Sixth Report to the Secretary General of the OAS on Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation in the Americas 2005

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1 SPECIALIZED ORGANIZATION OF THE OAS Sixth Report to the Secretary General of the OAS on Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation in the Americas 2005 Montevideo, May 2005 Av. 8 de Octubre 2904, Casilla de Correo 16212, Montevideo (11600) Tel. (5982) Fax: (5982) Web Site:

2 Luigi Einaudi Acting Secretary General of the OAS Ana Teresa Aranda Orozco President of the Directing Council of the IIN Alejandro Bonasso Acting Director General of the IIN Ariel Gustavo Forselledo Coordinator Program for the Integral Promotion of Children s Rights - PRODER IIN Mariela Debellis Consultant to the IIN Montevideo, May

3 Table of Contents 1. Background 3 2. Methodological remarks 3 3. Data collection 3 4. Information gathered from country responses in previous IIN surveys 4 5. Activities performed 4 Page 6. Outcome in Report on the ratification of international instruments in the region Action Plans up to date Implementation Action Plan funding Intervention Areas in Action Plans Summary country information Conclusions Reference documents 47 2

4 Sixth Report on Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation in the Americas Background Pursuant to resolution AG/RES (XXIX-O/99) adopted by the General Assembly of the Organization of American States (OAS) on June 7, 1999 the Inter-American Children s Institute (IIN) prepares an annual Report on Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation in the Americas to be submitted to the OAS Secretary General. Since 2000 the IIN has uninterruptedly presented such reports to the Secretary General including, as from 2001, a common approach intended to account for the developments experienced in the OAS Member states in compliance with the 1996 Stockholm targets, the 2001 Montevideo Commitment and the 2001 Declaration of Yokohama. Up to this date, the Program for the Integral Promotion of Children s Rights (PRODER) has applied a methodology of direct consultation to the countries by means of user-friendly protocols, phone surveys and exchange via . Such contacts encompass government authorities in the 34 OAS Member countries. Attempts were made in preparing this report in order to collect the information on which for various reasons the countries had no available or recently updated data. Out of the 34 OAS Member states, those that had not responded to the 2004 survey regarding the Fifth Report on Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation were consulted again, including Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Dominica, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Trinidad and Tobago. The information collected for the Fourth and Fifth Reports of 2003 and 2004 was summarized for the purpose of completing the report and submitting an overview of the efforts made by each of the 34 Member states to prevent and combat Sexual Exploitation. 2. Methodological remarks Due to the favorable response received in 2003 and 2004, the IIN used the same methodology for collecting information on Objective 1, while also searching for supplementary data in Internet. 3. Data collection 3.1. Data collection took place through an initial phone contact as per the list of qualified respondents available at the PRODER database. A parallel research for supplementary information on Sexual Exploitation was made in Internet Respondents were proposed to have a phone contact for the purpose of collecting the required information included in a protocol consisting of 9 to 15 questions In those cases where phone contacts were not possible, an alternative means (either or fax) was agreed upon to send the questions, while also setting a deadline for the relevant responses Follow-up by , fax and phone in order to ensure country responses as possible Record of all contacts in a follow-up worksheet so as to keep a documented file of the survey status in each country. 3

5 4. Information gathered from country responses in previous IIN surveys The same questionnaires used in 2004 were applied on this occasion. They were subdivided into three different versions, each designed in accordance with country participation in previous IIN surveys: a) Group 1. It included those countries that never responded to IIN surveys, meaning in this case Haiti, Saint Lucia and Trinidad and Tobago. b) Group 2. It included those countries that have responded to some previous surveys and have also reported having an Action Plan in place on Child Sexual Exploitation, meaning Antigua and Barbuda and The Bahamas. c) Group 3. It included those countries that have responded to previous surveys but had no Action Plan available until This only means one Member state: Dominica. Specific questions, contained in each protocol, were made to each country; these protocols also provide for a set of questions that are common to all countries (see Annex 1: Protocols.) 5. Activities performed The first round of contacts took place on early February 2005 through the use of the PRODER database of contacts and qualified respondents. Ambassadors to the OAS in Washington were also requested to cooperate as liaisons with those states having communication problems. Similarly to 2003 and 2004, whenever the information provided by contacts was outdated or erroneous, attempts were made to update it by phone, or fax, as well as through further research in Internet. The deadline for sending the protocol back was extended to March 30, 2005 at the request of some countries. The details of contacts made by the IIN in each Member state are included in Annex 2, Contact description. In turn, Annex 3 contains the full text of responses provided by qualified contacts who responded to the Sixth IIN Survey, and Annex 4 includes a comparative chart of responses received between 2001 and Outcome in 2005 Seven countries had been surveyed at the end of data collection, five of which actually responded (Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Dominica, Haiti, and Saint Lucia). Attempts were made to compensate for the lack of information in the remaining two countries Jamaica and Saint Kitts and Nevis by an Internet search using the keywords Sexual Exploitation. In the case of Trinidad and Tobago the data collected in the survey on Trafficking for Child Sexual Exploitation in the Hemisphere and Related Regulatory Frameworks of December 2004 were used. The information that follows is organized into two stages. The first one intends to provide for a summary of the overall collected information. Then an overview will be presented for each Member state and its progress pursuant to the 1996 Stockholm targets, the 2001 Montevideo Commitment, and the 2001 Declaration of Yokohama. 4

6 6.1. Report on the ratification of international instruments in the region A positive trend was again detected in the region regarding the ratification of such binding international instruments as the ILO Convention 181 on the worst forms of child labor and the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on Child Trade, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography. As of 2004, the ratifications of the ILO Convention 182 within the OAS framework amounted to 30 (88 percent of Member states), a figure that presently remains unchanged (see Table 1 and Figure 1.) As far as the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on Child Trade, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography is concerned, the presence of one additional signatory state was verified in 2005 (Haiti), thus making up a total of 24 signatories and 20 ratifications, which represents 5 more than in 2004 (58,8 percent) (see Table 1 and Figure 1.) Ratif 2003 Ratif 2004 Ratif 2005 Convention 182 Sign Sign 2004 Sign 2005 Ratif 2003 Ratif 2004 Ratif 2005 Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child Figure 1 5

