1 Employment Guarantee in South Africa: a case study of the CWP in Munsieville, Johannesburg Dr. Khayaat Fakier ThembaMasondo Society, Work and Development Institute (SWOP) University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
2 Background to EGS in South Africa Apartheid legacy of structural inequalities the policy of separate development The country is currently beset by high levels of unemployment and social inequality The private sector has failed to create sufficient employment opportunities Since the democratic breakthrough in 1994 the ANC led government has adopted the policy of employer of last resort
3 EGSs in post-apartheid South Africa In 1994 the government introduced the National Public Works Programme > Expanded Public Works Programme in 2004 In 2007, the Presidency initiated the Community Work Programme In the CWP the emphasis is on providing regular access to a minimum level of work, on a predictable basis, as an employment safety net
4 Community Work Programme continued... CWP provides access to a minimum level of regular work - 2 days a week (100 days a year) at a wage rate of R50.00 per day. An area-based programme, intended to be ongoing; this allows it to target the poorest areas: where market-based jobs are unlikely to come any time soon The CWP uses community participation to identify useful work and priorities. Work is decided in Ward Committees or local development fora; it is multi-sectoral and contributes to public/community goods and services; Start-up scale: 1,000 participants per site CWP sites have a 65% labour intensity
5 NREGA and CWP compared NREGA CWP Geographical Target Rural Urban and rural (but predominantly urban) Implementing agencies Government departments, assisted by the gram panchayats Not for profit NGOs Teba Development and Seriti Type of work Largely water conservation & harvesting, irrigation canals and road construction (8 specified activities) Largely cleaning of communities, gardening in public institutions such as schools & clinics, patrolling of communities, ECD and HBC Legal status This is an Act adopted by the national parliament Not yet an Act but a government programme. The government has announced its plan to roll out the programme to all municipalities by 2014
6 Community Work Programme in Munsieville One of the first four CWP pilots was conducted in Munsieville community in the Gauteng province in January This community comprises approximately 10,000 households. We conducted a household survey of 72 participants, which included 9 coordinators. In addition we interviewed the local manager of the CWP and a ward councilor. The interviews were supplemented by observation, which was written up as field notes.
7 Age and Education of Participants Age 34,7 34, ,6 38, , ,6 Age Grade R-7 Grade 8-11 Grade 12/matric 1,4 Tertiary 5,6 No formal education
8 Gender and Age Distribution of Participants ,4 26,4 22,22 8,3 8,3 8,3 Female Male The total sample comprised of 25 % men and 75 % women. The three major age groups represented are almost equally represented; i.e., the year olds and year olds comprised 34.7 per cent, respectively and the year olds 30.6 per cent. 5 In all three age cohorts the participation of men is very low The age and gender cohort of the Munsieville participants suggests that the male unemployed youth is not being captured on the CWP.
9 Access to Services (%) ,3 Water 73, ,3 Electrici ty Sanitati on (flash toilets) Refuse Remov al (once a week) % 90,3 73, ,3 52% percent of the CWP participants live in households with 3-5 members. Two thirds of the sample live in a permanent home and 25% in a shack/informal dwelling. All homes had access to electricity and water provided by the municipality. Only 3 participants had no access to sanitation at their homes and 75% of participants had flush toilets linked to a sewage system in their dwelling
10 Childcare services 68% of participants had childcare facilities, 51% said that they did not use these facilities. It occupies four bare rooms with very little equipment, no books or toys with the children attending this free crèche looked very lethargic and bored. These facilities are free for the children of CWP participants but parents cannot afford the two meals they have to pack for their children
11 Childcare services Photograph 1: Food prepared by CWP workers at a school for disabled children For untrained carers to provide education to children who are hungry is quite a challenge In Westonaria the CWP planted vegetable gardens at schools and crèches and CWP workers cook the vegetables (supplemented by the School Feeding Scheme) for children s lunches.
