Euro-Mediterranean Statistical Co-operation Programme Contract: ENPI/2010/

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1 Page 1 Euro-Mediterranean Statistical Co-operation Programme Contract: ENPI/2010/ Report of the TA mission to the occupied Palestinian territory Support to PCBS on the National Migration Survey Ramallah, September 2010 From: Youssef Courbage (INED, MEDSTAT III STE) Revisions: Giambattista Cantisani (MEDSTAT III Key Expert), Eurostat, PCBS To: PCBS, EUROPEAID, EUROSTAT, MEDSTAT III Project, MED-HIMS Coordination Version: Final Date: 3 December 2010 Introduction At the request of the PCBS and MEDSTAT III, the author of this report undertook a mission in Ramallah (opt) on September 2010 in order to support the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) on the National Migration Survey recently undertaken. The mission had the following main objectives: 1. Studying the survey methodology and tools 2. Supporting the documentation of the survey 3. Evaluating the quality of survey results 4. Preparing the list of main indicators and tables recommended to be disseminated in the main finding report During the mission the expert worked closely with Mohammad Duraidi, National Coordinator for the Migration Sector, and other PCBS staff involved in the preparation and implementation of the migration survey. In addition, he had regular meetings with the higher PCBS officers. 1. Studying survey methodology and tools The Palestinian survey has been essentially based on the model survey methodology and questionnaires finalized by MEDSTAT II following the last joint regional workshop on developing Model Questionnaires for Coordinated Household International Migration Surveys in the Mediterranean Countries (MED-HIMS) held in Marrakech in September-October 2009 back-to-back to the IUSSP Conference. The idea, which was often discussed in the working groups in MEDSTAT II, on ways to capture the emigration of entire families since the beginning of the reference period, was partly taken into account in the present Palestinian survey, although it has been abandoned by MEDSTAT II, since there was not unanimity in the working groups on this question, which raises difficult methodological questions, in interviewing neighbours or first degree relatives. Hence the currently available Model Questionnaires did not cover this possibility.

2 Page 2 All out-migrants from the household were recorded in the household questionnaire and those aged 15 years and over, who left since 2000 were surveyed in-depth through head of household in the household to which the out-migrant belongs, in the individual questionnaire for out-migrant. Return migrants from abroad were also recorded in the household questionnaire and those who were 15 years and over and who returned since 1990, were surveyed in the individual questionnaire for return migrant. Concerning the non-migrants, the surveys aimed to all non-migrant individuals aged years at time of data collection and those who returned after 1990 and were aged below 15 years at the time of return. Individuals were chosen randomly. The size of the sample is in conformity with the recommendations of the MEDSTAT II mission undertaken in October 2008, i.e. some households, in the West Bank and in the Gaza Strip. Coverage: the survey has been completed in the West Bank and by the end of the mission the whole questionnaires of the Gaza strip have been already coded. Hence the coverage of the whole opt is complete. The non-response rate was low: about 2-3% only on average, almost 0% in rural areas. It was higher in East -Jerusalem (around 7-8%) and Ramallah (4-5%). The sampling did not raise particular difficulties due to the fact that it was based on a recent 2007 census, and to the accumulated experience of PCBS on field surveys based on samples. The budget was very reasonable, around USD instead of the planned USD during the October 2008 mission. Manuals of 90 pages, available for enumerators (in Arabic) and supervisors (same with few additional pages) were prepared, explaining in detail all the steps of the survey: objectives, users, sampling. The questionnaire of the survey was pre-tested in the field on 150 households and was duly amended, for modalities of answer namely as well as the manual in February Supporting the documentation of the survey A comparison between the currently available MED-HIMS Model Questionnaires (MQ) and its application to the Palestinian case has been made during the mission. Going through the questionnaire of the survey (MED-HIMS MQs, available in English) and the questionnaire of the migration survey in opt (in Arabic), slight differences appeared in the number and nature of questions. In fact, as a result of the work carried out by the National Technical Committee of the survey, some questions were added, adapted or deleted. Essentially this adaptation was made in order to take into account: - The specificity of the Palestinian migration patterns - The study of internal migration in addition to international migration - A simplification since the questionnaire was sometimes too long to administer. In some households where a lot of out-migrants or return migrants were recorded (a whole day was sometimes necessary, with a revisit to the household the day after!). Hence some 9 questions out of ten of the model questionnaire have been kept in the Palestinian survey from the original MED-HIMS questionnaire. Two parts were not kept: the MQ-6 on the community level questionnaire (which was only made as an outline without the detailed questions) and the module on forced migration (suggested by UNHCR during the Marrakech meeting).