7 Table 1 - Ratifications to the ILO Convention 182 COUNTRY RATIFICATION DATE Antigua and Barbuda 16/09/2002 Argentina 05/02/2001 Bahamas 14/06/2001 Barbados 23/10/2000 Belize 06/03/2000 Bolivia 06/06/2003 Brazil 02/02/2000 Canada 06/06/2000 Chile 17/07/2000 Costa Rica 10/09/2001 Dominica 04/01/2001 Ecuador 19/09/2000 El Salvador 12/10/2000 United States 02/12/1999 Grenada 14/05/2003 Guatemala 11/10/2001 Guyana 15/01/2001 Honduras 25/10/2001 Jamaica 13/10/2003 Mexico 30/06/2000 Nicaragua 06/11/2000 Panama 31/10/2000 Paraguay 07/03/2001 Peru 10/01/2002 Dominican Republic 15/11/2000 Saint Kitts and Nevis 12/10/2000 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 04/12/2001 Saint Lucia 06/12/2000 Trinidad and Tobago 23/04/2003 Uruguay 03/08/2001 TOTAL 30 RATIFICATIONS 6

8 Table 2 Status of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on Child Trade, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography COUNTRY SIGNING DATE RATIFICATION DATE Antigua and Barbuda 18 Dec Apr 2002 Argentina 1 Apr Sep 2003 Belize 6 Sep Dec 2003 Bolivia 10 Nov Jun 2003 Brazil 6 Sep Jan 2004 Canada 10 Nov Chile 28 Jun Feb 2003 Colombia 6 Sep Nov 2003 Costa Rica 7 Sep Apr 2002 Dominica. 20 Sep 2002 a Ecuador 6 Sep Jan 2004 El Salvador 13 Sep May 2004 Guatemala 7 Sep May 2002 Haiti 15 Aug Honduras. 8 May 2002 Jamaica 8 Sep Mexico 7 Sep Mar 2002 Panama 31 Oct Feb 2001 Paraguay 13 Sep Aug 2003 Peru 1 Nov May 2002 Suriname 10 May United States 5 Jul Dec 2002 Uruguay 7 Sep Jul 2003 Venezuela 7 Sep May 2002 TOTAL 24 Signatories 20 Ratifications 7

9 6.2. Action Plans up to date For the purpose of assessing the overall situation of the region on the compliance of the commitment assumed in Stockholm in 1996, later reinforced in Montevideo and ratified in Yokohama in 2001, the data collected in 2004, plus those obtained in 2005, are taken again into consideration. Thus, it can be verified that 22 states (65 percent) out of the 34 OAS Member states have developed an Action Plan against Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation (ESCNNA) and that twelve states (35 percent) have not done so yet (Figure 2). 22 STATES WITH ACTION PLAN 12 STATES WITH NO ACTION PLAN 6.3. Implementation Mapping of Action Plans in the OAS System Figure 2 Eighteen (82 percent) of the 22 countries that responded the survey reported having an Action Plan in place, three informed that their Plans are being implemented, and one has not such Plan available yet. Countries that still have no Action Plan are mostly in the Caribbean subregion (see Table 3.) 8

10 Table 3 Action Plans COUNTRY PLAN IMPLEMENTATION LEVEL ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA YES IN FORCE ARGENTINA YES IN FORCE BAHAMAS YES BEING IMPLEMENTED BARBADOS YES IN FORCE BELIZE NO BOLIVIA YES IN FORCE BRAZIL YES IN FORCE CANADA YES IN FORCE CHILE YES IN FORCE COLOMBIA YES IN FORCE COSTA RICA YES IN FORCE DOMINICA NO ECUADOR YES IN FORCE EL SALVADOR YES IN FORCE UNITED STATES YES IN FORCE GRENADA NO GUATEMALA YES IN FORCE GUYANA YES IN FORCE HAITI NO HONDURAS YES IN FORCE JAMAICA NO MEXICO YES IN FORCE NICARAGUA YES BEING IMPLEMENTED PANAMA YES IN FORCE PARAGUAY YES BEING IMPLEMENTED PERU NO DOMINICAN REPUBLIC YES IN FORCE SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS SAINT LUCIA ST VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES SURINAME NO NO NO NO TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO NO URUGUAY YES NOT STARTED YET VENEZUELA NO 6.4. Action Plan funding Out of the 22 countries that in the last two years reported having an Action Plan in place, 65 percent (14 countries) informed that, to some extent, they count on allocated resources for its implementation, while 17 percent stated their lack of funding (four countries). No data are available regarding the four remaining countries (Figure 3). 9

11 17% 17% 65% SI NO S/D Action Plan funding Figure Intervention areas in Action Plans The following range of specific actions has been identified (by frequency) among those states having an Action Plan in place: Prevention 14; Protection (legal and judicial) 14; Recovery/Rehabilitation 13; Coordination 8; Research 6, and Participation 2. This confirms the trends observed in 2002, 2003 and 2004 for Protection and Prevention being the two most developed areas in the region, followed by Coordination actions. Participation is still the weakest area (only two specific mentions are made in 22 Action Plans) thus supporting the cautious approach that children s participation should be subject to knowing how, when, and to what extent such participation should take (Figure 4) Protection Prevention Research Coordination Recov/Rehab Participation Intervention areas in Action Plans Figure 4 10