12 2,8 Income: Regular and predictable? 43,1 34,1 Participants on the CWP earn R400 (INR2400) a month, Coordinators earn R R1800 a month (INR9,000-10,800). 35% still reported that payment was unpredictable. Respondents complained that financial planning is nearly impossible and their households are severely disrupted by the wait for their money. Yet, some of the participants (24%) manage to save some of their money.
13 Other sources of income in household ,4 1,4 16,7 51 8,3 37, % of the sample relied on the CWP as their sole source of income, 16.7% supplement their income with piece work; There is little engagement in waged employment and self-employment Slightly more than half of the sample (51%) receives social grants themselves, predominantly child support grants for their children.
14 Training on CWP Yes Training Only 4 % of participants in addition to coordinators were trained by the CWP Everyone who went for training said that it was good but it is not clear how they were given productive skills to lessen their dependence on the CWP as only one person went for training such as sewing while the other courses were on first aid and life skills. No
15 Participants Evaluation of the CWP Overall, CWP participants were overwhelmingly supportive of the programme. 89 % percent of the participants stated that the programme improved the quality of infrastructure and communal life in Munsieville. The three main improvements, participants noted were, that the community was much cleaner, i.e. litter is being dealt with (29%); that the CWP reduces unemployment (13.9%) and that it provides access to income (10%). Support for social grants was slightly lower as 82% of participants said that grants improved the standard of living of their households.
16 Significance of Food Gardens for Community A Community Vegetable Garden CWP participants who have vegetable gardens were helped by the CWP to grow vegetables. Any Munsieville resident can request the CWP to start vegetable gardens for them in their backyards. Communal vegetable gardens are grown on open pieces of land. Vegetable gardens are, as a result of the CWP, much more widespread in this community and contribute to the diets of ordinary citizens, some school goers and crèche children.
17 Schools receiving the food say it makes an immediate and dramatic difference to learners ability to participate in class, and improve their general performance. Access to food helps people on antiretroviral and tuberculosis treatment to take their medication regularly as they need to eat while taking their medication. In many HIV/AIDS affected households, there is a decline in the availability of labour both from the person who is ill and from caregivers in the family. This contributes to a downward poverty spiral. By providing labour to food gardens for such households, this cycle can be averted or reversed. In some cases access to food has allowed patients being treated with antiretroviral to regularise their treatment.(philip 2010:)
18 Door-to-Door Survey One initiative started in July 2009 was an intensive door-to-door survey to establish the kinds of social problems facing people in the community. A visit to every household in the community to ensure that everyone is drawn into the CWP process with the aim to establish the needs each of the households in Munsieville. The D-2-D survey found a high number of orphans and vulnerable children, child-headed households, vulnerable women, men in need and aged and destitute people. A number of schemes were launched in response to the door-todoor survey, including the food gardens; sewing and knitting groups not only for commercial gain but also for elderly people who expressed loneliness (TIPS 2010; Coordinator s interviews 2010).
19 Door-to-Door Survey Most importantly, the door-to-door survey was introduced to other sites and is now a regular part of CWPs across the country. This particular initiative had a multiplier effect not only in this community but also across the national programme. In Westonaria, e.g. the door-to-door survey highlighted the need for the CWP to get involved in an old-age home. The cleaning, cooking and gardening performed by CWP workers there is invaluable for this cash-strapped state-funded institution. However, it has generated overwhelming support of the programme in the community who sees the CWP as a potential source of social welfare for its frail and needy.
