By Giovanni di Cola Officer in Charge, ILO Decent Work Team and Office for the Caribbean and

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1 By Giovanni di Cola Officer in Charge, ILO Decent Work Team and Office for the Caribbean and

2 Youth Women Indigenous Persons Migrant workers Domestic Workers Persons with disability Vulnerable Groups

3 The youth challenge in LAC 590 million in LAC 106 million youth Of which, over 60 million constituted of : 7 million unemployed 34 million informal workers 34 million not contributing to social security Change of migratory cycles (not returning) Under represented at the institutional and political levels

4 Job Quality for Youth In Decline The Working Poor: 23.5% of all workers are poor, but only 18.5% are non poor Paid Workers: More than 50% of workers are low paid workers, and they are 2 6 times more likely to have jobs that pay lower than the national average Informal Economy: In Latin America, youth employed in the informal sector are 30% higher that the adults. In Eastern Europe, more than 1/3 of the total are youth employed in the informal sector Social protection: In Latin America, 53% of the youth that work are not listed in the health system and a similar percentage make no contribution to a pension system.

5 Youth Unemployment 75 million youth are unemployed 4 out of every 10 unemployed person is a young man or woman Youth are three times more likely to be unemployed than the adults 5

6 Regional Office of the ILO in Latin America and the Caribbean

7 Entreprises expectations AL C Américas: 10 puestos más difíciles de cubrir 1. Ingenieros Fuente: Manpower Group 2. Técnicos % tiene intencion de iniciar un negocio en los proximos 3 años 3. Representantes de ventas 4. Oficios manuales calificados 5. Operarios de producción 6. Secretarias y administrativos Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Mexico Peru Uruguay 7. Personal contable y de finanzas 8. Choferes 9. Personal de TI 10. Obreros 0 Fuente: Global Entrepreneurship Monitor

8 Employability: Education and Training Improving skills and facilitating transition from school to work Strengthen coherence and coordination of measures to increase access to education Improve the quality of technical and vocational training to address the skills mismatch Reverse the slow transition from school to work by developing by promoting internships, apprenticeships and other forms of work placements experience Develop strategies for skills development in specific sectors with value chains etc Establish validation of prior knowledge for non formal education and those acquired in employment to effectively move in a global labour market with portable skills

9 Economic and employment policies for youth employment Articulation of macro and microeconomic policies that promote employability and raise productive employment Macroeconomic policies that strengthen aggregate demand and improve access to finance Measures to promote sustainable private sector growth and business development Countercyclical policies and public employment programs, employment guarantee schemes, wage subsidies and training Environment policies for the transition to formal employment 40M persons enter the labor market each year 200 million unemployed in 2012 of which 75 million are youths 600 million jobs will be created in the next 10 years

10 Resolution of the ILC on the Youth Employment Crisis: Time For Action Guiding Principles: There is no universal solution. It is necessary to adopt a multidimensional approach: Macroeconomic policies, employability, labor market policies, youth entrepreneurship and youth rights in order to address the social consequences of the crisis while ensuring financial and fiscal sustainability. Strategic Approach: Economic and employment policies for youth employment Employability: Education, training and skills, school to work programmes Labour Market Policies Entrepreneurship and self employment for youth Rights of youths Source: Regional Office of the OIT for Latin America and the Caribbean.

11 Women Employment : Challenges In Latin America and the Caribbean(LAC),104.2 million youth between 15 and 24 years Labor force participation rates and employment rates are lower and unemployment affects them in a major way. Face greater job insecurity and concentration in jobs of poor quality 26% are domestic workers, and 54% work as employees in the private sector 10 percentage points lower than that of young men (64%) Women still face barriers to enter the labour market due to their role in the society and to gender inequalities

12 Women Employment : Challenges Cont d Need to create inclusive employment policies Macroeconomic balances are not sufficient by themselves to overcome gender inequalities in the labour market. Requires policies that include objectives focusing on the integration and access on equal terms with men, Equal pay as the difference in equal pay is still wide Better functioning of labour institutions to generate quality employment and address gender inequalities Inclusive policies must also : Contribute to sustainable economic development Stimulate long term inclusion of growing segments of the labour force not covered by social protection

13 Social Protection: differences betwen working men and women Hombres y mujeres ocupados urbanos sin protección en pensiones (2011) ,4 73,5 54,5 69,8 64,2 60,4 57,1 58,7 46,8 47, ,2 27,9 31,6 30,7 26,9 27, Paraguay Perú Colombia México Argentina Chile Brasil Uruguay Hombres Mujeres

14 Valuation of Participation in Latin America , by Sex Tasa de participación en América Latina , por sexo 90,0 80,0 70,0 60,0 50,0 40,0 30,0 20,0 10,0 0,0 82,2 80,8 79,6 49,2 52,6 40, Mujeres Hombres Source: CEPAL. NOTE: To calculate the information at the Regional level they used the information of the following countries: Argentina (Urban Whole), Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, República Dominicana, Uruguay (Área Urbana para 2000 y 2005) y Venezuela (total nacional).