12 7. Summary country information Some basic indicators follow on child situation in each Member state for the purpose of including the demographic, socioeconomic and health description as part of the scenario where child sexual exploitation takes place. These indicators were analyzed in connection with the mean values obtained in the 34 OAS Member states and their source is The State of the World s Children 2005, UNICEF, 2005 (Table 4). Table 4 Average basic indicators in the 34 OAS Member states Indicators Estimate mean value Mortality rate for children less than 5 years old 29 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 24 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 5234 Life expectancy at birth (years) 71 Adult literacy rate 88 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 90 Annual population growth rate (%) Gross mortality rate 6.7 Gross birth rate 22 - The figures that will be shown in green in the tables corresponding to each state are above the estimate total mean value of the 34 OAS Member states. - The figures that will be shown in red in the tables corresponding to each state are below the estimate total mean value of the 34 OAS Member states. Country information is then grouped according to the following indicators regarding combat against Sexual Exploitation: a. Background resulting from previous IIN reports on Sexual Exploitation c. Main components or actions against Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation (whenever a Plan is not available) e. Responsible person or institution 11

13 ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA TMM5 (*) category 143 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 12 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 11 Total population (thousands) 73 Annual births (thousands) 1 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 0 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 9160 Life expectancy at birth (years) - Adult literacy rate 82 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 98 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 25 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 7 Annual population growth rate (%) Gross mortality rate - Gross birth rate - Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) - (*) Mortality rate classification for children less than five years old Antigua and Barbuda responded to the Fourth Report on Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation of 2003 and to the 2005 Questionnaire on Trafficking. It has an Action Plan in place that is part of the Plan to eradicate all forms of violence against children. c. Main components Protection and Prevention There is a legislative reform underway on protection and prevention regarding women and children. During the last year sexual exploitation-related actions have been punished by law as criminal offenses. e. Responsible person institution Institution: Directorate of Gender Affairs. Person: Sheila Roseau 12

14 ARGENTINA TMM5 category 120 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 20 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 17 Total population (thousands) Annual births (thousands) 727 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 15 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 3650 Life expectancy at birth (years) 74 Adult literacy rate 97 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 93 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 3540 Annual population growth rate (%) ,3 Gross mortality rate 8 Gross birth rate 19 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) - Argentina responded to the Second, Third and Fifth Reports (2001, 2002 and 2004 respectively). The country has an Action Plan in place since It is currently operational. c. Main components Prevention and Protection Research Recovery and Reintegration Coordination and Cooperation Ratification of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on Child Trade, Child Prostitution and Child Use in Pornography, Law passed on July 23, 2003 and enacted on August 22 nd, Institution: National Child and Family Council Persona: María Lourdes Molina, General Coordinator and Responsible for the Child Maltreatment Program; Alejandra Barbich, Coordinator of the specific Sub-program 13

15 BAHAMAS TMM5 category 138 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 14 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 11 Total population (thousands) 314 Annual births (thousands) 6 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 0 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) Life expectancy at birth (years) 67 Adult literacy rate 95 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 86 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 108 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 30 Annual population growth rate (%) ,6 Gross mortality rate 8 Gross birth rate 19 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) - Bahamas responded to the Fourth and Sixth Reports (2003 and 2005 respectively). According to its last report, the country has an Action Plan in place and the first steps have been given for its implementation. The country also started developing a national protocol on sexual exploitation. c. Main components Research and intervention by the police and social services Prevention, mostly exercised by the National Child Protection Council on all children at risk Efforts are being made to amend the relevant regulatory framework Institution: Ministry of Social Services and Community Development Person: Mellany Zonicle, Director of Social Services, Ministry of Social Services and Community Development 14

16 BARBADOS TMM5 category 142 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 13 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 11 Total population (thousands) 270 Annual births (thousands) 3 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 0 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 9270 Life expectancy at birth (years) 77 Adult literacy rate 100 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 100 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 65 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 16 Annual population growth rate (%) ,4 Gross mortality rate 8 Gross birth rate 12 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) - Barbados responded to the Fifth Report (2004). The country has an Action Plan in place since It is currently in force. c. Main components Research: risk assessment Recovery: medical exams after psychological and psychiatric evaluation and intervention Coordination and Cooperation: review and updating of most relevant laws, passing of new laws Reintegration The following laws relate to sexual exploitation: Act on Sexual Offenses, Chapter 154, 1992; Act on Child Protection, Chapter 146 A, 1990, and Act on Crimes against Individuals, Chapter 141, Institution: Child Care Board Person: Director of the Child Care Board 15

17 BELIZE TMM5 category 79 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 39 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 33 Total population (thousands) 256 Annual births (thousands) 6 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 0 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) Life expectancy at birth (years) 71 Adult literacy rate 93 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 96 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 113 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 33 Annual population growth rate (%) ,5 Gross mortality rate 5 Gross birth rate 27 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) - Belize responded to the Fourth and Fifth Reports (2003 and 2004 respectively). The country has no specific Action Plan against Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation but is now developing an Action Plan for children including child development policies. This plan provides for child protection within the framework of commercial sexual exploitation. c. Major actions against Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation The country has no services available for the treatment, recovery and reintegration of children victimized by commercial sexual exploitation. The law that prohibits Trafficking in Persons was passed on June As to judicial protection, Belize counts on a network of entities working on that area such as police, immigration, health area, education, NGOs. Judicial protection: the country has a protection system for children who are victims of sexual violence and victims of trafficking in persons for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Institution: Person: Special Envoy for Children, Gender & HIV/AIDS Dolores Balderamos García 16

18 BOLIVIA TMM5 category 65 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 66 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 53 Total population (thousands) 8808 Annual births (thousands) 255 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 17 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 890 Life expectancy at birth (years) 64 Adult literacy rate 85 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 92 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 3967 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 1194 Annual population growth rate (%) ,1 Gross mortality rate 8 Gross birth rate 29 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) 17 Birth registration (total) 82 Bolivia responded to all the reports on Sexual Exploitation (Second (2001), Third (2002), Fourth (2003), and Fifth (2004)). The country has an Action Plan in place that is being currently implemented by the government together with civil society. c. Main components Coordination and Cooperation (Juridical and Legal) Protection: inclusion in the Criminal Code of new offenses related to child trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, illegal adoptions and trade in organs. Prevention: health and education areas Recovery and Reintegration: Care Model, Coordination with Care Programs for Adolescents, Departmental Health Services. Research In 2004 the country was about to pass a law identifying Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation e. Contact Institution: Director General for Children and Adolescents, Assistant Minister for Youth, Children and the Elder Person: Carola Muñoz Vera, Director General for Children and Adolescents of Bolivia 17