20 What impact is the CWP having on the lives of South Africa s poor? The CWP is making a significant impact on poverty alleviation by providing participants with an income and an employment opportunity for many who never worked before. However, the findings of this pilot study suggest that it is in its contribution to greater social cohesion that its real impact lies. Importantly, this impact is being shaped by age and gender
21 Youth Unemployment Firstly, there is no evidence that the CWP is reaching those most affected by the unemployment crisis, the youth. South Africa s youth unemployment is much higher than in most developing countries (ILO, 2010). In South Africa, 72% of the long-term unemployed are between15-34 years. They also form 71% of South Africa s discouraged work-seekers (Durieux, 2010) One of the attempts to deal with this national problem was the EPWP. However, only 40% of EWP came from this target group and even less so in the CWP in Munsieville (34.7%)
22 Care in the Community In contrast, activity by older women, predominantly, in the social sector is quite significant. It is also in this sector that opportunities for job creation during the economic crisis are greatest as the demand for it is constant (Antonopoulos and Kim, 2008 and Antonopoulos, et al 2010). In South Africa, there is no public childcare available for children from birth to 5 years, and hospitals are overwhelmed by the AIDS pandemic and large numbers of people struggling with tuberculosis. The social sector of the CWP appears to be doing the work of actual organs of the state. Early Childhood Development (ECD) workers and Home Based Care workers (HBC) are doing the work, which the Departments of Education and Health, respectively, are neglecting.
23 Care in the Community It appears that the social development functions of the state are being outsourced cheaply to the CWP which takes it on with great empathy but little actual expertise and skill. Those employed in ECD and HBC are overstretched and work under poor conditions and low pay. The challenge is for the CWP to become a step towards the progressive realisation of decent work, which must include higher wages and better working conditions. Clearly, the scaling up the programme in the social sector has a great potential of creating full-time jobs for the unemployed. This would require the training and creation of fulltime jobs which would include childcare workers, teacher aids, as well as auxiliary work for school caretakers, school clerical workers in as many as 60,000 sites.
24 CWP and Social Cohesion The CWP appears to be combining the care of the vulnerable sectors of society the poor, unemployed, frail, and ill - with the creation of public infrastructure and public goods. It is indisputable that the grassroots organisation and social dialogue building inherent in the CWP has contributed significantly towards social violence in communities such as Munsieville which has had a particularly violent past. The CWP appears to be the ideal mechanism for building trust in a community where alongside its history of violence also runs a deep commitment to engage with the state to change their conditions.
25 CWP and a New Growth Path for South Africa The progressive upgrading of employment in the CWP faces a critical challenge as South Africa has a powerful and well organized labour movement whose support will be necessary for such a policy shift to be implemented. A critical challenge lies in maintaining union commitment to policies that support employment creation and equity even when it requires some sacrifice from union members. In order to achieve this, the New Growth Path must ensure that economic and social policies demonstrably reward any sacrifice by members with real gains for the working class as whole ( NGP, 2010:29) The New Growth Path is not clear as to what these sacrifices by labour will be and how their support will be won although it does propose a social pact with key stakeholders (NGP, 210:31) Our research suggests that CWP is an opportunity for the state, in the very short run, to accelerate employment creation primarily through direct employment schemes.
Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch Internal migration determinants in South Africa: Recent evidence from Census 2011 Eldridge Moses* RESEP Policy Brief february 2 017 This policy brief
December 12 Global Employment Trends for Women Executive summary International Labour Organization Geneva Global Employment Trends for Women 2012 Executive summary 1 Executive summary An analysis of five
Poverty alleviation and urban violence prevention: Exploring the impact of the Community Work Programme on urban violence Malose Langa, and David Bruce (Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation)
Inclusive growth and development founded on decent work for all Statement by Mr Guy Ryder, Director-General International Labour Organization International Monetary and Financial Committee Washington D.C.,
2018 STATE OF THE NATION ADDRESS President Cyril Ramaphosa delivered the State of the Nation Address (SoNA) to a joint sitting of the two houses of Parliament on Friday, 16 February 2017. The president
Human Rights Council Universal Periodic Review (UPR) of South Africa 13 th Session (June 2012) Joint Stakeholders Submission on: The Situation on the Rights of the Child in South Africa Submitted by: IIMA
12 2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 2.1 POPULATION The Water Services Development Plan: Demographic Report (October December 2000, WSDP) provides a detailed breakdown of population per settlement area for the
PRE-CONFERENCE MEETING Women in Local Authorities Leadership Positions: Approaches to Democracy, Participation, Local Development and Peace Presentation by Carolyn Hannan, Director Division for the Advancement
REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA STATEMENT BY MR. ALBERT BIWA, DEPUTY DIRECTOR OF SOCIAL WELFARE, MINISTRY OF POVERTY ERADICATION AND SOCIAL WELFARE, GENERAL DISCUSSION 3 A, B 30 January 2018 NEW YORK (Check Against
Labor Based Public Works Can it be an instrument for Safety Net Strategies? THE GHANA PERSPECTIVE B. M. Oppong Arusha June 14, 2010 1 INTRODUCTION Safety net Strategies have been adopted by many Countries.
