Announcements and today s schedule. Media Change Today. Question Two. Quiz, 2/2/05, Chapter One and Today s Nightline Video

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1 Announcements and today s schedule Quiz, 2/2/05, Chapter One and Today s Nightline Video Today Start Media Impact: Chapter 3 Newspapers Media Change Today Questions: 1. Why does Los Angeles Times critic Howard Rosenberg say the independence of communications is fundamental to democracy? Question Two Questions: 2. What are the advantages to consumers, and to the nation, of having a larger number of independent outlets? 1

2 Question Three Questions: 3. Do you agree with Michael Powell of the Federal Communications Commission that FCC rules were before the recent changes? Why or why not? Question Four Questions: 4. How are small media companies helped or hurt by the recent rules? What about large media corporations? Chapter Three 2

3 Early printed news Diurnos: Daily reports focused on King and Parliament in Great Britain In 1300s and 1400s literacy became commonplace among elite, merchant class, and professionals No freedom of the press in early European newspapers; authorities granted licenses to print newspapers Concept of freedom of speech grew out of democracy and marketplace of ideas First colonial newspapers Public Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestic (Boston, 1690) Published only one issue, shut down by authorities as too candid Boston News-Letter (Boston, 1704) Half sheet printed on two sides, published by authority of royal governor New England Courant (Boston, 1721) Published without government sanction, critical of government John Peter Zenger (1735) Printer, publication attacked British Royal Governor William Cosby Arrested and jailed, charged with seditious libel: criticism of the government that incites discontent Defended by Philadelphia lawyer Andrew Hamilton Established that truth is not libelous 3

4 Partisan press Newspapers became political tool for American independence British Stamp Act of 1765: one-penny tax per sheet of paper = tax on newspapers Many newspapers threatened to stop publishing Pennsylvania Journal printed tombstone edition and then folded Sedition Act of 1798 Forbade writing against the government, Congress or the President $2000 fine and two years in jail Publishers in New York and Massachusetts were jailed Law expired after two years and not renewed Diversity in the press Native American newspapers Cherokee Phoenix: first Native American newspaper (1828), written in English and Cherokee, shut down in 1832 by Georgia legislature Minority press Freedom s Journal: New York, 1827, beginning of African- American press North Star: Edited by Frederic Douglass Truth is of no Color 4

5 Penny press: Newspapers for one cent! Papers had cost a nickel, same as a bottle of whisky! Technological innovations, cheaper paper helped reduce costs New York Sun (Benjamin Day): price of 1 Appeal to mass audience with sensational news, increased reliance on ad support Wire services: share costs New York newspapers formed Associated Press news service, 1846 Civil War journalism Civil War was covered by Penny Press, helped expand newspaper readership News telegraphed from front Photojournalism Mathew Brady: famous Civil War photographer Photographs could be reproduced in magazines but not newspapers Engraving technique in use Joseph Pulitzer Hungarian immigrant, started St. Louis Post-Dispatch, acted as a nonpartisan social critic Expanded to New York Bought New York World in 1883, doubled circulation Established Evening World in 1892 First newspaper comics Sponsored Nellie Bly Trip around the world took 72 days 5

6 William Randolph Hearst From a very wealthy family Got a job writing for Pulitzer at the World Father gave him control of San Francisco Examiner Bought New York Journal and hired Pulitzer s staff away Yellow journalism from Yellow Kid in Hogan s Alley Critics name for sensational journalism from Pulitzer and Hearst: sensational headlines, outrageous photos, sex and violence Circulation war between Pulitzer s World and Hearst s Morning Journal Pulitzer and Hearst blamed sinking of USS Maine on Spanish attack; many historians believe explosion was an accident Hearst: Give me the pictures and I ll give you the war Serious newspapers The New York Times: purchased by Adolph Ochs in 1898 Filled niche by resisting sensationalism But Pulitzer and Hearst changed newspaper readership: not only read by the elite! Greater profits 6