19 BRAZIL TMM5 category 90 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 35 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 33 Total population (thousands) Annual births (thousands) 3502 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 123 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 2710 Life expectancy at birth (years) 68 Adult literacy rate 87 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 97 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old Population (thousands) less than 5 years old Annual population growth rate (%) ,4 Gross mortality rate 7 Gross birth rate 20 Life expectancy 68 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) 22 Birth registration (total) 76 Brazil responded to the Second and Fifth Reports (2004). The country has an Action Plan in place, coordinated by an Inter-Ministerial Committee c. Main components Coordination: establishment of a national committee for monitoring the Plan progress and proposing public policies In 2004 the relevant law was in process of amendment, although it was deemed that there was much to be improved on the issue of sexual exploitation Institution: a. Ministry of Justice (Coordination) b. Special Secretariat for Human Rights, Office of the President of the Republic Persons: a. Marina Oliveira y Leila Paiva b. Elizabeth Leitao

20 CANADA TMM5 category 162 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 6 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 5 Total population (thousands) Annual births (thousands) 319 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 2 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) Life expectancy at birth (years) 79 Adult literacy rate - Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 100 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 6942 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 1663 Annual population growth rate (%) ,0 Gross mortality rate 8 Gross birth rate 10 Life expectancy 79 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) - Canada responded to all the reports submitted up to date ((Second (2001), Third (2002), Fourth (2003), and Fifth (2004)). Canada continued implementing its Action Plan by means of an integrated strategy with the cooperation of provinces and civil society. c. Main components Regular meetings of the Federal Committee against Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation; Preparation of annual reports by the Federal Committee; Joint work with other federal agencies for the purpose of improving the regulatory framework on commercial sexual exploitation. The Refugee Act (IRPA) provides for the specific crime of trafficking in persons. A large number of offenses provided for in the Canadian Criminal Code mention trafficking in persons. The Canadian Minister of Federal Justice has stated that the government intents to maintain trafficking in personas as a crime in the Canadian Criminal Code. Judicial protection: the Criminal Code provides for the protection of children who are victims of sexual violence during trial. Institution: Division of Childhood and Adolescence Health Canada Person: Susanah Bush and Andrea Greig 19

21 COLOMBIA TMM5 category 115 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 21 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 18 Total population (thousands) Annual births (thousands) 973 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 20 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 1810 Life expectancy at birth (years) 72 Adult literacy rate 92 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 90 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 4737 Annual population growth rate (%) ,8 Gross mortality rate 5 Gross birth rate 22 Life expectancy 72 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) 18 Birth registration (total) 91 Colombia responded to the Second, Fourth and Fifth Reports (2001, 2003 and 2004 respectively). The country has an Action Plan that was promoted in December 2003 and is currently in force in coordination with departmental and local law enforcement agencies. c. Main components Prevention: design and execution of programs aimed to resolve risk situations leading to the utilization of children in works affecting their life, health, safety, intimacy and freedom Recovery and Reintegration: child social inclusion in the education, health, recreation, justice and protection systems Protection: programs for qualifying youth labor. Offenses provided for in the Criminal Code: crimes against Sexual Freedom, Integrity and Education; rape; sexual abuse. Relevant laws: 51 (1981); 527 (1999); 679 (2001); 747 (2002); 800 (2003). Judicial Protection: protection is provided for children who are victims of sexual violence, trade or trafficking for sexual exploitation purposes. Institution: Technical Secretariat of the Inter-institutional Committee reporting to the Ministry for Social Protection and the Colombian Institute for Family Welfare. Person: Bernardo Romero 20

22 COSTA RICA TMM5 category 149 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 10 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 8 Total population (thousands) 4173 Annual births (thousands) 78 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 1 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 4280 Life expectancy at birth (years) 78 Adult literacy rate 96 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 91 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 1501 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 393 Annual population growth rate (%) ,3 Gross mortality rate 4 Gross birth rate 19 Life expectancy 78 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) - Costa Rica responded to the Second, Third and Fifth Reports (2001, 2002 and 2004 respectively). The country has an Action Plan in place that is currently in force. The National Committee against Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation (CONACOES) has been operating since 2000 as a Special Working Committee of the National Child Council. c. Main components Promotion and Prevention Care for victims and their families Juridical: legal reforms, repression, international projection, monitoring and evaluation. Law No against the Sexual Exploitation of Persons under Age has been in force since Judicial Protection: children should be treated as victims of whoever benefits, either directly or indirectly, from their commercial sexual exploitation and from those who tolerate such situation. Through its Office for Victim Care at the Department of Social Work and Psychology, the Judiciary provides for care on the corresponding disciplines to persons under age involved in legal proceedings underway or still unresolved. e. Contact Institution: Ministry for Children Person: Executive Chair of the National Child Patronage (PANI), Rosalía Gil Fernández 21

23 CHILE TMM5 category 150 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 9 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 8 Total population (thousands) Annual births (thousands) 284 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 3 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 4390 Life expectancy at birth (years) 76 Adult literacy rate 96 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 89 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 5163 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 1419 Annual population growth rate (%) Gross mortality rate 6 Gross birth rate 18 Life expectancy 76 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) - Chile responded to the Third, Fourth and Fifth Reports (2002, 2003 and 2004 respectively). Chile has an operational Action Plan in place. In 1999, representatives of the Judiciary, various Ministries and related Services, Municipalities, Universities, the Police Force, the Research Department, and Non Governmental Organizations, prepared an Action Framework against child commercial sexual exploitation. c. Main components Research: Social, Juridical, Criminal. Prevention: secondary, tertiary. Protection (Coordination and Cooperation: reform of Social Policies and regulatory reforms. Executive Act No. 225 on the ratification of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child regarding Child Trade, Child Prostitution and the Use of Children in Pornography (8/08/03). Amendments to the Criminal Code, the Criminal Procedural Code, and the Code of Criminal Proceedings on Sexual Offenses (01/2004). Institution: Ministry of Justice and SENAME. Person: Loreto Ditzel Lacoa, Head of the Department for the Protection of Rights (SENAME). 22