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women Twenty-second session 17 January 4 February 2000 Excerpted from: Supplement No. 38 (A/55/38) Concluding comments of the Committee on the Elimination
United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women CEDAW/C/PRT/CO/7/Add.1 Distr.: General 18 April 2011 Original: English ADVANCE UNEDITED VERSION Committee on the
Building a fair society Kyrgyzstan s unions and poverty reduction In Kyrgyzstan, trade unions have been closely involved in drawing up and implementing the National Poverty Reduction Programme. They believe
Internal Migration to the Gauteng Province DPRU Policy Brief Series Development Policy Research Unit University of Cape Town Upper Campus February 2005 ISBN 1-920055-06-1 Copyright University of Cape Town
Thirteenth Triennial Conference of Pacific Women and Sixth Meeting of Pacific Ministers for Women Recommendations and outcomes 2 5 October 2017, Suva, Fiji PREAMBLE 1. The 13 th Triennial Conference of
THUMA MINA (SEND ME) CAMPAIGN Nelson MANDELA and Albertina SISULU VOLUNTEERS HANDBOOK TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Thuma Mina (Send Me) Campaign 1 2. The meaning of Nelson Mandela and Albertina Sisulu Legacy 7
Council of the European Union Brussels, 3 March 2017 (OR. en) 6889/17 OUTCOME OF PROCEEDINGS From: On: 3 March 2017 To: General Secretariat of the Council Delegations SOC 164 GENDER 9 EMPL 123 EDUC 101
- Isobel Frye - POLICY BRIEF NUMBER 4 TOWARDS A DECENT STANDARD OF LIVING Everyone has inherent dignity and the Right to have their dignity respected and protected Section 10, Constitution of South Africa.
1 ILO STRATEGY FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION, REHABILITATION AND RECOVERY OF THE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI-AFFECTED COUNTRIES IN ASIA THE BACKGROUND The UN Secretary-General described the December 26, 2004 catastrophe
2014 MANIFESTO 2 ACDP Manifesto AFRICAN CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY 2014 MANIFESTO AFRICAN CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY 2014 MANIFESTO CONTENTS PAGE OUR POLCIES REASONS TO VOTE ACDP i. JOBS 4 4 4 ii. iii.
