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2 China in Latin America: Public Impressions and Policy Implications Elizabeth J. Zechmeister, Associate Director of LAPOP & Associate Professor of Political Science, Vanderbilt University Mitchell A. Seligson, Founder and Director of LAPOP Centennial Professor of Political Science, Vanderbilt University Dinorah Azpuru, Wichita State University Kang Liu, Duke University and Shanghai Jiaotong University, China
3 LAPOP and the AmericasBarometer
4 Sponsors of the AmericasBarometer The
5 LAPOP Central at Vanderbilt Unites a Consortium of Partners across the Americas
6 The AmericasBarometer : 178,864 Interviews 2012: 26 countries 41,632 interviews (min. 1,500/country, with margins of error +/- 2.5%)
7 Free Reports and Data Available Online Regional and Country Reports Datasets and Data Analysis World-wide free access made possible by support from the
9 And, remote rural regions. Bolivia: Dispersed rural area
10 The only regional survey using handheld computers, with software developed by academic partners in Costa Rica and Bolivia: Reduces data entry errors Allows for multiple languages Easily customized Permits embedded experiments Pretesting in Guyana
11 Each Survey Round is Preceded by Extensive Training and Pre-testing (1,116 versions for 2012) Pretesting in Honduras Pretesting in Costa Rica Pretesting in Mexico Training in Nicaragua Training in Dominican Republic
12 The Importance of Extensive, In-Person Pretesting Now we are going to talk about your views with respect to some countries. When we talk about China in this interview, we are talking about mainland China, the People s Republic of China, and not the island of Taiwan.
13 Some People Do Not Have Opinions about Difficult Foreign Affairs Questions Which of the following countries has the most influence in Latin America/the Caribbean? Percent Other 60.4% China 20.1% Don t Know/Didn t Respond 19.5%
14 Wealthier, More Educated, and Male Citizens Respond More to Difficult Foreign Affairs Questions Caribbean F= N =17336 Central America/Mexico Wealth Education 95% Confidence Interval Standardized Regression Coefficient Age Female + Decreases Response Rate Increases Response Rate Urban % C.I. (Design-Effects Based) Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP, 2012; dv=response=1, nr=0 (.a,.b) on for1; v47
15 Citizen Views on China in the Americas Elizabeth J. Zechmeister, Associate Director of LAPOP & Associate Professor of Political Science, Vanderbilt University Mitchell A. Seligson, Founder and Director of LAPOP Centennial Professor of Political Science, Vanderbilt University
16 What Do Citizens of the Americas Think of China s Influence in their Region? KEY POINTS: 20% view China as the most influential country 23% believe China will soon be the most influential Country average evaluations of China in the region range from neutral to positive
17 Costa Rica Venezuela Guyana Panama Belize Ecuador Jamaica Peru Mexico 39.8% 36.7% 32.9% 32.8% 29.6% 25.5% 24.4% 24.0% 23.7% On average, one out of five (20%) of citizens in the Latin American and Caribbean region believes CHINA is the most the most influential country in the region. Brazil Chile Bolivia Argentina Paraguay Uruguay Trinidad & Tobago El Salvador Haiti Guatemala 19.7% 17.0% 16.4% 16.3% 15.6% 14.6% 14.4% 11.9% 10.9% 10.6% FOR1. Which of the following countries has the most influence in Latin America/the Caribbean? Dom. Rep. Colombia Nicaragua 10.4% 10.3% 9.9% China Has Most Influence in Region 95% Confidence Interval (Design-Effects Based) Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP, 2012; v47; 19% NR included in denominator (a) China; (b) Japan; (c) India; (d) U.S.; (e) Brazil; (f) Venezuela; (g) Mexico; (h) Spain; (i) Other/DK
18 Costa Rica 49.5% Jamaica Guyana Venezuela Panama Trinidad & Tobago Belize Mexico Ecuador Uruguay 32.7% 31.0% 27.3% 26.3% 25.8% 24.6% 24.5% 38.6% 46.9% On average, nearly one quarter (23%) of citizens in the Latin American and Caribbean region believe China will soon be most the most influential country in the region. Peru 24.4% Chile 21.4% Bolivia 20.3% Brazil Argentina Colombia Dom. Rep. Nicaragua Paraguay Guatemala El Salvador Haiti 11.4% 10.3% 14.7% 13.0% 12.1% 17.6% 16.7% 16.3% 19.5% China Will Have Most Influence 95% Confidence Interval (Design-Effects Based) Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP, 2012; v47; for4, recoded with 24% NR in denominator FOR4. And within 10 years, in your opinion, which of the following countries will have most influence in Latin America/the Caribbean?* (a) China; (b) Japan; (c) India; (d) U.S.; (e) Brazil; (f) Venezuela; (g) Mexico; (h) Spain; (i) Other/DK *NR = 24%
19 Venezuela Costa Rica Jamaica Panama Nicaragua Guyana Trinidad & Tobago Paraguay Belize Haiti Dom. Rep. Peru Guatemala Brazil El Salvador Chile Colombia Ecuador Bolivia Uruguay Argentina Mexico Average evaluations of China s influence in the region range from neutral to positive. FOR2/FOR3. And thinking of [China] and the influence it has in Latin America/the Caribbean, do you think that this influence is very positive, positive, negative or very negative? Questions answered on a 1-5 scale converted here to 0-100, where higher values are more positive Evaluation of China's Influence 95% Confidence Interval (Design-Effects Based) Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP, 2012; v47; reversed for2/for3, "no influence" and NR excluded. Excludes 2% who respond no influence and, as well, nonrespondents.