24 DOMINICA TMM5 category 138 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 14 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 12 Total population (thousands) 79 Annual births (thousands) 2 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 0 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 3360 Life expectancy at birth (years) - Adult literacy rate - Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 91 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 27 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 7 Annual population growth rate (%) ,7 Gross mortality rate - Gross birth rate - Life expectancy - Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) - Dominica responded to the Fourth and Sixth Reports (2003 and 2005 respectively). This country has no Action Plan in place. c. Major actions against Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation There is a legal protection in place, although judicial protection for children is not considered to be friendly enough. The importance of incorporating a family court is now under consideration. Child recovery and reintegration are deemed to be effective. The Government of Dominica and the National House for Children (British organization) conduct mutual efforts for providing assistance to children at risk. Act No. 1 on Sexual Offenses, Dominica has not faced yet any cases of child trade and trafficking. The Child Act, Chapter (revised in 1990) and Law No. 2 of 2001 on the Protection against Home Violence also relate to child protection. Institution: Permanent Mission of Dominica to the OAS. Person: Judith-Anne Rolle 23

25 ECUADOR TMM5 category 102 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 27 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 24 Total population (thousands) Annual births (thousands) 295 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 8 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 1790 Life expectancy at birth (years) 71 Adult literacy rate 92 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 90 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 5061 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 1422 Annual population growth rate (%) ,8 Gross mortality rate 6 Gross birth rate 23 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) 21 Birth registration (total) - Ecuador responded to the Fourth and Fifth Reports (2003 and 2004 respectively). The country has an Action Plan in place that is currently in force. c. Main components Prevention Protection Coordination and cooperation a. Legislative reform Plan objectives: To propose and promote legal reforms involving the standardization of current provisions and the enforcement of new juridical principles in the criminal area for the purpose of identifying child sexual exploitation as a crime, and consequently adopting more severe penalties and sanctions. Judicial Protection: protection for children victims of sexual violence is provided for. Institution: CONAMU. Person: Silvia Amores Osorio (responsible for the Area of Violence). 24

26 EL SALVADOR TMM5 category 88 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 36 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 32 Total population (thousands) 6515 Annual births (thousands) 161 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 6 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 2200 Life expectancy at birth (years) 71 Adult literacy rate 79 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 89 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 2655 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 789 Annual population growth rate (%) ,9 Gross mortality rate 6 Gross birth rate 25 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) 32 Birth registration (total) - El Salvador responded to all IIN surveys: 2001, 2002, 2003 and The country has an Action Plan in place that is currently in force. c. Main components Coordination and Cooperation Protection Prevention Since the Convention on the Rights of the Child entered into force in El Salvador in the early 90s, its domestic regulatory framework was revised in order to include a paragraph Other Offenses against Sexual Freedom in chapter III in the Penal Code. In 2003 the above chapter was revised again. In 2004 the Legislative Assembly also considered a special law to prevent and punish sexual exploitation. Judicial Protection: the country has no mechanisms available for in-trial protection of children victims of sexual violence, and trade or trafficking in persons. Institutions: For IPEC/OIT Projects: Ministry of Labor and Social Security For Legal Actions: Office of the Attorney General Office of the Republic For Protection Actions: Salvadoran Institute for Chile Integral Development - ISNA. Person: Silvia Amores Osorio 25

27 UNITED STATES TMM5 category 157 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 8 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 7 Total population (thousands) Annual births (thousands) 4262 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 34 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) Life expectancy at birth (years) 77 Adult literacy rate - Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 93 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old Population (thousands) less than 5 years old Annual population growth rate (%) ,1 Gross mortality rate 8 Gross birth rate 15 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) - United States responded to all the Reports: Second (2001), Third (2002), Fourth (2003), and Fifth (2004). This country has an Action Plan in place that is currently in force. c. Main components Prevention: Office of Juvenile Justice and Crime Prevention Research Recovery and Reintegration Protection Protection Act passed on 30/04/03 Judicial Protection: protection is provided for children victims of sexual violence, as well as trade or trafficking for sexual exploitation purposes. e. Responsible person - institution Institution: Office of Juvenile Justice and Crime Prevention, Justice Program Office, Department of Justice of the United States Person: J. Robert Flores 26

28 GRENADA TMM5 category 110 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 23 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 18 Total population (thousands) 80 Annual births (thousands) 2 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 0 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 3790 Life expectancy at birth (years) - Adult literacy rate - Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 84 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 27 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 7 Annual population growth rate (%) ,5 Gross mortality rate - Gross birth rate - Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) - Grenada responded to the Fourth and Fifth Reports (2003 and 2004 respectively). Grenada has no Action Plan in place c. Major actions against Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation Protection: there is a law in force for child protection as well as an Institution for Child Welfare. Recovery and Reintegration: the government has implemented the operation of Child Care Homes. The regulatory framework in place is deemed to be appropriate. e. Contact Institution: Ministry of Housing, Social Services, Culture and Cooperatives. Person: Sra. Dawne Cyrus 27

29 GUATEMALA TMM5 category 74 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 47 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 35 Total population (thousands) Annual births (thousands) 419 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 20 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 1910 Life expectancy at birth (years) 66 Adult literacy rate 69 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 78 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 6116 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 1935 Annual population growth rate (%) ,6 Gross mortality rate 7 Gross birth rate 34 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) 26 Birth registration (total) - Guatemala responded to the Second, Fourth and Fifth Reports (2001, 2003 and 2004 respectively). The country has an Action Plan in place since 1996 but its final implementation only dates back to It is currently in force. c. Main components Research Prevention Protection Recovery and Reintegration Approval and enactment of the Law on Child Integral Protection (2003) Judicial Protection: the Law on Child Integral Protection provides for protection mechanisms for children whose rights have been threatened or violated. e. Contact Institution: Secretariat for Social Welfare, Office of the President of the Republic Person: Head of the Institution; there is also a technician available for its operation and coordination with other institutions. 28

