evidence for action paper The business case for gender equality: Key findings from evidence for action paper Paris 18th June 2010 This research finds critical evidence linking improving gender equality to many key factors for economic

More information

Palestine Economic Policy Research Institute. Tourism in the Palestinian Territory: Analysis of Significance and Impact

Palestine Economic Policy Research Institute. Tourism in the Palestinian Territory: Analysis of Significance and Impact Palestine Economic Policy Research Institute Tourism in the Palestinian Territory: Analysis of Significance and Impact Belal Al-Falah 2012 The Palestine Economic Policy Research Institute (MAS) Founded

More information

Arab Development Challenges Background Paper 2011

Arab Development Challenges Background Paper 2011 Arab Development Challenges Background Paper 2011 3/13/12 4:36 PM Introduction: Toward the Arab Renaissance Sanjay G. Reddy United Nations Development Programme Arab Development Challenges Report Background

More information

Preparatory (stocktaking) meeting 4-6 December 2017, Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico. Concept note

Preparatory (stocktaking) meeting 4-6 December 2017, Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico. Concept note Concept note This concept note is complementary to the information found on the website for the meeting: http://refugeesmigrants.un.org/stocktaking-phase Contents 1. Introduction 2. Attendance and engagement

More information

Frequently asked questions

Frequently asked questions Frequently asked questions on globalisation, free trade, the WTO and NAMA The following questions could come up in conversations with people about trade so have a read through of the answers to get familiar

More information

PRESS STATEMENT. BY THE CHAIRPERSON OF THE 9th ASEAN SUMMIT AND THE 7th ASEAN + 3 SUMMIT BALI, INDONESIA, 7 OCTOBER 2003

PRESS STATEMENT. BY THE CHAIRPERSON OF THE 9th ASEAN SUMMIT AND THE 7th ASEAN + 3 SUMMIT BALI, INDONESIA, 7 OCTOBER 2003 PRESS STATEMENT BY THE CHAIRPERSON OF THE 9th ASEAN SUMMIT AND THE 7th ASEAN + 3 SUMMIT BALI, INDONESIA, 7 OCTOBER 2003 1. ASEAN leaders held a very productive meeting this morning following a working

More information

COMMUNITY CENTRES. Communtiy-Based Protection in Action. Community-Based Protection Unit, Division of International Protection

COMMUNITY CENTRES. Communtiy-Based Protection in Action. Community-Based Protection Unit, Division of International Protection UNHCR / N. Martin-Achard Community-Based Protection Unit, Division of International Protection Communtiy-Based Protection in Action COMMUNITY CENTRES UNHCR / J. Matas WHAT IS THE ISSUE? In situations of

More information

THE FREE FLOW OF KNOWLEDGE AND A SPACE FOR A PARTNERSHIP IN MONGOLIA

THE FREE FLOW OF KNOWLEDGE AND A SPACE FOR A PARTNERSHIP IN MONGOLIA THE FREE FLOW OF KNOWLEDGE AND A SPACE FOR A PARTNERSHIP IN MONGOLIA Technology-driven globalization gives us unprecedented opportunities; individuals, nations and regions are closely linked through the

More information

Executive Board of the United Nations Development Programme and of the United Nations Population Fund

Executive Board of the United Nations Development Programme and of the United Nations Population Fund UNITED NATIONS DP Executive Board of the United Nations Development Programme and of the United Nations Population Fund Distr. GENERAL DP/CCF/ZIM/2 22 February 2000 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH Second regular session

More information

MODERATORS: Brenda Killen Deputy Director, Development Co-operation Directorate, OECD Julien Navier Senior External Relations Officer, UNHCR

MODERATORS: Brenda Killen Deputy Director, Development Co-operation Directorate, OECD Julien Navier Senior External Relations Officer, UNHCR Summary note: Meeting the SDGs: Linking Development Cooperation to Humanitarian Responses and Comprehensive Solutions for Refugees and Migrants 1 December 2016, 12:00-13:00, Room Shimba Hills, Nairobi

More information

Micro-enterprises in rural areas. Redeployment of rurality in Walloon Region

Micro-enterprises in rural areas. Redeployment of rurality in Walloon Region Micro-enterprises in rural areas Redeployment of rurality in Walloon Region Brulard C. (1), Burny Ph. (2), Dogot Th. (1), Lebailly Ph. (1) and Sunnaert D. (1) (1) Gembloux Agricultural University Department