3 Page 3 For the general MQ1, only slight minor changes were introduced, for conformity with the other Palestinian surveys. A question was added on refugee status, citizenship (slightly modified), past residence (for the study of internal migration), level of education (slightly modified). Let us recall that migrants are defined in the Palestinian survey as those who left for 6 months or more. Emphasis is put on those who left since year 2000 and are presently aged 15 years and above. For returnees, reference period is 1990 and later and age at return 15 years and above. The Palestinian MQ1 questionnaire has innovated in allowing immediate identification of the number of persons eligible to the out-migrant questionnaire and those eligible to the return migrant one. The MED-HIMS MQ-5 on socio-economic conditions has been integrated in the MQ1 questionnaire and the number of questions has been reduced: cooking, drinking water, sanitation, waste disposal, type of road and drainage are not mentioned. Ownership of objects has been reduced from 41 items to 19. For MQ2, the questionnaire on out-migrants, a question on religion was added, while questions on citizenship at birth, current citizenship that of the country of residence were deleted or adapted, asking whether the migrant carries the citizenship of the destination country, seeks to obtain it, or carries other citizenship. Questions on capacity to read and write a letter, language spoken at home during childhood were deleted (since the answers are non relevant in Palestine). Questions on year of first marriage, age at marriage, multiple marriages, divorce and separation, nationality of spouse, polygamy, number of children ever born and surviving and still alive, own children, number of children at the first move, were deleted. Questions on recruiters, contract, and expectations for work were deleted. Question on preference of another country at first move was removed. For MQ3 on return migrants the whole sections 2 and 3 on return migrant s background, on marital status and reproduction were removed. Based on the results of pilot survey and upon decision of the National Technical Committee, questions on major activity of the place of work, reason to choose other country to move and decision in the household. The question on amounts of money taken with him when the return migrant left was deleted. For MQ4, the individual questionnaire for non-migrant, questions of section 1 on non-migrant s background, section 2 on work history were removed. Questions were added on detention and on presence of relatives of 1 st degree abroad and their place of residence. The section on marital status and reproduction was deleted. 3. Evaluating the quality of survey results Several tables were prepared during this mission for evaluating the quality of survey results. The tables are here listed in Annex 2, sections A and B. Hence, for the West Bank a table giving the time series of the number of out-migrants and of return outmigrants and the net emigration including the rates, has shown very plausible results on the magnitude and timing of migration movements in the opt.

4 Page 4 Age sex structure of the West Bank has shown very likely results in terms of age composition (and fertility rate through the reverse survival method) and sex ratios as far as they are affected by differential migration streams by sex. By single years of age there appears to be no significant age-heaping at 0 and 5 at least for youngsters and adults. Evaluation of tables on characteristics of migrants, return migrants, non-migrants: age sex, religion, citizenship (including dual), acquisition of citizenship, level of education, work etc. yielded good results with low non-response rates. Particular attention was paid also to evaluate the answers to the questions on transfers. Indeed non response rate for out-migrants -recall that answers were provided by the household member and not the emigrant himself- was higher than for demographic or socio-economic questions but not particularly high. Therefore, these tables will be very significant to assess the impact of migration, whether the migrant is still abroad or returned on the household living conditions. However for the questions involving amounts of the transfers, the situation is more complex: difficulty to assess precisely the amounts if emigration happened long time ago, errors of memory, under or over estimation of the amounts Besides, adequate rate of conversions should be determined since the answer are in Jordanian dinars, shekels, US dollars and euros. 4. List of main indicators and tables In accordance with the objectives of the mission, the expert has contributed to the definition of the main indicators and tables for the public dissemination on the Palestinian survey results. Two provisional lists of tables were produced, one for the press report (including 35 tables) and one for the main findings report (120 tables). The complete lists of these tables are here within Annex 2, respectively in Section C and Section D. 5. Other work and meetings In addition to the above, the mission has allowed launching the preparation of a documentation report on the Palestinian migration survey to be prepared in view of the sector task force. During the mission, a meeting with representative of the Abu Lughod Institute of International Studies, Program on Refugees and Forced Migration of the BirZeit University was held at PCBS to discuss the possibilities of undertaking further common research studies on Palestinian international migration. During a meeting at the EU Technical Assistance Office to the opt in Jerusalem, the idea of collaboration between PCBS and Bir Zeit University for further analysis and research studies based on the survey on international migration was warmly welcomed. 6. Conclusions To sum up, the experience of the Palestinian international survey is very positive, with a complete coverage of the whole territory: West Bank, East Jerusalem and Gaza, a large sample of households, a limited budget and a very comprehensive questionnaire and low non-response rates. Besides, the deadlines are well respected with the main report to be prepared by the end of the year and steps taken for further analysis and research studies with the participation of the universities. This first experience in the Mediterranean region and the Arab world deserves to be largely diffused, namely to the participating countries of the MEDSTAT III Programme willing to undertake a similar international migration survey in their own country. Hence, the Palestinian statisticians and demographers