20 Yet, Brazil s and Japan s Influence in the Region is Viewed Somewhat Positively Than China s* Mean Evaluation of Country's Influence, Regional Average Brazil Japan China FOR2. And thinking of [Country] and the influence it has in Latin America/the Caribbean, do you think that this influence is very positive, positive, negative or very negative? Variable is scaled from 0 to 100, where higher values reflect more favorable mean evaluations. * Data reflect responses given only by those indicating that country as the most important regional influence. Excludes no influence and NR respondents.
21 What Do Citizens of the Americas Think of China s Influence in their Country? KEY POINTS: On average, China is seen as having some influence within respondents countries Yet, these perceptions vary significantly On average, relations with China are perceived to be growing closer Country average evaluations of China in the region range from neutral to positive Yet,, these perceptions vary significantly
22 Venezuela Costa Rica Jamaica Panama Guyana Mexico Dom. Rep. Uruguay Trinidad & Tobago Paraguay Belize Nicaragua Peru Argentina Ecuador Chile El Salvador Brazil Colombia Guatemala Bolivia Haiti Considering their country, on average individuals in Latin America and the Caribbean perceive China as having SOME influence. FOR6. And thinking now only of our country, how much influence do you think that China has in our country? Coded here so that 0=None; 33=A Little; 66=Some; 100= A Lot Approximately 16% do not respond Influence of China in our country 95% Confidence Interval (Design-Effects Based) Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP Regional average = 66.
23 On Average, Citizens in the Latin American and Caribbean Region Perceive Relations between their Country and China to be Growing Closer Trend With China 22.3 Trend With The United States 14.4 Closer Trend With Russia More Distant Trend With Iran Trend With Israel % Confidence Interval (Design-Effect Based) Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP Now I would like to ask you about the relations in general of our country with other nations around the world. When you think of our country s relationship with [country], would you say that in the last 5 years our relationship has become closer, more distant, or has it remained about the same, or do you not have an opinion? Question answered on a 1-3 scale from More distant to Closer ; converted here to -50 to 50.
24 Considering their Country, on Average Citizens in the Latin American and Caribbean Region Have Positive Evaluations of China s Influence No influence 1% (Very) negative 12.5% Neutral 23% FOR7. In general, the influence that China has on our country is very positive, positive, neither positive nor negative, negative, very negative? (Very) positive 63% Coded so that Very positive and positive, Very negative and negative are combined. Excludes NR=4.5% Perceptions of China's Influence in the Country Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP; v47; for7; not including NR
25 Jamaica Haiti Venezuela Costa Rica Dom. Rep. Paraguay Nicaragua Panama Trinidad & Tobago Guyana El Salvador Peru Belize But, there is important variation across countries and regions. Brazil Colombia Guatemala Chile Ecuador Bolivia Argentina Uruguay Mexico Evaluation of China's Influence in R's Country 95% Confidence Interval (Design-Effects Based) Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP; v47; "no influence" and NR not included. FOR7. In general, the influence that China has on our country is very positive, positive, neither positive nor negative, negative, very negative? Question answered on a 1-5 scale from Very positive to Very negative, converted here to The chart shows means (not percentages) where higher values indicate a more positive influence.
26 Jamaica Nicaragua Dom. Rep. Trinidad & Tobago Paraguay Venezuela Costa Rica Belize Guyana El Salvador Haiti Chile Panama Peru Average evaluations of the influence of Chinese business on development are also moderately positive. These evaluations also vary by country. Guatemala Colombia Brazil Ecuador Uruguay Argentina Mexico Chinese business contributes to the economic development of the country 95% Confidence Interval (Design-Effects Based) Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP FOR8. How much do you agree with the following statement: Chinese business contributes to the economic development of [country]? Question answered on a 1-5 scale from Strongly agree to Strongly disagree, converted here to The chart shows means (not percentages) where higher values indicate greater agreeableness.