1 von 8 09.07.2015 13:13 Case Id: 257d6b6c-68bc-48b3-bf9e-18180eec75f1 Equality between women and men in the EU Fields marked with are mandatory. About you Are you replying to this consultation in a professional
MONTHLY UPDATE: 3RP FEBRUARY 2018 USD 4.45 billion Inter-agency 9,488 girls and boys who are receiving specialized child protection services 145,663 PROTECTION 14,424 persons receiving Sexual and Gender-Based
1 Youth labour market overview With 1.35 billion people, China has the largest population in the world and a total working age population of 937 million. For historical and political reasons, full employment
Republic of the Philippines NATIONAL STATISTICS OFFICE National Capital Region Number: 2013-12 SPECIAL RELEASE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION IN NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION April 2013 Final Results The Labor Force Survey
Kingdom of Cambodia Nation Religion King Royal Government of Cambodia National Social Protection Strategy for the Poor and Vulnerable Executive Summary The National Social Protection Strategy (NSPS) complements
2.4 million Swiss francs funding requirement 5,885 people to be reached 25 regional branches of Ukrainian Red Cross 3,500 volunteers country-wide 100 years of experience reaching the most vulnerable UKRAINE
AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS 2009 MANIFESTO WORKING TOGETHER WE CAN DO MORE MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT Our guiding principle is to live by the motto on our country s coat of arms. We aspire to the creation
TALKING POINTS FOR THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY ROUNDTABLE 1: GLOBALIZATION, DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY REDUCTION: THEIR SOCIAL AND GENDER DIMENSIONS Distinguished delegates, Ladies and gentlemen: I am pleased
Decent Work Indicators in the SDGs Global Indicator Framework ILO Department of Statistics & ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific Content Introduction Monitoring and reporting Decent Work Agenda
Executive summary Part I. Major trends in wages Lowest wage growth globally in 2017 since 2008 Global wage growth in 2017 was not only lower than in 2016, but fell to its lowest growth rate since 2008,
Initial Poverty and Social Analysis March 2018 Indonesia: Enhanced Water Security Investment Project This document is being disclosed to the public in accordance with ADB s Public Communications Policy
Can you measure social cohesion in South Africa? And can you fix what you don t measure? Alan Hirsch The Presidency, South Africa and University of Cape Town 1 Findings of the OECD Development Centre Global
FP029: SCF Capital Solutions South Africa DBSA B.15/07 SUPPLY CHAIN FINANCE GENDER ASSESSMENT Gender Mainstreaming Guide Introduction This document provides a high level framework that will guide the mainstreaming
0 Youth labour market overview Turkey is undergoing a demographic transition. Its population comprises 74 million people and is expected to keep growing until 2050 and begin ageing in 2025 i. The share
Economic Independence of Women A pre condition to full participation of women NGO Report for the UPR review of the Iranian Government House of Culture and Sustainable Development August 2009 Economic independence
Number: 2014-10 Date Released: July 30, 2014 SPECIAL RELEASE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION IN NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION January 2014 Final Results The Labor Force Survey (LFS) is a nationwide survey conducted quarterly
Linking growth and equity: addressing exclusion, discrimination i i and exploitation in labour markets Ursula Grant and Kate Higgins Growth and Equity Conference 12 13 February 2009 Objectives 1. To demonstrate
Main objectives UNHCR's main objectives in were to support the Government in identifying and implementing durable solutions for Bhutanese refugees, with a focus on reregistration of camp populations, resettlement
WWW.AFROBAROMETER.ORG Economic conditions and lived poverty in Botswana Findings from Afrobarometer Round 6 Surveys in Botswana At a Glance Economic Conditions: Trend analysis on present living conditions
Overview of the 2030 Agenda SDG GLOBAL INDICATOR FRAMEWORK AND DECENT WORK Yacouba DIALLO, PhD Senior Statistician ILO Regional Office for Africa, Abidjan SDG Global Indicator Framework and Decent Work