30 GUYANA TMM5 category 62 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 69 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 52 Total population (thousands) 765 Annual births (thousands) 16 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 1 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 900 Life expectancy at birth (years) 63 Adult literacy rate 99 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 87 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 271 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 79 Annual population growth rate (%) ,4 Gross mortality rate 9 Gross birth rate 22 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) 97 Guyana responded to the Second, Third and Fifth Reports (2001, 2002 and 2004 respectively). Guyana has an Action Plan in place that is currently in force. c. Main components Protection Prevention In accordance with the regulatory framework in Guyana a person may be criminally indicted for any actions related to sexual exploitation, child pornography and child trafficking of any kind. Institution: Ministry of Labor, Human Services and Social Security Person: Ministry of Labor, Human Services and Social Security 29

31 HAITI TMM5 category 39 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 118 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 76 Total population (thousands) 8326 Annual births (thousands) 251 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 30 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 380 Life expectancy at birth (years) 50 Adult literacy rate 50 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 54 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 3853 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 1127 Annual population growth rate (%) ,4 Gross mortality rate 15 Gross birth rate 30 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) 70 Haiti responded to the Sixth Report (2005). The country has no Action Plan in place. The participation of the Inter-American Children s Institute has been requested for drafting an effective Action Plan. c. Major actions against Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation No available data. No available data. Institution: Directorate for Social Defense General Directorate of the Institute for Social Welfare and Research (IBESR) Person: Leonel Cadet, Director General. 30

32 HONDURAS TMM5 category 76 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 41 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 32 Total population (thousands) 6941 Annual births (thousands) 205 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 8 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 970 Life expectancy at birth (years) 69 Adult literacy rate 75 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 87 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 3263 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 980 Annual population growth rate (%) ,7 Gross mortality rate 6 Gross birth rate 30 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) - Honduras responded to the Second, Third and Fourth Reports (2001, 2002 and 2003 respectively). The country has an Action Plan in place. There is also an inter-institutional committee formed by Casa Alianza, the office of the Attorney General, the Commissioner for Human Rights, INHFA, the National Congress Committee for the Family, and other NGOs. The Plan is currently in force. c. Main components Protection: a proposal has been tables for the reform of the criminal code and the enforcement of sanctions on sexual exploitation offenses. Recovery and reintegration: child care school together with a follow-up and support program. A proposal for the amendment of the criminal code was submitted to the National Council in Judicial Protection: the protection of children victims of sexual violence, and trade or trafficking in persons for sexual exploitation purposes is provided for. Institutions: Child and Family Institute of Honduras (IHNFA) Person: Lolis María Salas Montes 31

33 JAMAICA TMM5 category 120 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 20 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 17 Total population (thousands) 2651 Annual births (thousands) 54 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 1 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 2760 Life expectancy at birth (years) 76 Adult literacy rate 87 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 79 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 967 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 263 Annual population growth rate (%) ,9 Gross mortality rate 6 Gross birth rate 20 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) 96 Jamaica responded to the Second Report (2001). Due to the absence of official information, all related date have been compiled in Web pages. In 2001, according to that year s Report (Second Report on Child commercial sexual Exploitation), the country had not Action Plan in place. The government has adopted a National Program for Children under Specially Difficult Circumstances and has also established a Specialized Committee on Child Abuse. The Jamaican Planning Institute is currently managing Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation as one more item in the larger agenda of the Coordination Committee on Child Labor. In such sense, a task force was established within the local Ministry of Youth and Community Development. As per ECPAT sources, Jamaica has no an specific Action Plan against Child commercial sexual Exploitation but it counts on a five-year Child Development Plan, although the information available does not allow for determining whether such Plan includes provisions on commercial sexual Exploitation. Source: c. Major actions against Child commercial sexual exploitation Protection: sources: gvnet.com/humantrafficking/jamaica-2.htm:, Prevention: UNICEF has implemented campaigns for raising awareness on the issue of commercial sexual exploitation. Source: Recovery and Reintegration: Red Cross and Children First work on recovery and rehabilitation programs. Source: During 2003 there have been some weak attempts to enact laws on trafficking. The current strategy for the enforcement of government provisions against child trafficking is based on the new Law for Child Protection and Care. Source: b. Contacts No available data up to the date of this Report. 32

34 MEXICO TMM5 category 99 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 28 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 23 Total population (thousands) Annual births (thousands) 2294 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 64 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 6230 Life expectancy at birth (years) 74 Adult literacy rate 91 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 99 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old Population (thousands) less than 5 years old Annual population growth rate (%) ,7 Gross mortality rate 5 Gross birth rate 22 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) 31 Birth registration (total) - Mexico responded to the Second, Third and Fifth Reports (2001, 2002 and 2004 respectively). The country has an Action Plan in place against Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation, which is currently in force. c. Main components Action coordination Promotion of preventive programs Promotion of integral care strategies Strengthening of juridical protection Development of Research Mexico ratified the Optional Protocol on Child Trade, Child Prostitution and the Use of Children in Pornography. The Law for Child Protection contains several provisions with federal scope to provide prevention and protection services to children who are victims of any kind of exploitation. Institution: National System for Family Integral Development (SNDIF) Person: Ana Teresa Aranda Orozco, National Director 33

35 NICARAGUA TMM5 category 85 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 38 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 30 Total population (thousands) 5466 Annual births (thousands) 170 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 6 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 730 Life expectancy at birth (years) 70 Adult literacy rate 64 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 77 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 2644 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 814 Annual population growth rate (%) ,7 Gross mortality rate 5 Gross birth rate 31 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) 36 Birth registration (total) - Nicaragua responded to the Second, Fourth and Fifth Reports (2001, 2003 and 2004 respectively). Nicaragua has an Action Plan in place ( ). Its implementation was scheduled in c. Main components Prevention, Protection, Recovery and Reintegration In 2001 amendments to the Criminal Code Bill were submitted for the purpose of matching the Child Code with sanctions regarding offenses against children, the identification of new child sexual exploitation crimes, as well as significant provisions regarding the principle of Universality, Urgent Protection Measures for Victims of Family Violence, Prescription of Criminal Actions, and the Chapter on Injuries, specifically related to Domestic or Family Violence. Judicial Protection: protection to children victims of sexual exploitation and trade or trafficking for purposes of sexual exploitation. Institutions: Executive Secretariat of CONAPINA, where a Specialized Committee will be created for coordinating the implementation of the Plan at the national and local level. Person: Amalia Frech de Aleman 34