15 Valuation of Participation of Women and Men for the Year 2010 Tasa de participación de mujeres y hombres año 2010 (%) Mujeres Hombres Perú Uruguay Bolivia Brasil Colombia Argentina Chile Venezuela Paraguay Ecuador Costa Rica El Salvador Panamá México Honduras AL Fuente: CEPAL

16 Labour market trends for women In the last decade, 22.8 million women joined the labour market in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) 100 million women are currently occupied Corresponds to 5 out of every 10 women of working age. Men: 8 out of 10 Women wages in LAC are 68per cent of the men s wages Women working in the agriculture are not paid with a few exception (Chile, Costa Rica,

17 Valuation of Unemployment in Latin America: 2000,2005 & 2010 by Sex Tasa de desocupación en América Latina 2000, 2005 y 2010, por sexo ,4 9,7 9,1 5 7,1 6,5 6, Hombres Mujeres Source: CEPAL.

18 Indigenous populations: challenges 522 in LAC 40 million of which 12 million in Mexico Guatemala, Bolivia 50% of the population Peru, Ecuador one third of the population Poverty rates higher, between 2,8% in Guatemala to 7,9% in Paraguay Wages: half of the other workers Mortality rates higher: between 6 and 10 years less than average mortality rate

19 Indigenous rights and C. 169 ILO Convention No.169, adopted in 1989 is a legal tool to promote the rights of the 370 million indigenous people in over 90 countries. 22 Ratifications of which 14 in LAC The Indigenous have the right to enjoy: all aspect of human rights and fundamental freedoms without being discriminated against. decent work opportunities and equal pay for equal work. land, social security, health and vocational training and rights concerning conditions of employment. Participation and consultation are the cornerstones of C. 169

20 Indigenous Persons (cont d) Participation and Consultation the Cornerstone of the Convention 169: Indigenous persons have the right to consultation and participation and effectively participate at all levels of decision making in political, legislative and administrative bodies and processes which may affect them directly. Governments will have to: (Article 2) To develop, with the participation of the interested peoples a coordinated and systematical action to protect Indigenous people rights and to guarantee the respect of their integrity. Source: ILO Convention 169

21 Migrant Workers 191 million migrants living outside their own country of origin or citizenship. In LAC there are 2.5 million migrants workers. Of which over 50per cent are women, with two types of labor migration: highly qualified individuals known as brain drain low skilled individuals who migrate to work in positions for which they are overqualified, to work as care givers and domestic workers, known as the flight of care givers

22 Migrant Workers (cont d) The International Labour Conference at its 92 nd session adopted by consensus a Resolution and conclusions concerning a fair deal for migrant workers in a global economy Source: ILO Facts on Labour Migration

23 Domestic Workers There are 17 to 19 million domestic workers in Latin America and the Caribbean The most important occupation for women in the region accounts for 15.3% of the female labor force One of the areas of work where there is a major decent work deficit: low level of formality of the relationship of work, low social security coverage, long hours, and low wages Furthermore, indigenous women and women of African descent carry the most weight relatively and poorer working conditions in this area

24 People With Disabilities Approximately 1 billion people in the world have a disability; one of every 6 persons in the world has a disability (ILO, 2013) Persons with disabilities often face disproportionate poverty and unemployment (ILO, 2013) Disabled women face a situation of double jeopardy. They are both disabled and women make more vulnerable to discrimination in the labour market.

25 Three Important ILO Instruments ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work The Declaration covers four fundamental principles and rights at work: freedom of association and collective bargaining; elimination of forced labour; effective abolition of child labour; and, elimination of discrimination in respect of employment ILO Declaration on Social Justice for a Fair Globalization Established a new foundation on which the ILO can effectively support the efforts of its constituents to promote and achieve progress and social justice through the Decent Work Agenda (employment, social protection, social dialogue and tripartism, and standards) The Global Jobs Pact Provides a set of balanced and realistic policy measures that, with the support of regional and multilateral institutions, countries can adopt to ease the impact of the crisis and accelerate recovery in employment. It calls on member States to put decent work at the core of their responses to the crisis.

26 Declaration on Social Justice for a Fair Globalization Governments, employers and workers from all member States call for a new strategy to sustain open economies and societies based on social justice, full and productive employment, sustainable enterprises and social cohesion. The Declaration acknowledges the benefits of globalization but calls for renewed efforts to implement decent work policies as the means to achieve improved and fair outcomes for all.

27 Principle Areas of Action for the ILO in Latin America and the Caribbean Creation of a Regional Task Force with Specialists from all the Offices Promote national Action Plans on Youth Employment Regional platform of policies on youth employment Seek alliances: United Nations Youth Network Strengthening of the social partners

28 Principle Areas of Action Cont d Strengthening of Statistical Institutes for the measurement of the school to work transition Strengthening of technical assistance to National Training Agencies (CINTERFOR) Special attention to equality of opportunities and gender policies that addresses gender in balances and gaps through anti discrimination programmes Reinforcing Decent Work through policy coherence

29

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