Social Services and the SDGs 9th Conference for the Social work and Sustainable Development Goals Sharjah, UAE, Monday 23 April 2018 Keynote Address, UN ASG Nikhil Seth, UNITAR Executive Director Let me
Submission from Scottish Women s Aid to the UN Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights call for evidence September 2018 Scottish Women's Aid (SWA) is the lead organisation in Scotland working
The Challenge of Youth Unemployment in South Africa Nonkululeko Ngcobo CPEG 16 September 2009 BACKGROUND Youth internationally is defined as people between the ages 15-24, which is roughly 17% of the world
International Conference on Gender and the Global Economic Crisis organized by The International Working Group on Gender, Macroeconomics and International Economics with the Gender Equality and Economy
ITUC GLOBAL POLL 2013 Prepared for the G20 Labour and Finance Ministers Meeting Moscow, July 2013 Contents Executive Summary 2 Government has failed to tackle unemployment 4 Government prioritises business
Statistics South Africa Private Bag X44 Pretoria 0001 South Africa Steyn s Building 274 Schoeman Street Pretoria Users enquiries: (012) 310-8600 Fax: (012) 310-8500 Main switchboard: (012) 310-8911 Fax:
GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS & GENDER EQUALITY THREATS, OPPORTUNITIES AND NECESSITIES ICA Gender Equality Committee Seminar: Global Crisis: Gender Opportunity? 17 November 2009 Eva Majurin COOPAfrica, ILO Dar
6 GOAL 1 THE POVERTY GOAL Goal 1 Target 1 Indicators Target 2 Indicators Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day Proportion
Republic of the Philippines NATIONAL STATISTICS OFFICE National Capital Region Number: 2013-07 SPECIAL RELEASE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION IN NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION January 2012 Final Results The Labor Force
CDE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY March 2014 CITIES OF HOPE Cities have never been more important for human well-being and economic prosperity. Half of the world s population lives in urban areas, while about 80 per
REGIONAL QUARTERLY UPDATE: 3RP ACHIEVEMENTS DECEMBER These dashboards reflect selected regional sectoral indicators on the humanitarian and resilience responses of more than 240 partners involved in the
LEGACIES OF THE WAR ON POVERTY Sheldon Danziger President, Russell Sage Foundation Grantmakers Income Security Task Force February 27, 2014 Declaration of War On Poverty President Johnson declared an unconditional
WOMEN S REFUGEE COMMISSION Service Provision Mapping Tool: Urban Refugee Response Mapping humanitarian and host community organizations relevant to GBV prevention and GBV risk mitigation Introduction Today,
Towards a Youth Development Strategy for the Eastern Cape Overview of critical challenges facing youth in the Eastern Cape 26 June 2002 Prepared by: John Reynolds Contents CONTENTS... II 1 INTRODUCTION...
NREGA in Abu Road, Rajasthan Rina Bhattacharya and Ratna M. Sudarshan Institute of Social Studies Trust New Delhi Presented at Conference on "EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY AND PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT POLICY IN GLOBALISING
UNIVERSAL PERIODIC REVIEW HUMANRIGHTS COUNCIL UNICEF INPUTS ZAMBIA December 2007 I. Trends 1. Zambia, with a population of approximately 11.3 million and annual growth rate of 1.6%, has one of the highest
Planning and its discontents: South Africa s experience Y Abba Omar, Director Operations Mapungubwe Institute Johannesburg While the focus is on impact, it becomes necessary to examine the processes which
11. World Poverty Poverty in the Third World Human Poverty Index Poverty and Economic Growth Free Market and the Growth Foreign Aid Millennium Development Goals Poverty in the Third World Subsistence definitions
17 STRATEGIC CONTEXT 18 CHAPTER 2 STRATEGIC CONTEXT 2.1 The National Development Plan 2000 2006 The purpose of the National Development Plan 2000 2006 is essentially to enhance regional economies and foster
Regional Disparities in Employment and Human Development in Kenya Jacob Omolo 1 email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT What are the regional disparities in employment and human development
SOCIAL INCLUSION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH MGNREGA MOOSA FARIN Assistant Professor Department of Economics AKI s Poona College of Arts, Science & Commerce Pune (MS) INDIA DR. SHAKEEL AHMED Vice-Principal