5 Page 5 involved in this survey should be encouraged to participate in training their counterparts of other MEDSTAT III countries, namely by explaining the concepts, methodology, planning, etc. and especially the adaptation of the questionnaire after this important experience recently undertaken in the field. This diffusion of this very first experience can be done through missions of the Palestinian statisticians to the MEDSTAT countries interested in their experience, or by regional workshops where the Palestinian experience would be presented and analyzed. Annexes Annex 1 List of main local counterpart and persons meet during the mission Annex 2 List of tables produced during the mission or preliminarily defined for dissemination

6 Page 6 Annex 1 List of main local counterpart and persons meet during the mission - Mrs. Ola Awad, Acting President of PCBS - Mr. Mahmoud Jaradat, Assistant of President for Statistical Affairs/PCBS - Mr. Mohamed Duraidi, Director of Demographic Statistics Department/PCBS - Mr. Youssef Falah, Director General Population and Social Statistics Directorate/PCBS - Mrs. Hana Boukhari, Head of Demographic Statistics Division/PCBS - Mr. Hatem Qrareya, Statistician, Demographic Statistics Department, /PCBS - Mrs. Haleeme Saeed, Deputy Director General of International Relations Directorate/PCBS - Mr. Majdi el Maliki, Bir Zeit University - Mr. Roger Heacock, Bir Zeit University - Mr. Abdel Karim Barghouti, Bir Zeit University - Mr. Ulrich Steinle, EU Technical Assistance Office to the opt, Jerusalem

7 Page 7 Annex 2 List of tables produced during the mission or preliminarily defined for dissemination A. Main indicators 1. Emigration size and rate 2. Return migration size and rate B. Tables for evaluation (produced during mission) B.1. Household questionnaire 1. Households by emigration status 2. Out-migrants by year of emigration and sex 3. Return migrants by education and sex 4. Population of households by age group and sex 5. Population of households by single year of age and sex 6. Refugee status by age group and sex 7. Citizenship by sex 8. Mother place of residence at birth current place of residence 9. Previous place of residence, current place of residence 10. Educational level by age group and sex 11. Work status by age group and sex 12. Marital status by age group and sex 13. Availability of car, internet and computer and migration status of the household. 14. Out-migrants by age group and sex. B.2. Out migrants questionnaire 15. Out migrants by age group, sex and religion 16. Out-migrants by number of countries of emigration and sex 17. Out-migrants by age group, sex and dual citizenship 18. Out-migrants by age-group and sex and by desire to acquire citizenship 19. Out-migrants by level of education before and after emigration 20. Out-migrants by martial status before and after emigration 21. Out-migrants by country of citizenship of spouse 22. Out-migrants by age group sex and present marital status 23. Out-migrants by if they were looking for work before emigration 24. Out-migrants by age-group, sex and main reason of emigration 25. Out-migrants by age-group, sex and person who took the decision to emigrate 26. Out-migrants by number of visits to the country of emigration 27. Out-migrants by age-group and sex and visa acquisition 28. Out-migrants by age-group sex and way of entering the country of emigration 29. Out-migrants by age-group and sex and presence of relatives or friends in the country of emigration 30. Out-migrants by age-group and sex and assistance from relatives or friends 31. Out-migrants by level of knowledge of the language of country at emigration and now 32. Out-migrants by sex and assistance for travel expenses by relatives or friends 33. Out-migrants by type of assistance received at emigration B.3. Return migrants questionnaire 34. Returnees by year of return