27 Costa Rica Jamaica Venezuela Guyana Ecuador Mexico Brazil 18.0% 17.9% 17.2% 24.5% 24.3% 34.8% 32.7% Considering their own country, only 16%, on average, select China as the model for development. Peru 16.7% Colombia 16.6% Trinidad & Tobago Panama Chile Bolivia Belize Dom. Rep. Nicaragua 16.2% 16.0% 15.3% 13.1% 12.3% 12.2% 12.0% FOR5. In your opinion, which of the following countries ought to be a model for the future development of our country? Uruguay Paraguay Haiti Guatemala El Salvador Argentina 8.5% 8.1% 11.1% 10.8% 10.5% 10.4% China Ought to be Model for Future Development 95% Confidence Interval (Design-Effects Based) Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP, 2012; v47; for5 recoded with 19% NR in denominator. (a) China; (b) Japan; (c) India; (d) U.S.; (e) Brazil; (f) Venezuela; (g) Mexico*; (h) Spain; (i) Other/DK *Customized so that in these three countries, r s own country was not mentioned.
28 Citizens Attitudes Toward Global Powers in Comparative Perspective Dinorah Azpuru, Ph.D., Wichita State University Member of the Scientific Support Team at LAPOP
29 Comparing the perception of influence Which country has the most influence in Latin America and the Caribbean? Other Countries or No Answer 38.9% China 20.3% United States 40.8% Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP www. LapopSurveys.org
30 The U.S. is perceived as having more influence but mostly in the non-alba countries.
31 Assessing the type of influence (average results across all 24 AmericasBarometer countries) China United States Figure shows results for respondents whose first choice in FOR1 was either China or the U.S. FOR2. And thinking of ( )_ and the influence it has in Latin America/the Caribbean, do you think that this influence is very positive, positive, negative or very negative? Positive influence: 68.2% China vs. 62.2% United States.
32 Assessing the type of influence (only ALBA countries) China United States Positive influence: 67.6% China vs. 54.3% United States.
33 Future influence? (average results across all 24 AmericasBarometer countries) Within 10 years which country will have the most influence? China 23.8% Other Countries or No Answer 46.0% United States 30.2% Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP
34 Role models for development? (average results across all 24 AmericasBarometer countries) Country Percentage Japan 12.4% Brazil 7.0 % Venezuela 2.1 % Mexico 1.7 % Singapore 1.4 % Russia 0.8 % India 0.7 % South Korea 0.6 % Our own model 9.4 % Other 1.8 % No answer 18.3 %
35 Role models in ALBA countries: Venezuela is the only country in which China surpasses the U.S. www. LapopSurveys.org
36 Trust in China and in the United States (percentage who think the government of that country is very or somewhat trustworthy) Panama 58.7% Guyana 80.1% Guyana 51.6% Haiti 71.4% Venezuela 51.5% Jamaica 69.9% Jamaica 50.6% Dom. Rep. 69.0% Costa Rica 49.0% Panama 69.0% Chile 46.5% Costa Rica 62.9% Nicaragua 43.2% El Salvador 58.3% Peru 41.2% Trinidad & T. 57.6% Paraguay 40.3% Honduras 55.7% Honduras 38.4% Colombia 52.5% Ecuador 38.3% Peru 51.3% Haiti 36.9% Brazil 48.7% Bolivia 34.6% Ecuador 46.4% Dom. Rep. 33.3% Nicaragua 45.4% Colombia 33.0% Mexico 44.7% Argentina 32.8% Paraguay 44.7% Mexico 32.3% Guatemala 40.2% Trinidad & T. 32.3% Suriname 39.8% Brazil 31.5% Chile 38.1% Guatemala 31.2% Bolivia 37.0% Belize 27.0% Belize 30.6% El Salvador 26.4% Venezuela 23.6% Uruguay 22.6% Uruguay 23.4% Suriname 17.3% Argentina 22.6% Trust in China 95% Confidence Interval (Design-Effects Based) Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP Trust in the United States 95% Confidence Interval (Design-Effects Based) Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP www. LapopSurveys.org
37 Comparative Trust Non-ALBA countries have more trust in the United States than in the other countries displayed in the chart. ALBA countries have greater trust in China than in the USA. China and the United States are the only countries that obtain an average higher than 40 points among both groups of countries.