PES SOCIALISTS & DEMOCRATS EQUAL SOCIETIES: FOR A STRONGER DEMOCRACY IN EUROPE PARTY OF EUROPEAN SOCIALISTS LISBON, 7-8 DECEMBER 2018 RESOLUTIONS www.pes.eu www.facebook.com/pes.pse www.twitter.com/pes_pse
Shrinking populations in Eastern Europe s for policy-makers and advocates What is at stake? In several countries in Eastern Europe, populations are shrinking. The world s ten fastest shrinking populations
United Nations Economic and Social Council Distr.: General 1 November 2017 E/C.12/ZAF/Q/1 Original: English English, French and Spanish only Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights List of issues
REGIONAL MONTHLY UPDATE: 3RP ACHIEVEMENTS FEBRUARY These dashboards reflect selected aggregate achievements of 3RP regional sectoral indicators on the humanitarian and resilience responses of more than
Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives Ontario December 2018 Persistent Inequality Ontario s Colour-coded Labour Market Sheila Block and Grace-Edward Galabuzi www.policyalternatives.ca RESEARCH ANALYSIS
Impact of MGNREGA on Socio-Economic Upliftment of the Beneficiaries A Case Study of Pali District of Rajasthan A Synopsis Submitted in partial fulfillment for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Management)
REGIONAL MONTHLY UPDATE: 3RP ACHIEVEMENTS NOVEMBER 2017 These dashboards reflect selected aggregate achievements of 3RP regional sectoral indicators on the humanitarian and resilience responses of more
Economic Security Diocese Boise Family Economic Security in An increasing number families are becoming burdened with the effects poverty and financial hardships, and many are turning to the state for financial
How to Generate Employment and Attract Investment Beatrice Kiraso Director UNECA Subregional Office for Southern Africa 1 1. Introduction The African Economic Outlook (AEO) is an annual publication that
Disaggregating SDG indicators by migratory status Haoyi Chen United Nations Statistics Division Defining migratory status Step 1. Country of birth or citizenship Country of birth: foreign-born vs native
British Columbia Poverty Reduction Strategy Submission by The Canadian Union of Public Employees British Columbia Division Paul Faoro, President March 29, 2018 The Canadian Union of Public Employees British
Refuge Egypt خدمة اللاجي ين Refuge Egypt Our Mission Refuge Egypt serves refugees, migrants and asylum seekers living in Egypt who have fled their original country of nationality due to war or disaster,
BRIEF Nº 03 GLOBAL JOBS PACT POLICY BRIEFS 1. Executive summary INCLUDING THE INFORMAL ECONOMY IN THE RECOVERY MEASURES Prior to the 2008/2009 crisis hitting the world economy, a significant percentage
Chapter 10 Resource Markets and the Distribution of Income Resource markets differ from markets for consumer goods in several key ways First, the demand for resources comes from firms producing goods and
Migration in the Post-2015 Development Agenda Dr. Melissa Siegel WUN Migration Conference, 26 April 2015 The channels through which migration can benefit development are vast and do not only concern migrant
Pathways to graduation: is graduation from social safety net support possible and why? Evidence from sub-saharan Africa Silvio Daidone Food and Agriculture Organization Luca Pellerano Oxford Policy Management
Citizen s Platform for SDGs, Bangladesh GmwWwR ev Íevq b bvmwik cø vudg, evsjv `k Citizen s Platform Brief October 2018 No. 21 Engaging Young Women and Men in Decisionmaking Process 14 A ±vei 2018, XvKv,
UAE Policy for the provision of Direct Support to Afghanistan UAE Policy for the Provision of Direct Support to Afghanistan 1 Executive Summary This policy statement outlines the approach of the UAE Government
14 April 2015 CONTRIBUTION TO THE INFORMAL EPSCO COUNCIL 21-22 April 2015 Riga, Latvia (Part 2) Towards the introduction of adequate minimum wages for all in every member state Contribution to Workshop
Resolution 2008/1 Population distribution, urbanization, internal migration and development The Commission on Population and Development, Recalling the Programme of Action of the International Conference
Report on Women and Poverty (2001-2015) September 2016 1. Foreword Whether in good or bad economic times, women are more likely to fall into poverty than men. In April 2016, Oxfam s report Women and the