7 Newspapers peak and decline Peaked as mass medium between 1890 and 1920; by 1910 other media started to compete Tabloid journalism: legacy of Pulitzer and Hearst Small format newspaper, 11x14 in. Easier for commuters to read Newspaper consolidation Scripps family founded several Midwest papers in 1800s under Edward W. Scripps Created Scripps-Howard chain; closed over 15 papers Chains continued to grow in the 1930s Times-Mirror group Gannett group Knight-Ridder Publications Six chains controlled 25% of newspaper circulation Professional journalism Transformation of journalists from inkstained wretches to college-educated professionals Professional education, accredited j-schools Social responsibility model: journalists have a responsibility to public they serve Rise of objectivity! 7

8 Competing for audience Competition from radio Radio could deliver headlines more effectively; newspapers offer news analysis, interpretation, and columnists Competition with television TV news reduced national advertising base One daily survived in most cities, and number of newspapers in major cities declined (NYC: 29 to 3) Newspapers focus on community news and analysis Newspaper chains continue to grow Gannett now owns over 100 newspapers Newspapers in the Information Age Newspapers resemble TV news USA Today: Color, photography and graphics, short bits of information, shorter stories Distribute content via satellite to regional printers New technology: national newspapers accessible online Industry consolidation: loss of 250 dailies since Watergate era Telecom Act of 1996 eliminated rules against ownership of paper and electronic media in same market Newsgathering trends Telegraph revolutionized news gathering; cooperative news gathering New York Associated Press: 1846, six newspapers shared cost of gathering foreign news became Associated Press or AP Electronic communication: police scanners, Internet Production trends: similar to books and magazines 8

9 Distribution trends Faxing newspapers: nope! Videotext trials in the 1980s, all discontinued Computer-based interactive systems that electronically deliver screen text, numbers, and graphics via the telephone or two-way cable for display on a television set or video monitor Now online news! Personalized newspapers Daily me: personalized content, experience, services (can mimic via personalized Web portals) Electronic ink: Flexible plastic display (e-books?) Newspaper industry Dailies: published at least five days a week Readership lower among young adults and teenagers, who use TV as main news source National dailies: national editions of metropolitan newspapers (USA Today, NYT) Metropolitan and suburban dailies: cities with two newspapers decline downward spiral and closing of one paper Joint operation agreements: two papers share production and advertising departments, editorial staffs stay separate (Detroit News and Detroit Free Press) Additional news outlets Weeklies: Small town and rural areas, areas too small to support dailies Wire services: Associated Press (AP), United Press Service (UPI), Agence France Presse (AFP), Reuters, Interfax News Agency Newspaper syndicates, comics, columnists Newsletters, house organs: business communication to employees Diverse voices: minority newspapers, gay and lesbian, military, religious and college newspapers 9

10 Chain ownership: monopolizing the news Forms of consolidations Adding newspapers to existing chains, mergers of chains, consolidation of nearby chains Combining other types of media outlets Gannett buying newspapers in one-newspaper cities, creating local market monopolies National horizontal integration Legal issues: Libel Defamation: Material not protected by the First Amendment, a statement which is untrue that would expose a private person to ridicule or contempt (slander, libel) Public figures or officials are not generally protected from libel Ethical issues: Accuracy Accuracy is the primary concern of most journalists getting the right information and avoiding bias New York Times exaggerated story about scientist Wen Ho Lee stealing nuclear secrets, and reporter Jayson Blair fabricated stories Chicago Tribune reporter made up quotes Boston Globe columnist plagiarized comedian George Carlin Many newspapers use fact checkers to insure accuracy 10

11 Legal issues: Privacy Public s right to know vs. citizens right to privacy Public figures, politicians, and entertainers are legally considered to give up right to privacy Individuals have Constitutional protection from government prying, but not from press Culpability of paparazzi in Princess Diana s death? Investigative reporting Investigative reporting was hallmark of good newspapers during Vietnam and Watergate Today some reporters would rather wait until stories come to them Some suggest investigative reporting has become more scandal-mongering Matt Drudge: publisher of online Drudge Report Critics call him a bottom feeder Gossiping over the electronic fence Information glut: Information Fatigue Syndrome Readers rely on newspapers to tell them what issues are important (gatekeeping function) But there is SO MUCH INFORMATION! Editors reduce glut of information Disintermediation: online we can be our own editors! 11

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