38 Average Difference in Trust in US - Trust in China Haiti 24.6 El Salvador 23.9 Suriname 23.4 Dom. Rep Guyana 19.6 Brazil Colombia Panama Honduras Trust the US more than China Trinidad & Tobago 6.8 Costa Rica 6.5 Belize 6.2 Guatemala 5.8 Jamaica Mexico Paraguay Peru Nicaragua Ecuador Relative levels of trust in the U.S. versus China vary across the region. Bolivia -2.7 Chile Uruguay Argentina Venezuela Trust in China more than the US % Confidence Interval (Design-Effects Based) Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP
39 Determinants of trust in China and the U.S. (across all 24 AmericasBarometer countries) China United States Ideology Predictors of trust in China Ideology Predictors of trust in the United States Attention to news Attention to news Approval of President's Job Performance Approval of President's Job Performance Quintiles of Wealth Quintiles of Wealth Woman Woman Age Age Educational Level % Confidence Interval (Design-Effect Based) Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP F= N =14075 Educational Level % Confidence Interval (Design-Effect Based) Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP F= N =14075
40 Respondents who approve more highly of their president are more likely to trust China Average trust in China (scale 0-100) Very bad Bad Fair (neither) Good Very good Approval of President's Job Performance 95% Confidence Interval Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP, 2012 www. LapopSurveys.org
41 Respondents who identify as being to the right of the political spectrum are more likely to trust the United States www. LapopSurveys.org
42 Some predictors of trust: women have lower trust in both countries China United States 51.9 Average trust in China (0-100 scale) Average trust in the United States (0-100 scale) Men Women 0 Men Women 95% Confidence Interval Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP, % Confidence Interval Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP, 2012
43 China and the Latin American Public: Reflections on Public Opinion Findings Kang Liu, Ph.D. Duke University and Shanghai Jiaotong University, China
44 China in Latin America Xi Jinping (2009) told overseas Chinese in Mexico: China exports neither revolution, nor hunger and poverty, and never inflicts pains on others, how come some prickly foreigners always like to meddle in our business?
45 China s Latin American Policy: Distance, Caution, and Gradual Expansion 1960 China s diplomatic breakthrough with Cuba Most Latin American countries remained diplomatic ties with Taiwan till late 1970s China s non-interference foreign policy guided its relation with Latin America with distance and caution China s ties with Central and South America are anchored in trade and driven by an insatiable hunger for natural resources. Trade between China and Latin America increased by 1,200% or from 10$ to 130$ billion dollars between 2000 and In 2007 China s top 10 trade partners in the region were Brazil, Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Peru, Venezuela, Panama, Colombia, Costa Rica and Cuba.
46 Latin America: Reaching Out to China The world s most populous nation is rapidly forming trade, investment, technology, security, and cultural ties with developing nations around the globe and in particular Latin America. Latin America is no longer content being the backyard of the United States. China invests with no conditions, but still doles out rewards for nations that drop recognition of Taiwan. For now, the links between China and Latin America are lopsided in many ways, with exports and imports, commodities and aid largely flowing in one-way directions. Likewise, Latin America has a severe lack of trade or diplomatic officials who speak Chinese. The increasing ties and influence build expectations that China can step forward in promoting solutions for an onslaught of global crises. Economic interaction is growing, but not the region s knowledge about China -----David Shambaugh,, director of the China Policy Program with George Washington University and also with the Brookings Institution. 17 November 2008
47 Preliminary Reflections on the Survey Data (I) Given the historical and geopolitical distance between China and Latin America, China's growing influence in the region is quite significant. The data shows a clear awareness of such influence with generally positive attitude. More positive views of China's influence than U.S. (slides 3) may suggest China's overall performance as a modernizing country, or formally a Third World, developing country, which is significant to Latin American public concerned about their own modernization. China's pragmatic and non-conflictual diplomacy (non-interference) works effectively in Latin America, compared to its role in other regions, particularly neighboring Asian-Pacific region. Moreover, China's expansion in Africa and its role in Middle East has been much more controversial than in Latin America, as it can be inferred from this public opinion survey in comparison with evidence of China's perception in other regions.
48 Preliminary Reflections on the Survey Data (II) Surprisingly China only trails the U.S. as a role model for Latin American development, overtaking Japan, Brazil and its own. (slide 33). The trust rate for China is also quite impressive, an indication of strong popular sentiment for alternative models of development rather than Brazil-Mexico pro-u.s. "free market" liberal model. (Latin American dependency theory )
49 Find us at: Subscribe to our Insights series at: Follow us
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