36 PANAMA TMM5 category 106 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 24 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 18 Total population (thousands) 3120 Annual births (thousands) 70 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 2 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 4250 Life expectancy at birth (years) 75 Adult literacy rate 92 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 99 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 1143 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 339 Annual population growth rate (%) Gross mortality rate 5 Gross birth rate 23 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) Birth registration (total) Panama responded to the Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Reports (2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004 respectively). The country has an Action Plan in place that is currently in force. c. Main components Prevention and Training Research and Diagnose Mobilization and Awareness Juridical-legal Protection, Recovery and Reintegration Drafting of a Bill reforming and adding articles into the Criminal Law, particularly on crimes against sexual integrity and freedom Judicial Protection: protection to children victims of sexual violence as well as trade or trafficking for sexual exploitation purposes. e. Contact Institution: Management and Coordination Unit created by Executive Act No. 91 of December 6, 2002 composed of representatives of governmental and non governmental agencies. Person: no available data at this time due to changes in government. 35

37 PARAGUAY TMM5 category 98 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 29 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 25 Total population (thousands) 5878 Annual births (thousands) 173 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 5 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 1100 Life expectancy at birth (years) 71 Adult literacy rate 93 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 92 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 2653 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 803 Annual population growth rate (%) ,6 Gross mortality rate 5 Gross birth rate 30 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) 18 Birth registration (total) - Paraguay responded to the Fourth and Fifth Reports (2003 and 2004 respectively). Up to December 2003, the major developments have consisted of the adoption by the National Child Council of the National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Sexual Exploitation c. Main components Diagnose; Awareness and Training; Institutional Coordination; Juridical and Regulatory Aspects; Care; Prevention; Monitoring; Evaluation. Child sexual exploitation is a criminal offense as provided for in the Criminal Code of the Republic of Paraguay (Law 1169/97). Articles in the Paraguayan Criminal Code regarding child sexual exploitation: Article 135: child sexual abuse; Article 136: sexual abuse of persons under guardianship; Article 137: child rape; Article 129: trade in persons; Article 223: child trafficking; Article 138: sexual procurement; Article 140: pimping; Article 143: actions against individual intimacy. Institution: Child National Secretariat (SNNA) and Inter-institutional Committee for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Sexual Exploitation. Person: Rocío Frutos SNNA Vice Minister 36

38 PERU TMM5 category 93 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 34 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 26 Total population (thousands) Annual births (thousands) 624 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 21 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 2150 Life expectancy at birth (years) 70 Adult literacy rate 90 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 93 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 3030 Annual population growth rate (%) ,7 Gross mortality rate 6 Gross birth rate 23 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) 12 Birth registration (total) - Peru responded to the Second and Fifth Reports (2001 and 2004 respectively). The country has no Action Plan yet. Nevertheless, in mid 2003 the Ministry for Women and Social Development (MIMDES) through its General Directorate for Children (DIGNNA) established a coordination with the ECPAT International organization. c. Major actions against Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation The National Plan of Action for Children sets forth the reduction of child sexual exploitation as one of its expected results. Strategic Actions: Prevention, repression and/or rehabilitation of whoever has been related to or affected by child prostitution and pornography, as well as by child trafficking for sexual exploitation purposes Protection: diffusion and drafting of legal provisions punishing the above mentioned crimes Coordination with providers of tourist services and dissemination of means for the protection of children against sexual exploitation in tourism In 2004 the Ministry for Women and Social Development submitted a consolidated Bill for the amendment of several articles in the Criminal Code for the purpose of a more severe punishment of Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation. Judicial Protection: protection of children victims of sexual exploitation as well as trade or trafficking for sexual exploitation purposes is not provided for. Institution: Ministry for Women and Social Development, General Directorate for Children Person: no available data at this time due to changes in the MIMDES authorities. 37

39 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC TMM5 category 90 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 35 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 29 Total population (thousands) 8745 Annual births (thousands) 203 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 7 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 2070 Life expectancy at birth (years) 67 Adult literacy rate 84 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 83 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 3358 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 954 Annual population growth rate (%) ,6 Gross mortality rate 7 Gross birth rate 23 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) 37 Birth registration (total) 75 The Dominican Republic responded to the Second, Third and Fifth Reports (2001, 2002 and 2004 respectively). This country has an Action Plan in place that is currently in force. c. Main components Coordination and Cooperation; Prevention; Recovery; Reintegration; Protection; Child Participation; Monitoring and Evaluation Law or Code for a Protection System and the Basic Rights of Children (01/2004) with an integral nature The new Child Code identifies Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation as a crime. Institution: Inter-institutional Committee against Child Abuse and Commercial Sexual Exploitation, jointly chaired by the Secretary of State for Labor and the National Child Council (CONANI). Person: no available data at this time due to changes in government. 38

40 SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS TMM5 category 113 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 22 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 19 Total population (thousands) 42 Annual births (thousands) 1 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 0 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 6880 Life expectancy at birth (years) - Adult literacy rate - Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 96 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 14 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 4 Annual population growth rate (%) ,2 Gross mortality rate - Gross birth rate - Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) - Saint Kitts and Nevis responded to the Fourth Report (2003). The information that follows is made up of data taken from such Report as the Internet search aimed to enlarge it did not provide for relevant information. The country has no Action Plan in place. However, it does count on a child protection department that cover all issues related to child protection. Child sexual exploitation is deemed to be almost non existent in the country (2003). The country has not developed an Action Plan on Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation. Source: c. Major actions against Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation Prevention: public awareness campaigns (2003) Protection: Education Law; intensive training of police officers, legal counsels and guardians of children victims of sexual offenses, abuse and domestic violence. Source: The country has provisions for the protection of children at risk, as well as for the protection children victims of sexual abuse or exploitation. There is no specific regulatory framework on commercial sexual exploitation. The relevant criminal provisions were partially updated in 1998 (2003). Institution: Ministry of Social Development, Community and Gender Affairs Person: no available data at this time 39