8 Page Returnees by age-group and sex 36. Returnees by single year of age 37. Returnees by age-group, sex and refugee status 38. Returnees by sex and citizenship 39. Returnees by mother place of residence at birth and current place of residence 40. Returnees by previous place of residence and current place of residence 41. Returnees by age-group, sex and educational level 42. Returnees by marital status and sex 43. Returnees by age-group, work status and sex B.4. Financial questions and remittances Out-migrants 44. At emigration did emigrant took money with him by age group and sex 45. Source of these amounts of money 46. Use of these amounts of money 47. Financial assistance of friends and relatives at emigration by age group and sex 48. Since emigration transfers of money or goods 49. Duration before sending money or goods by age group and sex 50. Persons to whom money or goods were sent by age group and sex 51. Amount sent during the last 12 months by receivers (converted in USD) 52. Number of transfers during last 12 months 53. Use of the transfers 54. Ways and most important way utilized for these transfers 55. Goods and merchandises sent during the last 12 months Return migrants 56. Average yearly transfers sent from abroad, during stay in the last country 57. Types of goods sent from abroad and value during the last 12 months before return 58. Value of goods brought with them/return migrants at return from abroad 59. Amounts of money brought with them/return migrants at return from abroad. 60. Way of spending the amounts brought with them 61. Amount of retirement pension per month by age group and sex C. Tables for the press report (provisional list, 35 tables) C.1. Household Questionnaire (by region) 1. Distribution of households by number of emigrants and sex 2. Distribution of out-migrants by country of residence 3. Distribution of out-migrants by relation to head of household 4. Out-migrants by year of emigration, region and sex 5. Return migrants by year of emigration, region and sex 6. Out-migrants living abroad by age group and sex C.2. Individual Questionnaire for Out-Migrants 7. Country of first out-migration by year 8. Educational level at out-migration and now by large age groups and sex 9. Reasons and principal reason for out-migration

9 Page Language of the country of emigration spoken at emigration and now 11. Assistance at emigration by age group and sex 12. Work in the first country of emigration by age group and sex 13. Profession by age group and sex and level of education 14. Present work by age group and sex 15. Intentions to stay in present country of residence by age group sex 16. For out-migrants desiring to leave present country of emigration, intentions to return to Palestine 17. Appreciation of emigration abroad 18. Since emigration transfers of money or goods C.3. Individual Questionnaire for Return Migrants 19. Returnee out-migrants, by sex age group at return and age group at outmigration 20. First country of emigration by age group and sex 21. Last country of emigration by age group and sex 22. Reason and main reason for first emigration 23. Educational level by age group and sex before first emigration 24. Reason and main reason for return by age group and sex 25. Financial situation after return compared to situation in emigration 26. Difficulties encountered after the return in Palestine C.4. Individual Questionnaire for Non-Migrants 27. Arrests by Israeli forces by age group, sex and duration of arrest 28. Intention to out-migrate by age group and sex 29. Reasons and main reason for out-migration by sex 30. Type of emigration permanent or non permanent by age group and sex 31. Preferred country of emigration by sex 32. Reasons for preference not to out-migrate 33. Previous place of residence and current place of residence 34. Duration of stay in the current place of residence 35. Reason for changing place of residence D. Tables for the principal report (provisional list, 120 tables) 1. Emigrants by year of emigration 2. Immigrants by year of emigration 3. Population by age (single years of age) and sex in Population by age group and sex 5. Household composition, by sex 6. Refugees, registered, non registered non-refugee by age group and sex 7. Citizenship: Palestinian, Palestinian +other (define), non Palestinian by sex 8. Place of residence of mother at birth (mohafazat), present place of residence 9. Last place of residence, present place of residence 10. Level of education by age group and sex 11. Work force by age group and sex 12. Marital status by age group and sex 13. Residence abroad for 6 months and more by age group and sex 14. Year of return by age group and sex 15. Level of comfort of the household (computer, internet, dish washer) and existence of at least one emigrant abroad 16. Emigrants living abroad by age group and sex