More information

10504/10 MLL/bb 1 DG G 2B

10504/10 MLL/bb 1 DG G 2B COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Brussels, 4 June 2010 10504/10 SOC 396 NOTE from : to : Subject : The Presidency COUNCIL (Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs) Outcomes and Conferences

More information

CESCR General Comment No. 4: The Right to Adequate Housing (Art. 11 (1) of the Covenant)

CESCR General Comment No. 4: The Right to Adequate Housing (Art. 11 (1) of the Covenant) CESCR General Comment No. 4: The Right to Adequate Housing (Art. 11 (1) of the Covenant) Adopted at the Sixth Session of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, on 13 December 1991 (Contained

More information

mahallae THE STORY OF THE Civil Society Peace-Building MOVEMENT IN CYPRUS

mahallae THE STORY OF THE Civil Society Peace-Building MOVEMENT IN CYPRUS mahallae 1980-2014 THE STORY OF THE Civil Society Peace-Building MOVEMENT IN CYPRUS EUROPE ATLANTIC OCEAN MEDITERRANEAN SEA MIDDLE EAST NORTH AFRICA intro The island of Cyprus rests at the crossroads of

More information

Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard. Geography Level 2

Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard. Geography Level 2 Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard Geography Level 2 This exemplar supports assessment against: Achievement Standard 91246 Explain aspects of a geographic topic at a global scale An annotated exemplar

More information

Enhanced protection of Syrian refugee women, girls and boys against Sexual Gender-Based Violence (SGBV) Enhanced basic public services and economic

Enhanced protection of Syrian refugee women, girls and boys against Sexual Gender-Based Violence (SGBV) Enhanced basic public services and economic IPr1 IPr2 Enhanced protection of Syrian refugee women, girls and boys against Sexual Gender-Based Violence (SGBV) Enhanced basic public services and economic opportunities for Syrian refugees and host

More information

ANNE-KRISTIN TREIBER Conflict Adviser, Security and Justice Team Conflict, Humanitarian and Security Department UK aid

ANNE-KRISTIN TREIBER Conflict Adviser, Security and Justice Team Conflict, Humanitarian and Security Department UK aid Proceedings Conference 22.05.2013 Brussels ANNE-KRISTIN TREIBER Conflict Adviser, Security and Justice Team Conflict, Humanitarian and Security Department UK aid Reducing poverty by investing in justice

More information

Terms of Reference Moving from policy to best practice Focus on the provision of assistance and protection to migrants and raising public awareness

Terms of Reference Moving from policy to best practice Focus on the provision of assistance and protection to migrants and raising public awareness Terms of Reference Moving from policy to best practice Focus on the provision of assistance and protection to migrants and raising public awareness I. Summary 1.1 Purpose: Provide thought leadership in

More information

Methodological note on the CIVICUS Civil Society Enabling Environment Index (EE Index)

Methodological note on the CIVICUS Civil Society Enabling Environment Index (EE Index) Methodological note on the CIVICUS Civil Society Enabling Environment Index (EE Index) Introduction Lorenzo Fioramonti University of Pretoria With the support of Olga Kononykhina For CIVICUS: World Alliance

More information

The Arab Ministerial Declaration on the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)

The Arab Ministerial Declaration on the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) The Arab Ministerial Declaration on the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) We, the Council of Arab Ministers Responsible for the Environment, Recognizing the need to update the

More information

Strategy Approved by the Board of Directors 6th June 2016

Strategy Approved by the Board of Directors 6th June 2016 Strategy 2016-2020 Approved by the Board of Directors 6 th June 2016 1 - Introduction The Oslo Center for Peace and Human Rights was established in 2006, by former Norwegian Prime Minister Kjell Magne

More information

Pamela Golah, International Development Research Centre. Strengthening Gender Justice in Nigeria: A Focus on Women s Citizenship in Practice

Pamela Golah, International Development Research Centre. Strengthening Gender Justice in Nigeria: A Focus on Women s Citizenship in Practice From: To: cc: Project: Organisation: Subject: Amina Mama Pamela Golah, International Development Research Centre Charmaine Pereira, Project Co-ordinator Strengthening Gender Justice in Nigeria: A Focus

More information