41 SAINT LUCIA TMM5 category 127 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 18 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 16 Total population (thousands) 149 Annual births (thousands) 3 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 0 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 4050 Life expectancy at birth (years) 73 Adult literacy rate - Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 99 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 54 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 14 Annual population growth rate (%) Gross mortality rate 6 Gross birth rate 21 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) - Saint Lucia responded to the Sixth Report (2005). The country has no Action Plan in place. c. Major actions against Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation Protection: it is provided by the Division of Human Services and Family Affairs Coordination Recovery and Reintegration: there are no child intermediate transit facilities available Research: no information available on relevant Researchs The regulatory framework is deemed to be appropriate for punishing and indicting individuals related to sexual exploitation, child pornography and child trafficking for sexual exploitation purposes: Section 225 (1) in the Criminal Code; Sub-section (2); Sub-section (4); Section 226 (1). Amendments have been also introduced into the Criminal Code and child-related provisions are in process of revision. Institution: Ministry of Health, Human Services and Family Affairs Person: Clementia Eugene, Director 40

42 SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES TMM5 category 102 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 27 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 23 Total population (thousands) 120 Annual births (thousands) 2 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 0 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 3300 Life expectancy at birth (years) 74 Adult literacy rate - Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 92 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 45 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 12 Annual population growth rate (%) ,7 Gross mortality rate 6 Gross birth rate 20 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) - Saint Vincent and The Grenadines responded to the Fifth Report (2004). The country has Action Plan in place. c. Major actions against Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation No available data. The country has not an appropriate regulatory framework for punishing and indicting individuals related to sexual exploitation, child pornography and child trafficking for sexual exploitation purposes. Judicial Protection: the implementation of protection measures for children victims of sexual violence, as well as child trade or trafficking for sexual exploitation purposes is underway. Institution: Ministry of Health Person: Ms. Anneke Wilson 41

43 SURINAME TMM5 category 79 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 39 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 30 Total population (thousands) 436 Annual births (thousands) 9 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 0 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 1940 Life expectancy at birth (years) 71 Adult literacy rate 94 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 89 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 162 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 47 Annual population growth rate (%) ,6 Gross mortality rate 6 Gross birth rate 21 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) 95 Suriname responded to the Fourth and Fifth Reports (2003 and 2004 respectively). The country has no Action Plan in place. However, the government assigns a top priority to this issue and consequently supports the action of an NGO and other private institutions to develop all related services. c. Major actions against Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation No available data. Suriname has no regulatory framework for the indictment of criminals related to sexual exploitation, child pornography and child trafficking for sexual exploitation purposes. Judicial Protection: the country does not provide for the protection of children victims of sexual violence, as well as child trade or trafficking for sexual exploitation purposes. Institution: Bureau on Child Rights - Ministry of Social Affairs Person: Mrs. Sandhya Soekhoe 42

44 TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO TMM5 category 120 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 20 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 17 Total population (thousands) 1303 Annual births (thousands) 17 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 0 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 7260 Life expectancy at birth (years) 71 Adult literacy rate 98 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 95 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 374 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 86 Annual population growth rate (%) ,5 Gross mortality rate 7 Gross birth rate 14 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) 37 Birth registration (total) 95 Trinidad and Tobago did not respond to any Report. The information used results from the Report on Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation, Illicit Trafficking and Trade in the Hemisphere and Relevant Regulatory Frameworks in Force, IIN, A draft Action Plan was prepared in However, its implementation and development were restricted for several reasons. c. Main components Research: in 2003 child sexual tourism was identified as an increasing problem and the need for further research was determined. Although there is no specific regulatory framework accounting for illegal trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, the Law on Sexual Crimes identifies as crimes some actions that are likely to be related to some stages in the process of trafficking in persons. Institution: Ministry of Social Development Person: Coordinator of the National Action Committee, Ministry of Social Development, Independence Square, Port of Spain. Phones: 1(868) Ext

45 URUGUAY TMM5 category 138 Mortality rate for children less than five years old 14 Mortality rate for children less than one year old 12 Total population (thousands) 3415 Annual births (thousands) 57 Annual deaths (<5 years) (thousands) 1 GNI per capita (U.S. dollars) 3820 Life expectancy at birth (years) 75 Adult literacy rate 98 Primary education net enrollment/attendance rates (%) 90 Population (thousands) less than 18 years old 993 Population (thousands) less than 5 years old 283 Annual population growth rate (%) ,7 Gross mortality rate 9 Gross birth rate 17 Child labor (5-14 years) Early marriage * (total) - Birth registration (total) - Uruguay responded to the Second, Fourth and Fifth Reports (2001, 2003 and 2004 respectively). The information contained in previous reports stated that the country had an Action Plan in place. Later on, the national authorities reported that such Plan was not in force and is actually subject to the ratification of the newly created National Committee for the Prevention and Eradication of Sexual Exploitation (CONAPES). c. Main components Prevention Program for Intervention and Protection in Crisis situations Recovery and Reintegration Participation There is no adequate regulatory framework in place for the eradication of this problem. Laws are not oriented to a severe punishment of sexual exploitation and such crimes may be not subject to imprisonment. The recently passed Law Nº of September 2004 identifies criminal offenses regarding commercial or non commercial sexual violence against children or incapable adults. It also provides for newly defined crimes and more severe sanctions. Institution: National Committee for the Prevention and Eradication of Sexual Exploitation (CONAPES) reporting to the Uruguayan Child Institute (INAU) Person: no available data due to changes in government. 44

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