10 Page Emigration by religion and sex 18. Emigrants by age and sex 19. Country of first emigration by year 20. Number of countries where emigrants have lived 21. Country of present country of residence of emigrants by age group and sex 22. Citizenship of the present country of residence by age group and sex 23. Intention to get the citizenship of the country of residence 24. Educational level at emigration and now by large age groups and sex 25. Marital status at emigration and now by large age groups and sex 26. Citizenship of the spouse 27. Work situation before emigration by age group at emigration and sex 28. Profession before emigration by age group at emigration and sex 29. Looking for work before emigration 30. Reasons and principal reason for emigration 31. Visits to the country of emigration: 0, 1, 2 etc. 32. Knowledge of the country of emigration by age group and sex 33. Availability of a visa by age group and sex 34. Way of entry in the country of emigration by age group and sex 35. Language of the country of emigration spoken at emigration and now 36. Assistance at emigration by age group and sex 37. Existence of relatives and friends by age group and sex 38. Assistance after emigration by age group and sex 39. Type of assistance by age group and sex 40. Work in the first country of emigration by age group and sex 41. Was a work awaiting for him by age group and sex 42. Time he had to wait to find a job by age group and sex 43. Who helped him to find a job by age group and sex 44. Profession by age group and sex and level of education 45. Present work by age group and sex 46. Type of work by age group sex and level of education 47. Present profession by age group sex and level of education 48. Employed non employed, since when by age group and sex 49. If non employed, reason for not searching work by age group and sex 50. Intentions to stay in present country of residence by age group sex 51. Intentions to stay in present country of residence by age group and actual work 52. Reasons and principal reason for whishing to stay 53. For emigrants whishing to leave present country of emigration, intentions to return to Palestine by age group and sex 54. Number of visits to Palestine during 2 last years by age group and sex 55. Appreciation of emigration abroad by age group and sex 56. Households members who want to follow the emigrant abroad by age and sex 57. Opinion of the household on emigration of one of the member abroad 58. At emigration did emigrant took money with him by age group and sex 59. Source of these amounts of money 60. Use of these amounts of money 61. Financial assistance of friends and relatives at emigration by age group and sex 62. Since emigration transfers of money or goods 63. Duration before sending money or goods by age group and sex 64. Persons to whom money or goods were sent by age group and sex 65. Amount sent during the last 12 months by receivers (converted in USD) 66. Number of transfers during last 12 months 67. Use of the transfers 68. Ways and most important way utilized for these transfers

11 Page Goods and merchandises sent during the last 12 months 70. Returnee emigrants by sex present age group and age group at return 71. Returnee emigrants by sex age group at return and age group at emigration 72. First country of emigration by age group and sex 73. Number of countries of emigration by age group and sex 74. Last country of emigration by age group and sex 75. Date of return by age group and sex 76. Work before first emigration by age group and sex 77. Searching for work abroad before emigration by age group and sex 78. Family economic situation before emigration by age group and sex 79. Reason and main reason for first emigration 80. Main person who took decision to emigrate by age group and sex 81. Number of visits to this country before first emigration by age group and sex 82. Sources of information and main source of information on work situation in country of first emigration 83. Availability of visa at first emigration 84. How entry in country of first emigration was done by age group and sex 85. Knowledge of the spoken language of the country at emigration by age group and sex 86. Knowledge of the spoken language of the country now by age group and sex 87. Financial assistance for first emigration by age group and sex 88. Presence of relatives and friends in country of first emigration 89. Type of assistance received in country of first emigration 90. Educational level by age group and sex before first emigration 91. Work conditions in country of last emigration by age group and sex 92. Present work after return according to last work in last country of emigration 93. Presently looking for work after return by age group and sex 94. Reason and main reason for return by age group and sex 95. Persons who decided of return by age group and sex 96. Financial assistance for return from relatives and friends 97. Persons from the household accompanying during return 98. During last 5 years staying abroad, number of visits to Palestine 99. Evaluation of emigration abroad 100. Financial situation before emigration and after 101. Financial situation after return compared to situation in emigration 102. Difficulties encountered after the return in Palestine 103. Preference for the last country of emigration or another country or no emigration at all 104. Average yearly transfers sent from abroad, during stay in the last country 105. Types of good sent from abroad and value during the last 12 months before return 106. Value of goods brought with him at return from abroad 107. Amounts of money brought with him at return from abroad Way of spending the amounts brought with him 109. Amount of retirement pension per month by age group and sex 110. Arrests by Israeli forces by age group, sex and duration of arrest 111. First degree relatives living abroad by age group sex and country of residence 112. Number of stays abroad for less than 6 months, during the last 12 months by age group and sex 113. Profession abroad by country age group and sex 114. Intention to emigrate by age group and sex 115. Any defined plans for emigration abroad by age group and sex 116. Reasons and main reason for emigration by age group and sex 117. Type of emigration permanent or non permanent by age group and sex 118. Intended country of emigration by age group and sex

12 Page Previous attempts to emigrate by age group and sex 120. Reasons for preference to stay in Palestine