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1 Human Trafficking Crimes: Their Presence in our Communities, and a Call to Action Marissa Castellanos, MSW, Human Trafficking Program Manager Catholic Charities of Louisville Presentation Overview Terminology and Statistics Program Considerations Funding Options Challenges Successes Action Steps 1

2 Human Trafficking: What Is It? Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery Victims of trafficking are exploited for commercial sex or labor purposes Traffickers use force, fraud or coercion to achieve exploitation After drug dealing, human trafficking is tied with the illegal arms trade as the second largest criminal industry in the world, and it is the fastest growing. 1 Human Trafficking: What Is It? Sex Trafficking: Commercial sex act induced by force, fraud or coercion, or in which person performing the act is under age Victims can be found working in massage parlors, brothels, strip clubs, escort services Labor Trafficking: Using force, fraud or coercion to recruit, harbor, transport, obtain or employ a person for labor or services in involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage or slavery - Victims can be found in domestic situations as nannies or maids, sweatshop factories, janitorial jobs, construction sites, farm work, restaurants, panhandling 2 Crime of trafficking occurs with the exploitation of the victim. The physical movement of the victim is not a requisite. The TVPA protects both U.S. citizens and non-citizens. 2

3 How Are Victims Trafficked? Force, Fraud, and Coercion are methods used by traffickers to control victims. Force: Rape, beatings, confinement, forced drugging Fraud: Includes false and deceptive offers of employment, marriage, better life Coercion: Threats of serious harm to, or physical restraint of, any person; any scheme, plan or pattern intended to cause victims to believe that failure to perform an act would result in restraint against them; or the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process. 3 Who Are Victims of Human Trafficking? Young Children*, Teenagers*, and Adults Male and Female* Foreign Nationals* and U.S. Citizens Affluent and Poverty-stricken* Educated and Un-Educated* VULNERABLE: Traffickers prey on vulnerable people*** 3

4 Victims of Trafficking and Their Needs There are four general areas of victim needs: Immediate assistance Housing, food, safety and security, language access/interpretation and legal services, advocacy Health assistance Counseling, medical care Income assistance Cash, living assistance, job development Legal status T visa, potential removal, certification What Does Catholic Charities Provide for Trafficking Survivors? Screening for Potential Victims Case Management Immigration Legal Services Mental Health Referrals / Medical Referrals English as a Second Language Classes Interpreter /Translation Services Job Development Services Transportation Assistance Food, Clothing, Personal Care Items Temporary/Transitional Housing Assistance Repatriation Assistance (as desired) 4

5 Catholic Charities of Louisville August MRS director participated in USCCB Human Trafficking Training April Catholic Charities became USCCB Per Capita Sub Contractor & Human Trafficking Program officially began at Catholic Charities Kentucky Passed State Human Trafficking Statute Louisville developed a Human Trafficking Task Force Catholic Charities applied for Rescue and Restore Regional Program January Catholic Charities became aware of two HT victims in the Louisville Metro Area February Catholic Charities was awarded KY Rescue & Restore Regional Program Grant through HHS. August KY Rescue and Restore Coalition lost Federal HHS Funding October USCCB lost ORR Per Capita Services Contract; No new contract between Catholic Charities and Tapestri January Catholic Charities received VAWA grant for Human Trafficking Program Considerations Is there a human trafficking program in your area? Don t want to duplicate services Best to enhance local options for services Does your state have a Human Trafficking Statute? Does your agency have the ability to provide direct services to victims, or do you have community partners to assist with service provision? Is there existing research on the problem of human trafficking in your area? Does your agency leadership support starting a human trafficking program? This is key. 5

6 Starting a Local Program Service provision needs: housing, interpretation services, food, clothing, medical care, counseling, ESL, case management, transportation, immigration legal services, criminal legal services, family legal services, life skills training, employment assistance Training and Education needs: Community professionals needs to be informed on human trafficking. Is this something your program will need to provide? Is there a local human trafficking task force? Is this something that needs to be started? Will the human trafficking program stand alone, or be part of a larger department such as Migration & Refugee Services? Where will you obtain Human Trafficking Program Funding? Program Funding Federal Funding Dept. of Health and Human Services, Office of Refugee Resettlement (Rescue and Restore Regional Program) ORR Per Capita Services Program (Heartland Alliance, Tapestri, etc) Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Assistance (Law Enforcement Based) Office for Victims of Crime (Victim Services) National Institute of Justice (Research) Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Provision (minors victims only) State Funding VOCA (Victims of Crime Act) VAWA (Violence Against Women Act) State Funds attached to State Human Trafficking Statute JAG (Justice Assistance Grants) Other 6

7 PROGRAM FUNDING (CONT) Local Funding United Way Local Corporations/Businesses City Government Funding Foundation Grants Donations / Contributions CHALLENGES Variety of Human Trafficking Cases and Types of Victims Sex Trafficking / Labor Trafficking Adult Victims / Child Victims Male Victims / Female Victims Foreign National Victims / Domestic Victims Community Awareness Street Outreach Community Education Workshops Participation in Community Events Local Professionals- Level of Human Trafficking Understanding Local Task Force Trainings for Professional Groups (law enforcement, social services, health) Collaboration for Service Provision 7

8 CHALLENGES (CONT.) Limited Funding Funding through HHS/ORR is difficult for religious organizations to receive for human trafficking victims services HHS/ORR funding is only for qualifying foreign national victims Most federal funding doesn t fund every state (ex programs only) May be competing with DV/SA Agencies for state funding Obtaining Benefits for HT Victims Getting Signatures for T Visa Certifications can be difficult VOLAG responsible for requesting certification letter for victims State agencies may not be knowledgeable and may deny benefits Benefits are time-sensitive after receipt of certification letter CHALLENGES AT CATHOLIC CHARITIES Funding Limitations R&R Regional Program funding requires sub award of 60% of total funds ALL available funding specific to qualifying foreign national victims, however Catholic Charities has had many domestic victims and wanted to provide equal services Federal funding through HHS (and some other depts.) restrictive in regards to religious organizations Leadership of Local Task Force The local task force had some growing pains, and that made being the leadership for the group very difficult at times Messy Nature of Human Trafficking Cases While refugee benefits are well-understood by CC and State Agencies, the fact that many HT victims initially have an undocumented status has required a lot of advocacy, even within our own agency Refugee services have a definitive timeline. Although HT benefits may expire after nine-twelve months, the victims are often in need of much longer-term assistance. 8

9 KENTUCKY SUCCESSES 91 Cases have been identified 138 Victims have been served 31 Victims have received certification Kentucky has 6 Human Trafficking Task Forces More than 16,500 individuals have been trained There have been 17 charges/indictments on human trafficking charges in Kentucky at either the state or federal level 9

10 Resource Contacts KY Rescue & Restore Victims of Human Trafficking Catholic Charities of Louisville Marissa Castellanos, Program Manager Cell: / National Human Trafficking Information and Referral Hotline Polaris Project, Washington, DC (24 hours a day) QUESTIONS 10

11 References 1. Human Trafficking [Fact Sheet], Rescue and Restore Victims of Human Trafficking Program, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Federal Statute, TVPA (Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000): [18 U.S.C. 1591, 2421, 2422, 2423] 3. Human Trafficking [Fact Sheet], Rescue and Restore Victims of Human Trafficking Program, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,

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